G. Brown (George Brown) Goode.

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membrane golden, ovaries blue, eggs ultramarine blue." Females carrying eggs were taken in
August and September, 1877 and 1878, in and off Massachusetts Bay and off Cape Ann. The
localities where this species has been found are as follows : Massachusetts Bay, off Salem,
forty-five to fifty fathoms, mud, very abundant; Gulf of Maine, forty to one hundred and sixty
fathoms, muddy bottoms, very abundant in some places. In the Gulf of Maine, it was found
to be especially common in a region about fourteen miles southeast from Cape Ann, in fifty
to about one hundred fathoms. It was also encountered twenty to thirty miles off Cape Sable,
Nova Scotia, in depths of fifty-nine to eighty-eight fathoms, and thirty miles off Halifax in
eighty-five to one hundred and ten fathoms. Beyond our seas it has been recorded from
Greenland, Norway, and Bering Sea.

Pandalus Montagui and leptoceros differ from P. borealis in coloration, "in having the red
more intense and arranged in clearly defined markings, of which those upon the carapax and
abdomen are arranged in conspicuous obliquely transverse lines or bars, while the color upon
the rest of the body and upon the appendages is collected in distinct specks, blotches, or
annulations." The largest specimens which have been examined were from depths of ninety
fathoms, off Cape Ann, and measured four and one half inches in length. Specimens over four
inches long have been obtained from several localities. Only a few individuals have so far
been seen carrying spawn. They were taken in different places during the months of August,
September, and October. These species range all the way from off the mouth of Chesapeake
Bay to Greenland, and P. Montagui also occurs on the European coast as far south as the
British Islands. They are more abundant than P. borealis, though of smaller size, and are
common in much shallower water, as well as in the same deeper places resorted to by P. borealis.

In Massachusetts Bay, they inhabit depths of twenty-two to forty-eight fathoms, where the
bottom is gravelly, sandy, and muddy, and have also been found on Stellwagen Bank. In the
Gulf of Maine they are widespread and exceedingly abundant in many localities, being often
associateil with P. borealiit on muddy bottoms. They live on all kinds of bottom, in depths of
ten fathoms downward. They have been found east of George's Bank in a depth of four hundred
and thirty fathoms ; in the Bay of Fundy, ten to seventy-seven fathoms ; off Nova Scotia, sixteen
to seventy-five fathoms ; in Bedford Basin, Halifax, twenty -six to forty-one fathoms; Gulf of Saint
Lawrence, Labrador, etc. South of Cape Cod they range down to depths of two and three hundred

Pandalus propinquus, which has been recognized only since this report was first written,
occurs associated with the two last species south of Cape Cod.

The United States Fish Commission, in its explorations with the dredge and trawl along the
New England coast during the past ten years, has constantly come upon immense schools of these
deep-water Prawns, sometimes two or more of the species being associated together, at others
occurring separately. It has been no uncommon occurrence for a peck or more to come up in a single
cast of the beam trawl, and several such hauls have sometimes been made in a single day. These
Prawns apparently move in schools, and it is often impossible to secure more than a single catch
in any spot at ono time. This fact may result from their moving in a regular body from place to
place, and thus coming by chance in the course of the trawl at times, or, if naturally disposed to
remain long in a single place, the appearance of the trawl must have the effect of frightening
them away. They are active in their movements, and are thus seldom taken in the dredge. It
has been the cnstom on the United States Fish Commission steamer, when a large haul of Pandali
.has been made, after having selected the specimens required for scientific purposes, to turn the


remainder over to tin- mess, and there are many witnesses to testify to the superior character of
the deep water Prawns as an article of food.

The lohstermeii of Itiddet'ord Pool, Maine, who set their pots ill the winter from four to si x
miles from shore, occasionally capture these Prawns, and here may be a suggestion as to the'
style of apparatus which mijjht IK' tried advantageously for their capture. The openings would,
of course, need to he of much smaller si/e than those of an ordinary lobster-pot. A light beam
trawl of large six.e might, however, answer still better.


