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I



THE WORKS



OP



FREDERICK SCHILLER.



HISTORICAL AND DRAMATIC.



HISTORY OF THE REVOLT OF THE NETHERLANDS,

CJNTINUED TRIALS OF COUNTS EGMONT AND HORN.

WALLENSTEIN AND WILHELM TELL,

HISTORICAL DRAMAS.



TRANSLATED FROM THE GERMAN.



LONDON : GEORGE BELL & SONS, YORK STREET

COVENT GARDEN

1 88 1



LONDON :

PRINTED BY WILLIAM CLOWES AND SONS, LIMITED,
STAUFORD STEEET AND CIIAKIXG CROSS.



I



4779





THE FACE



A FEW words may bo said with respect to the various trans-
lations comprised in this volume of Schiller's Works.

The HISTORY OF THE REVOLT OF THE NETHERLANDS, the
first portion of which appeared in the former volume, wa.$
translated by Lieut. E. B. Eastwick, and originally published
abroad for the use of students. But this translation, though
i excellent, was too strictly literal for general reading. It has,
therefore, been carefully revised, and some portions have been
entirely re-written by the Rev. A. J. W. Morrison.

The CAMP OF WALLEXSTEIN is translated by the late Mr.

James Churchill, and first appeared in that able miscellany,

" Fraser's Magazine;' 5 the proprietor of which kindly per-

i initted its republication here. It is an exceedingly happy

version of what has always been deemed the most untran.s-

latable of Schiller's Works.

The PICCDLOMINI and DEATH OF WALLENSTEIN, which form
Uhe second and third parts of this great Dramatic trilogy,
ire the admirable version of S. T. Coleridge, completed by the
iddition of all those passages which he had omitted, and by a
estoration of Schiller's own arrangement of the Acts and
Scenes. It is said, in defence of the variations which exist
>etween the German original and the version given by
Coleridge, that he translated from a prompter's copy in
manuscript, before the Drama had been printed, and that
Schiller himself subsequently altered it, by omitting some
massages, adding others, and even engrafting several of
.'"leridge's adaptations. However this maybe, the Publisher
considers it advisable to give every line of Coleridge's version,
without the least alteration, (especially as it contains more
than one fine passage not to be found in the printed editions
. of Schiller,) and to add, in brackets, all those portions (upwards
/ of 250 lines) which have hitherto been omitted. For these
I G. F. Richardson, the translator of the poems of Korner, is
eliicfly responsible. They will be found at pages 188, 189, !!",
fel.3, 21G, 219, 221, 231, iT.i;, iM.j, l".7, 300, 30:>, 32:;, 324, :H.'5,
.-7. 389, and 410.

WIMIKLM TELL is translated by Theodore Martin, E.s(.,
?, 'ho.se well-known ]'.- it ion as a writer and whose specie!
C(|uaintance witli German literature make any recommeii-
lation of ours superfluous.



"V- A ^

- * ',



'



CONTENTS,



HISTORY OF THE REVOLT OF THE NETHERLANDS:

CONCLUSION.

BOOK IV.

TAGS

THE ICONOCLASTS. Civil War. Resignation of William of
Orange. Decay and Dispersion of the Gueusen League.-
Alva's Armament and Expedition to the Netherlands. Alva's
First Measures, and Departure of the Duchess of Parma . 1

TRIAL and EXECUTION of COUNTS EGMONT and HORN . . 88
SIEGE of ANTWERP by the PRINCE of PARMA .... 95



HISTORICAL DRAMAS.
WALLENSTEIN'S CAMP 137

THE PICCOLOMINI 17?,

I'
THE DEATH OF WALLENSTEIN ; by S. T. Coleridge

(with Additions) ..*.. . . 2

WILHELM TELL ; by Theodore Martin



TIII:



HISTORY OF THE REVOLT



OK THK



UNITED NETHERLANDS,



BOOK IV

THE ICONOCLASTS

THE springs of this extraordinary occurrence are plainly it.>t
to be sought for so far back as many historians affect to trace
them It is certainly possible, and veiy probable that the
French Protestants did industriously exert themselves to
raise in the Netherlands a nursery for their religion, and to
prevent, by all means in their power, an amicable adjustment
of differences between their brethren in the faith in th; it-
quarter and the King of Spain, in order to give that implacable
."be of their party enough to do in his own country. It is
natural, therefore, to suppose that their agents in the pro-
vinces left nothing undone to encourage their oppressed
brethren with daring hopes, to nourish their animosity against.
the ruling church, and by exaggerating the oppression under
v,'liich they sighed, to hurry them imperceptibly into illegal
courses. It is possible, too, that there were many among the
confederates who thought to help out their own lost cause by
increasing the number of their partners in guilt; who thought
they could not otherwise maintain tbo legal character :f their



league, unless the unfortunate results, against which they had

iv;irued the king, really came to pass; and who hoped in tho

ineral guilt of all to conceal their own individual criminality.

