being wounded he considered Major Lawrence in command,
but getting no orders from either him or Major Muter, he
thought both were hors de combat, and withdrew his men, on
his own judgment, to Subzee Mundi, where he found that
Major Muter was present, and resigned the command to him
as senior officer, and some little time after this Major Law-
rence came into the Subzee Mundi picquet, when he of
course became senior.
This tallies with Captain Mocatta's
account that he was sent by Major Lawrence to the posts in
rear to bring up the European troops again, who had clearly
been withdrawn without his authority, and, as he seems at
first to have judged, without necessity (though in that
matter I cannot agree with him). Major Muter himself
puts the above testimonies beyond doubt, for in reply to a
question whether during the day he received any orders,
directly or indirectly, from Major Lawrence, he says he
has " some recollection of a requisition for European sol-
APPENDIX A. 587
diers long after the men had been reposted in our old posi-
tion " ; therefore Major Lawrence must have kept the field
" long after " Major Muter, and he must have had troops
with him. He could not have been alone. This is, in other
words, what Captain Boisragon stated, that " the native por-
tion of the column, Ghoorkas, Guides, and Sikhs, were in
the field as long as I was present, hotly engaged with the
enemy," and he explained that he was in the field for up-
wards of an hour after Major Eeid was wounded. Farther,
Doctor Corby n, in a letter to Major Lawrence, testifies that
he " went into the Subzee Mundi serai, where Parker
and myself were of great assistance to the wounded Euro-
peans. Here I found Captain Muter, Wriford also I think,
and a number of Europeans. You did not retire with the
Cashmeres, I know, for nearly an hour afterwards." And
this brings me to the difficulty which I judge from the
papers, more than anything else, prevented Major Norman
from modifying the passages in his narrative ; I mean the
difficulty of understanding how the Europeans, Ghoorkas,
and Sikhs of distinguished regiments, who were in the
column of attack, could be repulsed, and retreat to their
former posts, while the Jummoo reserve, consisting of troops
of inferior discipline and armament, still kept the field. It
seemed to Major Norman to involve an incredible reproach
to the column of attack. But having very carefully ana-
lysed these papers, and corrected my notions of the locali-
ties by a published plan of the " City and Cantonments of
Delhi," and by interrogating Captain Boisragon, who was in
the ^action, it seems to me quite clear that the two state-
ments are perfectly reconcilable with the honour of both
corps. As I understand it, Colonel Eeid disposed the
Jummoo reserve on bis right rear. The attack tailed from
being totally inadequate, Colonel Eeid Eel! and was removed.
The confusion in the column of attack, in consequence oi
the repulse, and of the enemj Following hotly ap, was rerj
588 APPENDIX A.
great. The next senior officer being in the rear with the
reserve, could not possibly give any timely orders, or know
that Colonel Eeid had been wounded. No orders were con-
sequently issued for retiring in good order, and the officers
at the head of the column agreed together to withdraw, and
did so to the best of their ability. Major Muter and Cap-
tain Wriford reached Subzee Mundi with the majority of
their men without even meeting Major Lawrence, and Cap-
tains Shebbeare and Boisragon, commanding the Guides and
Ghoorkas, both fell in with Major Lawrence, and placed
themselves under his orders. A new advance was thought
possible but abandoned, and Captain Shebbeare's party was
ordered to occupy certain posts. But Major Lawrence re-
mained out with the Jummoo reserve and Captain Boisragon' s
men, and (as Captain Boisragon informs me) fragments of
almost every detachment, European or native, that had made
up No. 4 column, for the following up of the enemy after
the repulse of the column was very hot, and it became in-
dispensable to check them ; and this was effectually done by
our broken parties and the reserve lining the banks of the
canal and occupying the jungle on the right of the road,
while Lieutenant Evan's guns continued to fire over their
heads, and completed the check of the enemy. Things seem
to have remained in this position for a couple of hours
at least, till the firing ceased and both sides withdrew.
Thus the Jummoo reserve never renewed the attack on Kis-
sengunge after the repulse of No. 4 column, and, as I
understand, does not pretend to have ever advanced to the
point between the first and second breastworks, where the
column had been repulsed, and in no way puts itself in in-
vidious comparison with any of the other troops, but did
remain in the field with numbers of native and some Euro-
pean soldiers of No. 4 column, exchanging a hot fire with
the enemy, and losing of its own number forty-three killed
APPENDIX A. 589
While, therefore, it shared iu the general failure of the
column of which it was the reserve, I cannot see that it in
any way contributed to that failure ; and, on the contrary ,
it took its full share in covering the retreat. Some opinions
are offered in the correspondence that it was useless to keep
the troops out a moment, longer than could he helped after
the main object of the column had failed ; but in this I
connot concur, for every rebel sepoy held engaged at Kissen-
gunge was a loss to the garrison in the city. The siege of
Delhi has been often compared with the siege of Sebastopol,
and I should think that No. 4 column was to the other three
columns at Delhi much what the English at the " Eedan "
were to the French at the " Malakoff ."
