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TMTKI. STATES COMMISSION 01 i isn AN |, n>M

8J ' J ' ' '' "A I HD, COMMISSION 1. 1.



THE -FISHERIES







FISHERY INDUSTRIES



or TIIK



UNITED STATES




PREPARED THROUGH THE CO-OPERATION OF THE COMMISSIONER OK FISHKIMKS
AND THE SUPERINTENDENT OF THE TENTH CENsl>

BY

GEORGE BROWN GOODE

ASSISTANT DIRECTOR OF THK V. S. NATIONAL MU.SKUM

AND A STAFF OF ASSOCIATES



SECTION I
NATURAL HISTORY OF USEFUL AQUATIC ANIMALS

WITH AN ATLAS OF TWO HUNDRED AND SEVENTY-SEVEN PLATES

TEXT



WASHINGTON

QOVERNMKNT PRINTING OFl'ICE
1834



. - .

-:
- . :



ASSOCIATE AUTHORS.



JOEL A. ALLEN Mnseum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge.

TAULETON H. BEAN U. S. National MiiHenin, Washington.

.JA..IKS TEMPLE. BROWN U. 8. National Museum, Washington.

A. HOWARD CLARK U. 8. Notional Museum. Washington.

JOSEPH W. COLLINS Gloucester, Massachusetts.

R. EDWARD EARLL U. S.Fish Commission, Washington.

KICHARD H. EDMONDS Baltimore, Maryland.

HENRY W. ELLIOTT Cleveland, Ohio.

]'. I:\KST INOERSOLL New Haven, Connecticut.

DAVID 8. JORDAN Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana.

LUDWIQ KUMLIEN Milwaukee, Wisconsin.

MARSHALL MACDONALD U. 8. Fish Commission, Washington.

FREDERICK MATHER N. Y. Fish Commituiion, Cold S;>rin^, New York.

HARNET PHILLIPS Brooklyn, New York.

KICHARD RATHBUN U. 8. National Musoiiin, Washington.

JOHN A. EYDER U. 8. Fish Commission, WiMhillftan.

CHARLES W. SMILEY U. S. Fish Commission, Washington.

SILAS STEARNS Pensacola, Florida.

FREDERICK W. TRUE U. 8. National Museum, Washington.

WILLIAM A. WILCOX Boston, Massachusetts.

ill



PREFATORY NOTE,



U. 8. COMMISSION OP FISH AND FISHERIES,

Waithington, May 30, 1884.

In July, 1879, an arrangement was made with General Francis A. Walker, Superintendent of
the Tenth Census, by which an investigation of the fisheries of the United States was undertaken
:is t lie joint enterprise of the United States Fish Commission and of the Census Bureau. It was
derided that tin's investigation should be as exhaustive as possible, and that both the United
States Fish Commission and the Census should participate in its results. The preparation of a
statistical and historical monograph of the fisheries, to form one of the series to be presented by
the Superintendent of the Census in his report, was from the first the main object of the work,
but iu connection with this work extensive investigations into the methods of the fisheries, into
the distribution of the fishing-grounds, and the natural history of useful marine animals were
inaugurated and carried on.

The direction of this investigation was placed in the hands of Mr. G. Brown Goode, Assistant
Director of the National Museum, who had already been engaged for a number of years in a
systematic, historical, and statistical investigation of the American fisheries, and who as early as
1877 had drawn up a scheme for an exhaustive exploration of the coast, quite as elaborate as that
now adopted and not essentially different.

The first step taken was to secure the co-operation of as many as possible of those persons
who had in the past given attention to the subject of the fisheries, and this was so successfully
accomplished that it is safe to say that every one who has leen of late years prominent in such
studies has taken part in the preparation of this report.

The plan of the proposed investigation was drawn up by Mr. Goodo before beginning the work,
and was published in an octavo pamphlet of fifty-four pages, entitled " Plan of Inquiry into the
History and Present Condition of the Fisheries of the United States." Washington : Government
Printing Office ; 1879.