H



f) HISTORY OF 7HK

*J

It is, however, incredible that the outbreak of the Iconoclasts
was the fruit of i deliberate plan, preconcerted, as it i
alleged, at the convent of St. Truyen. It does not seem
likely, that in a solemn assembly of so many nobles and war-
riors, of whom the greater part were the adherents of popery,
un individual should be found insane enough to propose
an act of positive infamy, which did not so much injure any
religious party in particular, as rather tread under foot all
respect for religion in general, and even all morality too, and
which could have been conceived only in the mind of the vilest
reprobate. Besides, this outrage was too sudden in its out-
break, too vehement in its execution altogether, too monstrous
to have been any thing more than the offspring of the mo-
ment in which it saw the light, it seemed to flow so naturally
from the circumstances which preceded it, that it does not re
quire to be traced far back to remount to its origin.

A rude mob, consisting of the very dregs of the populace,
rendered brutal by harsh treatment, by sanguinary decrees
which dogged them in every town, scared from place to place,
and driven almost to despair, were compelled to worship their
God, and to hide, like a work of darkness, tbe universal sacred
privilege of humanity. Before their eyes proudly rose the tem-
ples of the dominant church, in which their haughty brethren in-
dulged in ease their magnificent devotion, while they themselves
were driven from the walls, expelled, too, by the weaker number
perhaps, and forced, here in the wild woods, under the burning
heat of noon, in disgraceful secrecy to worship the same God
oast out from civil society into a state of nature, and reminded,
in one dread moment, of the rights of that state ! The greater
their superiority of numbers, the more unnatural did their lot
appear with wonder they perceive the truth. The free heaven,
the arms lying ready, the frenzy in their brains and fury in their
hearts combine to aid the suggestions of some preaching
fanatic; the occasion calls, no premeditation is necessary,
where all eyes at once declare consent; the resolution is
formed ere yet the word is scarcely uttered ; ready for any un
lawful act, no one yet clearly knows what, the furious band
rushes onwards The smiling prosperity of the hostile reli- i
gion insults the poverty of their own ; the pomp of the
thorized temples casts contempt on their proscribed be



lU.YOLT OF THE NETHERLANDS, 3

every cross set up upon the highway, every image of the saints
that they meet, is a trophy erected over their humiliation, and
they all must be removed by their avenging hands. Fana-
ticism suggests these detestable proceedings, bat base passions
carry them into execution,

15 66 The commencement of the attack on images took
place in West Flanders and Artois, in the districts betweei.
Lys and the sea. A frantic herd of artisans, boatmen, and
peasants, mixed with prostitutes, beggars, vagabonds, and
thieves, about 300 in number, furnished with clubs, axes,
Hammers, ladders, and cords, (a few only were provided with
swords or fire-arms,) cast themselves, with fanatical fury, into
the villages and hamlets near St. Omer, and breaking open
the gates of such churches and cloisters as they find locked,
overthrow everywhere the altars, break to pieces the images
of the saints, and trample them under foot. With their cx-
'itement increased by its indulgence, and reinforced by new
comers, they press on, by the direct road, to Ypres, where
they can count on the support of a strong body of Calvinists.
Unopposed, they break into the cathedral, and mounting on
ladders, they hammer to pieces the pictures, hew down with
uxes the pulpits and pews, despoil the altars of their orna-
ments, and steal the holy vessels. This example was quickly
followed in Menin, Cornines, Verrich, Lille, and Oudenard ;
in a few days, the same fury spreads through the whole of
Flanders. At the very time, when the first tidings of this
occurrence arrived, Antwerp was swarming with a crowd of
houseless people, which the feast of the Assumption of the
Virgin had brought together in that city. Even the presence
of the Prince of Orange was hardly sufficient to restrain the
licentious mob, who burned to imitate the doings of their brc
iliren in St. Omer; hut an order from the court, which sum-
moned him to Brussels, where the regent was just assembling
ner Council O f State, in order to lay before them the royal let-
I<TS, obliged him to abandon Antwerp to the outrages of this
hand. His departure was the signal for tumult Apprehensive
"f U.c hiwless violence, of which, on the very first day of the fes
iival, the mob had given indications in derisory allusions,
the priests, after carrying about tho image of tim Virgiu
for a short time, bro.jght it for safety to the choir, WKMOUI, fcs