6. The whole of the present misunderstanding has arisen,
as it seems to me, from Major Muter taking the irregular
course (as he admits to Major Lawrence) of reporting direct
to G-eneral "Wilson instead of through Major Lawrence. Had
he pursued the regular military course, his due share of
credit as the senior remaining officer of the attacking column
would have accrued to him; Major Lawrence would have
appeared as having done the best with a command to
which he succeeded when the day was lost ; Major Muter' s
mistake as to the two divisions of the Cashmere contingent
(of which he seems to have only now become aware) would
have been corrected in time ; and no blame would have been
attached to that contingent for sharing in the general failure
of the fourth column which the disparity of numbers and
artillery rendered perfectly inevitable.
(Signed) Herbert B. Edwardes,
Commissioner and Superintendent
July 1st, 1879.
Since I wrote the remarks in the text, a case of neglect, as
remarkable as that of Cooper of the 93rd, has been brought
to my notice. It is very curious that the neglect in this
case should apply to an officer also of the name of Cooper —
a near relative, I am informed, of Richard Cooper of the
93rd. I extract the case from Colonel Pack's Memoirs,
published in 1878.
" As dawn approached, it became known that the guns
were not to open, and that instead of our waiting for the
signal to attack after two hours' bombardment, we were to
look for it shortly after the French assault on the Malakoff.
The Brigadier (Yea) came across from the Quarries and took
post at the extremity of the Boyaus, that he might there
watch for the commencement of the action. . . .
" Whilst watching the Malakoff, probably a few minutes,
the Bines, stationed close to the Quarries as a covering
party, having evidently mistaken one of the French rockets
for the British signal, commenced firing from their hiding-
places, when round shot dropping about from the Redan
proved our red jackets were observed. The error of the
coverers was great, and considerably annoyed the Brigadier,
APPENDIX B. 591
who, pointing to a flagstaff near the 8-gun battery, said,
' A flag will be hoisted there when Lord Raglan stauds.'
He added, ' That fire,' (alluding to the covering party of the
Rifles) ' must be stopped. Somebody must go across the
open : it is no use attempting to get through the trenches.'
" Moments like these try the mettle of men and prove
of what they are made. No mere bravado answers ; for
that always fails when actual and perilous deeds of cool
and deliberate courage have to be performed. Whoever
volunteered to fulfil the Brigadier's mission knew he must
go as it were with his life in his hand. Not only every
step, but every inch of the distance between the trenches
and the covering party was strewn with peril, and carrying
the message and escaping with his life was not for an
instant to be looked for.
" A momentary silence ensued. The fire from all arms
was pounding away in every direction, and the service was
very perilous. To cross the open and reach the Quarries
we saw and knew exposure to the fire from the Malakoff
was certain, and the able marksmen and the guns of the
Redan were also to be encountered. The duty was seen to
be so momentous that all hesitated to undertake it, not
from fear, but from the feeling of all but certain failure.
Brigadier Yea then repeated his desire, saying, ' Who will
go ? ' Then there was another pause, when every soldier who
heard his leader's request felt his heart beat with intense
rapidity, and every mental energy of his mind awakened.
For a few moments there was intense silence amongst us,
and then quickly and nervously Captain Cooper, one of bis
aides-de-camp, answered, 'I will, Sir! ' And out this gallant
"Snrin^intj over the trench, commencing with a quick
walk, he increased bis pace gradually (ill he ran. Eis eyes
were fixed upon the Rifles, all eyes were upon aim. All
ted to see aim Ball; bul Providence guarded him. Ee
592 APPENDIX B.
reached the Quarries, and stopped the fire, his life most
probably preserved by this courageous act of gallantry, for
the crowd and confusion at the opening of the miserably
small trench whence the stormers issued were so great, he
never could have rejoined his lamented chief had he gone
by the way of the trenches.