The scheme of investigation divided the work into the following departments :

I. Natural history of m urine products. Under this head was to be carried on the study of the
useful aquatic animals and plants of the country, as well as of seals, whales, turtles, !i-li - ..
lobsters, crabs, oysters, clams, etc., sponges, and marine plants and inorganic products of the
sea with reference to (A) geographical distribution, (B) size, (C) abundance, (I)) migrations and
movements, (E) food and rate of growth, (F) mode of reproduction, (G) economic value and n.-e>.

II. The fishing ground*. Under this head were to be studied the geographical distribution of
all animals sought by fishermen, and the location of the fishing-grounds; while, with references



vi PREFATORY NOTE.

to the latter, are considered: (A) location, (B) topography, (C) depth of water, (D) character of
bottom, (E) temperature of water, (F) currents, (G) character of invertebrate life, etc.

III. The fishermen and fishing toirnx. Here were to be considered the coast districts engaged
in the fisheries, with reference to their relation to the fisheries, historically and statistically, and
the social, vital, and other statistics relating to the fishermen.

IV. Apparatus and methods of capture. Here were to be considered all the forms of apparatus
used by fishermen ; boats, nets, traps, harpoons, etc., and the methods employed in the various
branches of the fishery. Here each special kind of fishery, of which there are more than fifty
in the United States, is considered separately with regard to its methods, its history, and its
statistics.

V. Products of fisheries. Under this head were to be studied the statistics of the yield of
American fisheries, past and present.

VI. Preparation, care of, and Manufacture of fishery products. Here were to be considered
the methods and the various devices for utilizing fish after they are caught, with statistics of
capital and men employed, etc.: (A) preservation of live fish, (B) refrigeration, (C) sun-drying,
(D) smoke-drying, (E) pickling, (F) hermetically canning, (G) fur dressing, (H) whalebone prep-
aration, (I) isinglass manufacture, (K) ambergris manufacture, (L) fish guano manufacture, (M) oil
rendering, etc.

VII. Economy of the fisheries. Here were to be studied: (A) financial organization and
methods, (B) insurance, (C) labor and capital, (D) markets and market prices, (E) lines of traffic,
(F) exports, imports, and duties.

The fishery industry is of such great importance, and is undergoing such constant changes
that a visit of a few days or weeks to any locality, even by the most competent experts, has
invariably proved unsatisfactory. We were able therefore to collect only the most important
facts, selected with special reference to the needs of the report in contemplation, leaving many
subjects of interest undiscussed.

The field work, and the correspondence in connection with it, was carried on by the following-
named special agents, and approximately between the dates below mentioned:

I. Coast of Maine, east of Portland. Mr. K. Edward Karll and Captain J. W. Collins,
August 1 to October 31, 1879; July 29 to October 20, 1880; January 1, 1881, to
January 1, 1883.
H. Portland to Plymouth (except Cape Ann) and eastern side of Buzzard's Bay. W. A.

Wilcox, September 2, 1879, to March 1, 1881.
III. Cape Ann. A. Howard Clark, September 1, 1879, to November 1, 1880; July, August,

and September, 1883.
IV. Cape Cod. Frederick W. True, July 1 to October 1, 1879; September 1 to October 31,

1880; Vinal N. Edwards, October 1, 1880, to July 31, 1882.
V. Provincetown. Captain N. E. Atwood, August 1, 1879, to August 1, 1880.
VI. Rhode Island and Connecticut, west to the Connecticut River. Ludwig Kumlien, August

10 to October 16, 1880.
Vir. Long Island and north shore of Long Island Sound, and west to Sandy Hook. Frederick

Mather, August 1, 1879, to July 1, 1881.

VIII. New York City. Barnet 1'liillips, January I, 1880, to July 1, 1881.
IX. Coast of New Jersey. H. Edward Earll, December, 1880.
X. Philadelphia. <'. W. Smiley and W. V. Cox, November, 1880.
XI. Coast of Delaware. Captain J. W. Collins, December, 1880.



|'I;KI-ATOI;Y NOTK. vii

X1J. Baltimore and (lie oyster industry ol Maryland. It. II. Kdmonds, October 1, 1870, to

October 1, 18SO.

XIII. Atlantic r.ia.st of Southern States. I;. F.dward Karll, January 1 to .Inly :.'.">. ISMI.
XIV. Gulf coast. Silas Stearns. August. IXT'.i. to July, 1H80.
XV. Coast of California, Oregon, and Washington. 1'n.i'c-so] I ). S. .Ionian ami ('. H. Gil-

lM>rt. January, isso, to January. 11.