According to W. N. Lockington, this is a moderately large species of Prawn, which is now
commonly brought to the San Francisco market, and is caught in the open ocean between the
Farallone Islands and Point Reyes. The length of the body in the adults, including the rostrum,
is aliout live inches, while the average length of the carapax, excluding the rostrum, is about one
and a quarter inches. Fresh specimens are finely marked with transverse zigzag lines of white,
separated by bands of red.

Pandulun Dana: has been recorded from the Queen Charlotte Islands and Puget Sound, north
of which it is not known; its southern limit is possibly Point Conception, California, the most
pronounced point of division between the northern and southern marine faunae of California,
though this fact has not been positively determined. This Prawn has been much more abundant
in the Ban Francisco markets during the past two years than formerly, and the reason assigned is
that the tishermen, driven out of San Francisco Bay by the constantly diminishing supply of fish
there, have been forced to resort to the open sea between the Farallone Islands and Point Reyes,
where the Prawns live in large numbers. It has been noticed with spawn in November, Decem-
ber, and January. A second species of Prawn is occasionally brought to the San Francisco
market, along with P. Dance, being obtained in the same places. It is of smaller size than P.
Dante and of a uniform light pink color when fresh; it also differs from the latter in the size and
shape of the rostrum, appendages, etc., and in the number of the rostral spines.

In 1879, several examples of a large species of Prawn, apparently identical with Penceus
brasiliensi*, of Brazil and the Southern United States, were brought to the San Francisco
markets; in 1880 none were observed. This species is also recorded from the west coast of
Nicaragua. Adult specimens examined at San Francisco measured seven inches in total length,
including the rostrum. Compared with specimens from the Bio Grande, Brazil, no points of
difference as regards form or proportion of parts were detected.


l I..NSIS. l.at reille.

These are the large Shrimps or Prawns which occnr in such immense numbers on the coasts
of the Southern States, and are taken to supply the markets at Charleston, South Carolina;
Savannah, Georgia; New Orleans, Louisiana: New York, and elsewhere. The two species are
often found associated together, but Penteus seti/ertis is the more abundant, nnd is, therefore, more
commonly seen in the markets. According to Prof. Lewis R. Gibbes, these species may*be dis-
tinguished apart by the following characters:

"The common Shrimp (P. netiferus) has a groove on each side of the large spine that springs
from the fore and upper part of the shell or carapax; these run backward and terminate about
the middle of the length of the shell. In the same tray in the market will frequently be found
other individuals, far less numerous, in which these grooves run the whole length of the shell,
terminating just in front of the hinder edge or border of the shell, at the first joint. This form I
have referred to the P. brasiliewi* of Lat reille.


"Full grown individuals of P. setiferus measure six or more inches in length, from the tip of
the large anterior spine to the tip of the tail spine, and three-fourths of an inch deep and broad
in the front or body part. These large specimens of both species are known in the markets as
'Prawns,' or 'Sprawns,' and the half-grown individuals are distinguished as 'Shrimps.' The
Prawns appear in our waters generally in March, or in warm seasons as early as the latter weeks
of February, and remain in season for two or three months, after which the supply diminishes, and
they appear to retire for a time to spawn. To what region or localities they retreat I do not
know, nor have I been able to learn anything concerning this matter from the fishermen. I may
add that I have never seen one of these Shrimp carrying its eggs. It may be that they ascend
our rivers for the purpose of spawning, and friends have called my attention to what they call
' fresh-water Shrimp' that differ in no respect from the common Shrimp, and yet are found in the
rivers above the reach of salt water. In June and the succeeding months of summer, the half-
grown individuals or ' Shrimps' are in season, and for tenderness of flesh and delicacy of flavor are
preferred to the 'Prawns.' In the autumn they all disappear from our waters, and I suppose go
southward or else into deeper water. As Prawns and Shrimps die very soon after being taken
from the water, they cannot be sent fresh to any distance. They are used both as food and