" Yet, though many an officer and many a man have
received the Victoria Cross for the common act of humanity
— aiding or assisting to bring in a wounded officer or comrade
under circumstances of danger — acts which most of us at
the time they happened thought little about, and certainly
never regarded them as deserving the designation of ' dis-
tinguished,' for the above gallant act, setting an example of
the highest devotion to the service of his Queen and country
in the face of hundreds, this officer received no reward."*
The officer in question was Captain Joshua Cooper, 7th
Fusiliers. — Sebastopol Trenches, and, Five Months in Them,
by Colonel Reynell Pack, C.B., 7th Fusiliers.
* The italics are Colonel Pack's.
Page 562 of text.
Lieutenant Conolly thus wrote to Captain Black, regarding
his escape : " Such a scene of confusion I never saw ; some
sepoys firing at Bhils, they shot seven poor wretches on the
parade-ground, who, I declare, were only looking at the novel
scene. During the day we halted. The first day we marched
to , and a greater rabble never crossed country than our
once smart legion ; not a sepoy hardly saluted me. I was
taken to Abbas Ali's tent at , and the infantry were a
little behind, when a tremendous row commenced. Some
Minas made a rush at the carts ; the infantry thought
it was an attack ; away went the cavalry to see to matters,
cut up a few Bhils, and, seeing no one else, pulled up to look
about them. Another row, and rush towards where I was
standing near my saddled horse. I can't say I was desperately
alarmed, for all hope of life I had cast aside some hours
before, when we marched. The rush towards me was caused
by soiii^ iiinial.le sepoys taking the opportunity to make a
run at me. Abbas Ali and his men saw it, and were
soon between us; but I cannot enter into details of self;
594 APPENDIX 0.
once again they attempted to get at ine at Doola. What
made them so mad was, that my strenuous attempts
to seduce the cavalry had been made known to Mihrwan
Sing, and he swore I should die. At Doola they had three
or four rows — councils they called them — about me. At
last, Mihrwan Sing and the other beauties, seeing Abbas Ali
would not give me up, said I might go solus. Next morning,
they sent again to say, no, I should not go. However, Abbas
Ali and his men surrounded my charpoy all night ; we none
of us slept, and on the morning of the 27th, when the force
was ready, the guns were loaded, the infantry shouldered
arms, and I was brought up. I was told to ride to the front ;
poor Dokul Sing, the havildar-major, and some others, ran
out blubbering ; Abbas Ali and Abdul Ali, rode up on each
side, made me low salaams, and told me to ride for it ; that
not a sowar should be allowed to interfere with my retreat.
My three sowars, who, I have forgotten to say, had stuck to
me as if I had been their brother since the very beginning,
by a preconcerted plan, were ordered to see me off a little
way. I could not help giving a farewell wave of the hand to
the infantry in irony ; they shouted and laughed, the band
struck up, and that is the last I saw of the legion. I rode
right in to Erinpoora with three sowars ; I came straight
here, and the people seemed ready to eat me with joy. The
names of the three sowars are, Nusseeroodeen, second troop ;
Elahu Bux, third troop (the man who used to ride my grey) ;
and Momin Khan, first troop. They left everything behind,
and, I must say, are three as fine fellows as I wish to see.
By-the-by, the cavalry said if I would agree to turn Mussul-
man, to a man they would follow me. Very kind of them.
They offered me money when I was coming away, and also on
the march. I took twenty rupees from Abbas Ali ; now I
wish I had taken my pay ; they twice offered it. Now is our
time, the legion is divided. Jawan Sing, golundaz, and his
party, about seven other golundaz (gunners), will play the
APPENDIX 0. 595
infantry a trick if they can. I have told Jawan Sing I will
myself give him five hundred rupees if he breaks with the
infantry. : Abbas Ali, the havildar-major, and Abdul Ali,
are in danger on my account, and they are kept with their
men under the guns night and day. I feel most glad to
think I did them as much harm as I could. Makdun Bux
had a musket put to his breast for letting me ride with my
sword on. I was a bone of contention. I have this morning-
sent a sharp kossid to Abbas Ali, telling him, for his own
sake, to try and communicate with Mason, who, I believe, is
at Pali, and to whom I have written to try and communicate
with Abbas Ali."
Page 48, lines 15 and 16 from foot, for " to the hospitnl on the ridge,'
read " to his own tent."
Page 237, line 14 from top, for " a rebel army," read " the rebel army. 1
Page 352, head -line, for " 12th January," read " 16th January."
Page 365, line 10 from foot, for " Begam Koti," read, " Begam Kothi."
Page 416, line 8 from foot, omit " of Jones in Rohilkhand."
427, note, line 3 from foot, for "Shanghai," read " Chinhai."
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Plan to illustrate the Operations of the British Army before
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