XVI. Pugct Sound. James (1. Swan, January, 1880, to January, 1881.
XVII. Alaska tishei ics. Dr. T. H. Beau, June to October, 1880.
XVIII. Great Lakes lisbery. Ludwig Kuiiilieu, August, 1879, to August, ISMI.
XIX. River fisheries of Maine. C. G. Atkins, January 1, 1880, to July 3, 1882.
X\. The shad and alewife fisheries. Colonel Marshall MacDouald, October, 1879, to January

1, 1883.

X X I. < >\ sin lisln-rics. Ernest Ingersoll, October 1, 1879, to July 1, 1881.
X X 1 1. Lobster and crab fisheries. Richard Rathbun, January 1, 1880, to January 1, 1882.
\ X 1 1 1. Turtle and terrapin fisheries. Frederick W. True, October 1, 1880, to January 1, 1882.
XXIV. The seal, sea-elephant, and whale fisheries. A. Howard Clark, November 1, 1880, to

February 1, 1881.

In addition to the field assistants already mentioned a staff of office assistants were employed
in carrying on correspondence, searching past records, and preparing the report for publication.
Mr. C. W. Smiley, Mr. James Temple. Brown, and Mr. George S. Hobbs were connected with the
work from its start, and subsequently Mr. J. E. Rockwell, Mr. C. W. Scndder, Mr R. I Geare, Mr.
G. P. Merrill, Mr. W. S. Yeates, and others were thus employed. A number of clerks were
temporarily detailed for this work by the Superintendent of the Census; at one time as many as
twenty.

A portion of the clerical force was placed under the immediate direction of Mr. C. W. Smiley,
who had in special charge the distribution of circulars and the compilation of their results, ami the
compilation of summary tables from the records of the Treasury Department.

The expense of the field-work from July 1, 1879, to July 1, 1881, was for the most part borne
by the Census, together with a large amount of compilation office-work carried on by clerks
detailed from the Census Office in Washington.

The expense of the preparation of the report, final tabulation of statistics of production, and
preparation of illustrations has been mainly at the cost of the Fish Commission. Since February,
1881, Mr. Goode's relation to the work has been that of a volunteer, and his services in the
preparation of the reports and in connection with their publication have been rendered without
compensation, in addition to his regular duties as Assistant Director of the National Museum.
In the same manner a large share of the most important work upon special parts of the report
has been done as volunteer labor by officers of the National Museum and Fish Commission, in
addition to their regular duties. A number of employees of the Fish Commission have bee.n
detailed from time to time for special work upon this report, for periods varying from four months
to two years.

The pai ticipat ion of the Census Office and the Commissioner of Fish and Fisheries has involved
the expenditure of probably nearly equal amounts of money, and the division of the result*, so
far as they are represented in reports ready for the printer, has been arranged to the satisfaction
of both. The extent of the material collected has, however, been much greater than was antici-
pated, and the portion assigned to the Fish <'onmiission being too bulky for publication in the an-
nual reports, application was made to Coii^ic for permission to print as a separate special report
an illustrated work in quarto upon the Food Fishes and Fisheries of the United States.



PREFATORY NOTE.

This permission was granted in a joint resolution, worded as follows, which passed tbe Senate
July 16, 1882:

Resolved by the Senate (the House of Representatives concurring), That the Public Printer be, and
is hereby, instructed to print, in quarto form, a report by the U. S. Commissioner of Fish 1 and Fish-
eries, upon the food fishes and fisheries of the United States, the engravings to be in relief, and to be
contracted for by the Public Printer, under the direction of the Joint Committee on Printing, and to
receive the approval of the Commissioner before being accepted ; the work to be stereotyped, and
10,000 extra copies printed, of which 2,500 shall be for the use of the Senate, 5,000 for the use of
the House, and 1,500 for the use of the Commissioner of Fish and Fisheries. There shall also be
printed 1,000 extra copies for sale by the Public Printer, under such regulations as the Joint
Committee on Printing may prescribe, at a price equal to the additional cost of publication and 10
per cent, thereon added.