According to Stiinpson, Penceus brasiliensis "is often found in brackish water, and even
ascends streams to points where the water is nearly or quite fresh. It was thus found in the
Crotou River at Sing Sing, New York, by Professor Baird, and by myself in a fresh-water creek
near Somers Point, New Jersey." From these places it ranges southward to Brazil, and is found
more or less continuously along the Southern Atlantic coast, and the Gulf coast to Mexico.
Penceus netiferm has not been recorded from north of Norfolk, Virginia, but thence southward its
range corresponds with that of P. brasiliensis, at least so far as regards the coast of the United

Mr. T. E. Fisher, of Fernandina, Florida, who has been interested in the Shrimp industry at
that place for several years, furnishes the following notes regarding the Shrimps and Prawns,
which he distinguishes from one another in the same way as Professor Gibbes: "It is my belief
that the Shrimp (smaller individuals) move out into deeper water at the beginning of winter and
there remain until about the full moon in March or thereabouts, when they return to the bays
and rivers in great quantities as 'Prawns' and ascend the rivers and creeks, I think, to spawn.
This is the time when they are taken as food. After spawning, or about May or June, they
return to the sea. From May to August the so-called Shrimp, which then appear, are quite
small and used principally as fish bait; from August to December they grow quite rapidly.
September and October are the best shrimping months of the season, and May and June are the
only mouths when Shrimp are scarce, excepting during the colder mouths of winter, when they
leave the coast for a time." The seasons on the coasts of South Carolina and Eastern Florida,
therefore, nearly correspond, excepting that in Florida, the climate being milder, the Shrimp
reuiaiu, upon the coast much later in the season or nearly all winter. Mr. Silas Stearns, of
Pensacoia, Florida, writes that " Shrimp are abundant on all parts of the Gulf coast, and
especially so in the region of Louisiana and Texas. They live on the grassy or sandy flats, and
among the weeds on the bottoms of bayous and lagoons, in both salt and brackish water. On the
Florida coast they are found throughout the summer months, and appear to breed in the spring
or early summer. In the fall they make up in schools, and seem bent on migratory movements.
At this time a few are taken in seines and sold to the restaurant keepers of the cities. On the
Louisiana and Texas coasts the habit of schooling is much more common, and as the Shrimp


arc very a1>iiinlaiit at all times dining warm weather, they can be profitably caught for the
market. Barrataria Bay, of the Louisiana coast, ami CiaheMon :nnl Matagorda Bays, of the
Te\a- coast, are notable (daces for the shrimp fishery. The fact that these bays afford unusually
good feeding grounds and hiding places for the Shrimp will undoubtedly explain (heir great
abundance there. Shrimp of marketable size average about four inches in length. Their color
tends to imitate that of the bottom on which they dwell. New Orleans and Galveston are the
only .itics of the Gulf coast which engage in the shrimp trade."



"The Squilla empuAa is a very interesting creature, whose habits are still imperfectly known.
It is often thrown on the beaches by the waves, and probably it usually burrows in the mud below
low-water mark, but in certain localities it has been found burrowing at or near low-water mark of
spring tides, forming large, irregular holes. The very curious, free-swimming young were often
taken in the towing-nets. Large specimens are eight or ten inches long and about two broad.
The body is not so stoutly built as that of the Lobster, and the carapax or shell is much smaller and
softer, while the abdomen is much larger and longer in proportion. The legs and all the other
organs are quite unlike those of the Lobster, and the last joint of the great claw, instead of forming
a pair of pincers with the next, is armed with a row of six sharp, curved spines, which shut into
corresponding sockets, arranged in a groove in the next joint, which also bears smaller spines.
By means of this singular organ they can hold their prey securely, and can give a severe wound
to the human hand, if handled incautiously. It also uses the stout caudal appendages, which are
armed with spines, very effectively. The colors of this species are quite vivid, considering its
mud-dwelling habits. The body Js usually pale green or yellowish green, each segment bordered
posteriorly with darker green and edged with bright yellow; the tail is tinged with rose and
mottled with yellow and blackish; the outer caudal lamella? have the base and spines white, the
last joint yellow, margined with black ; the inner ones are black, pale at base; the eyes are bright
emerald-green ; the inner antenna are dark, with a yellow band at the base of each joint ; and the
flagellum is annulated with black and white." 1

This species of Squilla ranges from Cape God to Florida, but from its habit of remaining most
of the time in its burrows it is not very commonly known or met with on the sea-shore, though it
is probably very abundant in some localities.