B 2



4 HISTORY OF TH2

formerly, setting it up in the middle of the church. Thi*
incited some mischievous boys from among the people, to
pay it a visit there, and jokingly inquire, why she had so
soon absented herself from among them? Others mounting
the pulpit mimicked the preacher, and challenged the Papists
to a dispute. A Roman Catholic waterman, indignant at this
jest, attempted to pull them down, and blows were exchanged
in the preacher's seat. Similar scenes occurred on the follow-
ing evening. The numbers increased, and many came already
provided with suspicious implements and secret weapons. At
last it came into the head of one of them to cry. " Long live
the Gueux ! " immediately the whole band took up the cry,
and the image of the Virgin was called upon to do the same.
The few Roman Catholics who were present, and who had
given up the hope of effecting anything against these despera-
does, left the church, after locking all the doors except one. So
soon as they found themselves alone, it was proposed to sing one
of the psalms in the new version, which was prohibited by the
government While they were yet singing, they all, as at a
given signal, rushed furiously upon the image of the Virgin,
piercing it with swords and daggers, and striking off its head ;
thieves and prostitutes tore the great wax-lights from the al-
tar, and lighted them to the work. The beautiful organ of the
church, a masterpiece of the art of that period, was broken to
pieces, all the paintings were effaced, the statues smashed to
atoms A crucifix, the size of life, which was set up between
the two thieves opposite the high altar, an ancient and highly
valued piece of workmanship, was pulled to the ground with
cords, and cut to pieces with axes, while the two malefactors
at its side were respectfully spared. The holy wafers were
strewed on the ground and trodden under foot ; in the wine
used for the Lord's Supper, which was accidentally found there,
the health of the Gueux was drunk ; while with the holy oil
they rubbed their shoes. The very tombs were opened, and
the half-decayed corpses torn up and trampled on. All this-
was clone with as much wonderful regularity, as if each had
previously had his part assigned to him ; every one worked
into his neighbour's hands ; no one, dangerous as the work
was, met with injury ; in the midst of thick darkness, which
the tapers only served to render more sensible, with heavy
masses falling on all sides, and though on the very topmost



REVOLT OF THE NETHERLANDS. .)

steps of the ladders, they scuffled with each other for the h.>
nours of demolition yet no one suffered the least injury. In
spite of the many tapers which lighted them below in their
villanous work, not a single individual was recognised. With
incredible rapidity was the dark deed accomplished ; a num.
ber of men, at most a hundred, despoiled in a few hours a
Temple of seventy altars after St. Peter's at Rome, perhaps,
the largest and most magnificent in Christendom.

The devastation of the cathedral did not content them .
with torches and tapers purloined from it, they set out at
midnight to perform a similar work of havoc on the remain
ing churches, cloisters, and chapels. The destructive hordes
increased with every fresh exploit of infamy, and thieves were
allured by the opportunity. They carried away whatever
they found of value, the consecrated vessels, altar-cloths, mo-
ney, and vestments ; in the cellars of the cloisters they drank
to intoxication ; to escape greater indignities, the monks and
nuns abandoned every thing to them. The confused noises
of these riotous acts had startled the citizens from their first
sleep ; but night made the danger appear more alarming than
; t really was, and instead of hastening to defend their churches,
the citizens fortified themselves in their houses, and in terror
and anxiety awaited the dawn of morning. The rising sun at
length revealed the devastation which had been going on dur-
ing the night ; but the havoc did not terminate with the dark-
ness. Some churches and cloisters still remained uninjured;
the same fate soon overtook them also. The work of destruc-
tion lasted three whole days. Alarmed at last, lest the frantic
mob. when it could no longer find anything sacred to destroy,
should make a similar attack on lay property, and plunder
their warehouses ; and encouraged, too, by discovering how
<mall was the number of the depredators, the wealthier citi-
zens ventured to show themselves in arms at the doors of
their houses. All the gates of the town were locked but one,
tli rough which the Iconoclasts brake forth to renew the same
atrocities in the rural districts. On one occasion only, during
all this time, did the municipal officers venture to exert their
authority ; so strongly were they held in awe by the superior
power of the Calvinists. by whom, as it was believed, this mob
"f miscreants was hired. The injury inflicted by this work of
devastation was incalculable. In the church of the Virgin, it