The manuscript for the entire report is for the most part ready for the printer, and several
hundred drawings for the illustrations arc finished. Part I was placed in the hands of the printer
in August 1882, and would have been published more than a year ago but for the absence of Mr.
Goodo in England. The contents of these reports, it is proposed, shall be approximately as fol-
lows, though it is probable that other topics may be added to the discussion before the work is
completed :
THE FOOD FISHES AND FISHERY INDUSTRIES OF THE UNITED STATES.

PART I. The Natural History of Useful Aquatic Animals.

PART II. The Fishing-Grounds.

PART III. The Fishing-Towns, containing a geographical review of the Coast, River, and Lake Fisheries.

PART IV. The Fishermen.

PART V. The Apparatus of the Fisheries and the Fishing-Vessels aud Boats.

PART VI. The Fishery Industries, a discussion of methods aud history.

PART VII. The Preparation of Fishery Products.

PART VIII. Fish Culture and Fishery Legislation.

PART IX. Statistics of Production, Exportation, and Importation. Summary Tables.

PART X. The Whale Fishery ; a special monograph.

PART XI. A Catalogue of the Useful and Injurious Aquatic Animals and Plants of North America.

PART XII. A list of Books and Papers relating to the Fisheries of the United States.

PART XIII. A general Review of the Fisheries with a statistical summary.

The report prepared for the Superintendent of the Census, the manuscript of which is now
for the most part in his possession, is divided into the following sections:

A. liKPOKT UPON TIIK STATISTICS OK TIM: FlsIIKIHKS AND FlSH TRADE OK THE UNITED STATES.

INTRODUCTION (giving a comprehensive abstract of the matter contained in the quarto report referred to above).
PART I. A Review of the Fisheries of the Atlantic Seaboard, with statistics of production and maimi'm-line.
PART II. A Review of the Fisheries of the Pacific Coast, with statistics of production and manufactures.
PART III. A Review of the Fisheries of the Great Lakes, with stat.stic's of production and manufactures.
PART IV. A Review of the River Fisheries of the United States. (Prepared by C. W. Smiley.)
PART V. A Review of the Consumption of Fish by Counties, with an estimate of the extent and value of

the inland fisheries. (Prepared l>y C. W. Smiley.)
PAKT VI. A Review of the Fish Trade of cities of the United States having a population of more than ln,(MXi

in 1880. (Prepared by C. W. Smiley.)

PART VII. Statistics of Importation and Exportation of Fishery Products from 1730 to 1880.
PART VIII. List of the Fishing- Vessels of the United States iu 1880, giving tonnage, value, number of crew,

name of owner, branches of fisheries engaged in, together with other important details.

PART IX. Monograph of the Seal Islands ot Alaska. Hy Henry \V. Elliott. (Already in type; 171 pages. 4to.)
PAIIT X. Monograph of the Oyster Fisheries, lly Ernest Ingersidl. (Already in type : -Til pages.)

The Census volume thus is arranged to include all compilations from circulars, and the results
of the work performed by clerks detailed from the Census Office, together with much derived from



ri;i:i AT)|;V NOTK. ix

tlie archives of the Fish Commission. The first three sections are mainly made up from the
material collection by the special agents in tlic liclil, and the form is as nearly as pos>iMe that in
which it was originally collected; much, however, has been added from tin; archives of the
Couimission.

I'.v the plan just detailed, the statistical matter gathered by the joint efforts of the two
organi/ations is assigned to the (Vnsus, together with a sufficient amount of descriptive and
explanatory text to make the statistics fully intelligible, while the descriptive, historical, and
natural history papers are taken by the Fish Commission, these being enriched by a sufficient
amount of statistical detail to render them as useful as possible for the class of readers and students
for whom they are intended.

The statistical results of the investigation have already been published in a preliminary way.
A M-iic> of special statistical tables appeared in the Bulletins of the Census Office, as follows:

1 1 . ) ( 'KXSUS BULLETIN No. 176. [Preliminary Report upon the Pacific States and Territories] prepared liy Mr. Ooode
from returns of Special Agents Jordan, Swan, and Bean. Dated May 24, 1884. 4to. Pp. 6 (+2).