The Mediterranean species of Squilla are generally found at considerable depths ; they live
in sandy places, where they can easily procure their food, which seems to consist chiefly of annelids
and fragments of the Actinia effceta. According to Kisso, the females when they wish to deposit
their eggs, which they have under their aftdominal appendages, retire to rocky places. The
,sv/ /// are timid, avoiding danger; they swim much after the fashion of Lobsters."* In Euro|>e
wherever Squilta can be found in sufficient numbers it is much esteemed as food, and the American
species would probably be as wholesome. On the shores where it abounds it might easily be
obtained by digging, and from deej>er water by means of the rake dredge.

Two other species of Squilla Squilla dubia and Ijyriogquilla glabriuscula also occur on the
coasts of the Southern States, where one or more of these three species are said to be used as
bait to some extent.

1 VERRILL: Vineyard Sound Report, 1871-'T2.
'WHITK: Popular History of the British Crustacea, 1857.




The extensive group of Amphipoda, to which these species belong, consists entirely of small
aquatic animals which, although not of direct importance from an economical point of view, still
serve an important purpose in the general economy of nature, and deserve at least some mention
here. Besides serving as food for fish, many of the species act as scavengers on the sea-shore,
and, despite their small size, are, from their great numbers, able to dispose of a large quantity of
dead refuse matter. Some of the species live entirely in the water, while others are exposed to
the air during low tide, or even most of the time. The experiment of utilizing these small creat-
ures in the preparation of skeletons for anatomical purposes has been tried with much success.
Fish, cleaned of the bulk of their flesh, have been fastened to boards and anchored just below the
surface of the water, near the docks in Eastport Harbor, and within the space of a few hours
nothing but the bones remained, being cleaned as completely as by any other process, and with
but little expenditure of time on the part of the naturalist. Several species upon our coast are
abundant enough to act in unison in this way. Some of the deep-water species are as destructive
to dead animal matter as are those which live near the shore. The cod and halibut fishermen
often suffer from their depredations, as several of the deep-water Amphipods quickly attack the
fish which die after being caught on the trawl lines before they are hauled up. The gills of the
fish appear to be first devoured, but within a few hours they are able to eat out the entire
muscular and visceral matter, leaving only the bones and skin. Cod and hake frequently die
upon the trawls, and are thus destroyed, but halibut are more hardy and are seldom much

The number of species of Amphipods upon our coast is very large, but we need refer here to
only two or three species to illustrate their principal characteristics.

" These small Crustacea are of great importance in connection with our fisheries, for we have
found that they, together with the Shrimps, constitute a very large part of the food of most of our
more valuable edible fishes, both of the fresh and salt water. The Amphipods, though mostly of
small size, occur in such immense numbers in their favorite localities that they can nearly always
be easily obtained by the fishes that eat them, and no doubt they furnish excellent and nutritions
food, for even the smallest of them are by no means despised or overlooked even by large and
powerful fishes that could easily capture larger game. Even the voracious bluefish will feed
upon these small Crustacea where they can be easily obtained, even when menhaden and other
fishes are plenty in the same localities. They are also the favorite food of trout, lake white-fish,
shad, flounders, scup, etc., as will be seen from the lists of the animals found in the stomachs of
fishes. One species, which occurs in countless numbers beneath the masses of decaying seaweeds
thrown up at high-water mark on all the shores by the waves, is the Orchestia agilis Smith, which
has received this name in allusion to the extreme agility which it displays in leaping when
disturbed. The common name given to it is 'Beach-flea,' which refers to the same habit. Its
color in dark olive green or brown, and much resembles that of the decaying weeds among which
it lives, and upon which it probably feeds. It also constructs burrows in the sand beneath the
vegetable debris. It leaps by means of the appendages at the posterior end of the body.