(5 H1STOKY OF THE

was estimated at riot less than 400,000 gold florins. Many
precious works of art were destroyed; many valuable manu-
scripts ; many monuments of importance to history and to di-
plomacy were thereby lost. The city magistrate ordered the
plundered articles to be restored 011 pain of death ; in enforc-
ing this restitution, he was effectually assisted by the preachers
of the Reformers, who blushed for their followers. Much
was in this manner recovered, and the ringleaders of the rnob,
less animated, perhaps, by the desire of plunder, than by
fanaticism and revenge, or perhaps being ruled by some
unseen head, resolved, for the future, to guard against these
excesses, and to make their attacks in regular bands and
in better order.

The town of Ghent, meanwhile, trembled for a like destiny.
Immediately on the first news of the outbreak of the Icono-
clasts in Antwerp, the magistrate of the latter town, with
the most eminent citizens, had bound themselves to repel
by force the church-spoilers ; when this oath was proposed to
the commonalty also, the voices were divided, and many de-
clared openly, that they were by no means disposed to hinder
so devout a work. In this state of affairs, the Roman Catholic
clergy found it advisable to deposit in the citadel the most
precious nioveables of their churches, and private families
were permitted, in like manner, to provide for the safety of
offerings which had been made by their ancestors. Mean-
while, all the services were discontinued, the courts of justice
were closed; and like a town in momentary danger of being
stormed by the enemy, men trembled in expectation of what
was to come. At last, an insane band of rioters ventured
to send delegates to the governor, with this impudent mes-
sage : " They were ordered," they said, " by their chiefs,
to take the images out of the churches, as had been done in
the other towns. If they were not opposed, it should be done
quietly, and with as little injury as possible, but otherwise
they would storm the churches ;" nay, they went so far in
their audacity, as to ask the aid of the officers of justice there-
in. At first, the magistrate was astounded at this demand ;
upon reflection, however, a^d in the hope that the presence
of the officers of law would perhaps restrain their excesses, he
did not scruple to grant their request.

In Tournay, the churches were despoiled of their ornaments



REVOLT OB THE NETHERLANDS. 7

within sight of the garrison, who could not be induced to
inarch against the Iconoclasts. As the latter haa been tuld
that the gold and silver vessels, and other ornaments cl
the church, were buried underground, they turned up the
whole floor, and exposed, among others, the body of the
Duke Adolph of Gueldres, who fell in battle at the head
of the rebellious burghers of Ghent, and had been buried
here in Tournay. This Adolph had waged war against his
father, and had dragged the vanquished old man some miles
iiarefoot to prison an indignity which Charles the Bold
afterwards retaliated on him. And now, again, after more than
half a century, fate avenged a crime against nature by another
against religion ; fanaticism was to desecrate that which was
holy, in order to expose once more to execration the bones of
a parricide. Other Iconoclasts from Valenciennes united
themselves with those of Tournay, to despoil all the cloisters
<>f the surrounding district, during which a valuable library,
the accumulation of centuries, was destroyed by fire The
e\ilsoon penetrated into Brabant, also Malines, Herzogen
busch, Breda, and Bergen-op-Zoom experienced the same fate.
The provinces Namur and Luxemburg, with a part of Artois
and of Hainault, had alone the good fortune to escape the con-
tagion of these outrages. In the short period of four or five
days', 400 cloisters were plundered in Brabant and Flanders
alone. The northern Netherlands were soon seized with the
>:mc mania which had raged so violently through the south-
ern. The Dutch towns, Amsterdam, Leyden, and Gravcn-
haag, had the alternative of either voluntarily stripping their
el lurches of their ornaments, or of seeing them violently torn
tV"iu them; the determination of their magistrates saved
Delft, Haarlem, Gouda, and Rotterdam from the devastation.
The same acts of violence were practised also in the islands of
/< aland ; the town of Utrecht, and many places in Overyssel
and Groningen suffered the same storms. Friesland was pro-
tected by the Count of Arembcrg, and Gueldres by the Count
'!' Mcgen from a like fate.