(2.) CENSUS BULLETIN No. ail. Statistics of the Fisheries of the Great Lakes. Prepared by Mr. Frederick W. Tnie
from notes of Special Agent Kiimliuu. Dated September 1, 1881. 4to. Pp. 8.

(3.) CKXSCS BULLETIN No. 278. Statistics of the Fisheries of Maine. Prepared by Mr. It. E. Earll from his own notes
and those of Capt. J. W. Collins and Mr. C. G. Atkins. Dated November 22, 1881. 4to. Pp. 47 (+1).

(4.) CENSUS BULLETIN No. 281. Statistics of the Fisheries of Virginia. Prepared by Colonel Marshall MacDonald.
Dated December 1, 1881. 4to. Pp. 8.

(!.) CENSUS BULLETIN No. 295. Statistics of the Fisheries of Massachusetts Prepared by Mr. A. Howard Clark from
returns of Special Agents Wilcox, Clark, True, Collins, and At wood. Dated March 1, 1882. 4to. Pp.35 -f 1.

(('..) CENSUS BULLETIN No. 291. Statistics of the Fisheries of New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Connecticut. Pre-
pared by Mr. A. Howard Clark. Dated April 5, 1883. 4to. Pp. 7(+l.)

(7.) CENSUS BULLETIN No. 297. Commercial Fisheries of the Middle States. Prepared by Mr. R. E. Earll and Colonel
M. MacDonald. Dated June 5, 1882. 4to. Pp. 14.

(8.) CENSUS BUU.ETIN No. 298. Commercial Fisheries of the Southern Atlantic States. Prepared by Mr. R. E. Earll
and Colonel M. MacDonald. Dated June 5, 1882. 4to. Pp.18. (This bulletin includes statistics of No. 4 (C.
B., No. 281).
In all 148 pages, quarto. In addition to these certain special tables have appeared.

(10.) STATISTICAL TABLE. Statistics of the Fisheries of the United States in 1880. [Prepared by Messrs. Goode and
Karll from the reports of special agents.] Printed in Compendium of the Tenth Census, p. 88. Pp. .
i;. published in Bulletin of the United States Fish Commission, Vol. Ill, 1883, pp. 270-71, and in Preliminary
Catalogue, International Fisheries Inhibition, January, p. 5.

(11.) STATISTICAL TABLE. Table showing by States the quantity of Spanish mackerel taken in 1880, and the total
catch for the United States. By R. Edward Earll. Report United States Fish Commission. Part VIII,
1880, p. 4U>.

(12.) STATISTICAL SUMMARY. Statistics of the Davis Strait Halibut Fisheries. By Newton P. Scndder. Report
United States Fish Commission. Part VIII, pp. 190-192.

(13.) STATISTICAL SUMMARY. Statistics of the Swordflsh Fishery. By G. Brown Goode. Report United States Fish
Commissioners. Part VIII, pp. 361-367.

(14.) STATISTICAL SUMMARIES. Statistics of the Mackerel Fishery in 1880. By R. Edward Earll. Report United

States Fish Commission. Part IX, pp. [124]-[W7.]

[Statistics of the Mackerel Canning Industry.] By R. Edward Earll. Ibid, p. f!31.]
Statistics of the Inspection of Mackerel from 1804 to 1880. By A. Howard Clark.

Ibid, pp. [1G2]-[213.]

Vessels in the Mackerel Fishery in 1880. Ibid, p. 4ia
Catch of Mackerel by Americans in Canadian waters. 1873-'81. Ibid, p. [430.]

(15.) INTRODUCTION to Section B., U. 8. Catalogue International Fisheries Exhibition, Ixindon. (Collection of Eco-
nomic Crustaceans, Worms, Echinoderms, and Sponges.) \\\ l.'i.-liaid Itathluiu. 1'p. [3]-[20.] Crabs, p. [3]:
Lobsters, p. [li] : Crayfish, p. [10]: Shrimp ami Prawns, p. [11J: Sponges, p. [18], etc.



x PREFATORY NOTE.

(16.) INTRODUCTION to Section D., U. S. Catalogue lut. Fisheries Exhibition. (Catalogue of the Economic Mollusca
and the apparatus and appliances used in their capture and preparation for market, exhibited by the U. S.
National Museum.) By Lieut. Francis Wiuslow, U. S. N., pp. [3] to [58]. Aggregate table of production,
p. [3]: Special tables and statistical statements throughout.

(17.) INTRODUCTION to Section K.,U. S. Catalogue Int. Fisheries Exhibition. (The Whale Fishery and its Appliances. )
By James Temple Brown, pp. [3]-[25.]

(18.) Statistics of the Whale Fishery. By A. Howard Clark, in the preceding, pp. [26]-[29.]

(19.) A Eoview of the Fishery Industries of the United States, etc. By (.}. Brown Goode. An address at a conference
of the International Fisheries Exhibition, June 25, 1883. Hvo., pp. 84. Numerous statistical statements.
summaries, and tables.

(20.) ADMINISTRATIVE REPORT. Method and results of an effort to collect statistics of the fish trade, and consump-
tion of fish throughout the United States. By Chas. W. Smiley. Bulletin U. S. Fisli Commission, vol. ii,
1882, pp. 247-52.
Two special reports have also been published, as follows :

(21.) A Monograph of the Seal Islands of Alaska. By Henry W. Elliott. 4to., illustrated. Pp.172. An edition of this
report with substitutions on pp. 102-9 was also issued as a Special Bulletin of the Fish Commission, No. 17(i.

(22.) The Oyster Industry. By Ernest Ingersoll. 4to., illustrated. Pp. 2")2.

The general results of the investigation, from the statistician's stand -point, may be briefly
summarized as follows :

In 1880 the number of persons employed in the fishery industries of the United States was
131,426, of whom 101,084 were fishermen, and the remainder shoresmen. The fishing fleet con-
sisted of 6,605 vessels (with a tonnage of 208,297.82) and 44,804 boats, and the total amount of
capital invested was $37,955,349, distributed as follows: Vessels, $9,357,282; boats, $2,465,393;
minor apparatus and outfits, $8,145,261; other capital, including shore property, $17,987,413.

The value of the fisheries of the sea, the great rivers, and the Great Lakes, was placed at
$43,046,053, and that of those in minor inland waters at $1,500,000 in all $44,546,053. These values
were estirnatedupon the basis of the prices of the products received by the producers, and if average
wholesale prices had been considered, the value would have been much greater. In 1882 the yield
of the fisheries was much greater than in 1880. and prices both "at first hand" and at wholesale
were higher, so that a fair estimate at wholesale market rates would place their value at the
present time rather above than below the sum of $100,000,000.

The fisheries of the New England States are the most important. They engage 37,043 men
2,066 vessels, 14,787 boats, and yield products to the value of $14,270,393. In this district the
principal fishing ports in order of importance are : Gloucester, New Bedford, the center of the
whale fishery, Eastport, Boston, Proviucetowu, and Portland.

Next to New England in importance aie the South Atlantic States, employing 52,418 men, 3,014
vessels (the majority of which are small, and engaged in the shore and bay fisheries), 13,331 boats
and returning products to the value of $9,602,737.

Next are the Middle States, employing in the coast fisheries 14,981 men, 1,210 vessels, 8,293
boats, with products to the amount of $8,676,579.

Next are the Pacific States and Territories with 16,803 men, 56 vessels, 5,547 boats, and products
to the amount of $7,484,750. The fisheries of the Great Lakes employ 5,050 men, 62 vessels, and
1,594 boats, with pioducts to the amount of $1,784,050. The Gulf States employ 5,131 men, 197
vessels, and 1,252 boats, yielding products to the value of $545,584.

SPENCER F. BAIRD,

Commissioner of Fisheries.

WASHINGTON, May 30, 1884.



LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL.



UNITED STATKS NATIONAL MUSEUM,

\\' a xlii iii/tii a, -I it I n 18, 18S2.

SIR: I have the honor lo transmit herewith, for approval au<l for publication, Section I of
a general work upon THE FISHKRIKS AND FISHERY INDUSTRIES OK THE UNITED STATES,
ron.Msting of an illustrated history of the useful aquatic animals of the United States. This
work is intended especially for the use of the reading public, and technical zoological discussions
and descriptions have therefore been intentionally avoided.



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