An exaggerated report of these disturbances which came in
IV. .in the provinces, spread the alarm to Brussels, where the
iv^rnt had just made preparations for an extraordinary session
>f the Council of State. Swarms of Iconoclasts already pene-
trated into Brabant; and the metropolis, where they were ccr-



8 HISTORY OF THE

tain of powerful support, was threatened by them with a renewal
of the same atrocities then under the very eyes of majesty
The regent, in fear for her personal safety, which even in the
heart of the country, surrounded by provincial governors and
knights of the Fleece, she fancied insecure, was already medi-
tating a flight to Mons, in Hainault, which town the Duke of
Arschot held for her as a place of refuge, that she might not be
driven to any undignified concession by falling into the power
of the Iconoclasts. In vain did the knights pledge life and
blood for her safety, and urgently beseech her not to expose
them to disgrace by so dishonourable a flight, as though they
w r ere wanting in courage or zeal to protect their princess ; to
no purpose did the town of Brussels itself supplicate her not to
abandon them in this extremity, and vainly did the Council of
State make the most impressive representations that so pusilla-
nimous a step would not fail to encourage still more the inso-
lence of the rebels; she remained irnmoveable in this desperate
condition. As messenger after messenger arrived to warn her
that the Iconoclasts were advancing against the metropolis, she
issued orders to hold every thing in readiness for her flight,
which was to take place quietly with the first approach of
morning. At break of clay, the aged Viglius presented him-
self before her, whom, with the view of gratifying the nobles,
she had been long accustomed to neglect. He demanded to
Imow the meaning of the preparations he observed, upon which
she at last confessed, that she intended to make her escape,
and assured him that he would himself do well to secure his
own safety by accompanying her. k ' It is now two years," said
the old man to her, "that you might have anticipated these
results. Because I have spoken more freely than your cour
tiers, you have closed your princely ear to me, which has
been open only to pernicious suggestions." The regent al-
lowed that she had been in fault, and had been blinded by an
appearance of probity ; but that she was now driven by neces
sity. "Are you resolved," answered Viglius, " resolutely to
insist upon obedience to the royal commands?" "I am ; "
answered the duchess. " Then have recourse to the great
secret of the art of government, to dissimulation, and pre-
tend to join the princes until, with their assistance, you have
repelled this storm. Show them a confidence, which you are far
from feeling in your heart. Make them take an oath to you,



r.LlVOLT OF T1IE NETHERLANDS 9

ih;u they will make common cause in resisting these disorders.
Trust those, as your friends, -who show themselves willing to
do it ; but be careful to avoid frightening away the others bv
contemptuous treatment." Viglius kept the regent engaged in

nversAtioii until the princes arrived, who he was quite certain
would in nowise consent to her flight. When they appeared, he
quietly withdrew, in order to issue commands to the town council
to close the gates of the city, and prohibit egress to every OIK-
connected with the court. This last measure effected more
than all the representations had done. The regent, who saw
herself a prisoner in her own capital, now yielded to the
persuasions of the nobles, tvho pledged themselves to stand
liy her to the last drop oi blood. She made Count ]\Iaus-
feld commandant of the town, who hastily increased the
garrison, and armed hei whole court.

The State Council was now held, who finally came to a reso-
lution, that it was expedient to yield to the emergency; t<j
permit the preachings in those places where they had already
commenced ; to make known the abolition of the Papal Inqui
^ition ; to declare the old edicts against the heretics repealed,
and before all things, to grant the required indemnity to the
confederate nobles without limitation or condition. At the
same time the Prince of Orange, Counts Egniont and Horn,
with some others were appointed to confer on this head with
the deputies of the league. Solemnly and in the most unequi-
vocal terms, the members of the league were declared free from
all responsibility, by reason of the petition which had been pre-
sented, and all royal officers and authorities were enjoined tr-
act in conformity with this assurance, and neither now, nor for
the future, to inflict any injury upon any of the confederates



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