"A much larger species, and one of the largest of all the Amphipods, is the Gammarus
locitnta, which occurs in great numbers beneath the stones and among the rock-weed near low-


water mark. Tin- mal.-> are much larger than the females, and sometimes become nearly an inch
and a half Ion-;. They cannot leap like their cousins that live at high-water mark, but skip
actively about on their sides amon,, the stones and gravel until they reach some shelter or
enter the water, when they swim rapidly in a gyrating manner l>ack downward or sideways.
But although they can swim they are seldom met with away fiom the shore or much below )o\v-
u.iter mark. The zone of I-'IK-HX is their true home. This species is abundant on all our shores,
wherever rocks and /'//<* occur, from Great Egg Harbor, New Jersey, to Labrador. Its color
is generally olive brown or reddish-brown, much like that of the Fuctm among which it lives.
The only good English name that I have overheard for these creatures is that of * Sends,' given
by a small boy, iu reference to their rapid and peculiar motions. . . . Two other related
species, of larger si/e and paler colors, but having the same habit of leaping as the On-!i,xtin,
though not in such a high degree, occur among the weeds, or burrowing in the sand, or IxMieath
1 rift wood, etc., a little below high-water mark. In fact, the sand is sometimes completely tilled
with their holes, of various sizes. Both these species are stout iu form, and become about an
inch long when mature. One of them, Talorchentia longicorniit, can be easily distinguished by
its very long antennae; the other, T. megulophthalma, by its shorter antenna- and very large eyes.
Both these species are pale grayish, and imitate the color of the sand very perfectly. When
driven from their burrows by unusually high tides or storms they are capable of swimming
actively in the water. They make dainty morsels for fishes and many shore birds, as well as for
certain Crabs, especially Ocypoda a remind." 1


This very destructive little crustacean, which is of common occurrence on the European
coast, from Southern Norway to the Adriatic Sea, has so far been noticed on the Atlantic coast
of the United States at only two places, Wood's Holl and Provincetown, Massachusetts. At
both of these localities it was found associated with the "Gribble" (Limnoria lignorum), in the
submerged piles of old wharves. It is more than possible, however, that it is a common inhabitant
of our coast, doing a certain amount of the damage hitherto ascribed to other boring animals.
Without a careful examination, it is quite easy for an unskilled eye to confound Chelura with
Limitri<i, although they belong to very distinct divisions of the Crustacea.

The main characteristics of this animal by which it may be distinguished from all the other
Amphipods, as well as crustaceans, are the three pairs of caudal styleui, the last pair being
nearly as long as the body proper of the males, although much shorter in the females and young.
As to color, the body is semitranslucent and thickly spotted and mottled above with pink.

Professor Alluiau, of England, who has studied living specimens, describes the habits of
this species as follows: 2

<'h> I Hi-it terebram is an active little animal, swimming on its back and employing its
thoracic legs to adhere to the timber which it has selected for its ravages. ... Its habits
are truly xylophagous, and it excavates the timber not merely for the purpose of concealment .
but with the object of employing it as food, which is apparent from the fact that the alimentary
canal may be found on dissection filled with minutely comminuted ligneous matter. . . .
Timber which has been subject to the ravages of Chelura presents a somewhat different
appearance from that which has been attacked by Limnoria lignorum. In the latter we find
narrow cylindrical burrows running deep into the interior, while the excavations of Chelura are

'VEBRII.L: Vineyard Sound Report, pp. 313, 314, 1871-'72.
'Ann. and Mag. Nat. Hiat,, xix, p. 361, 1847.


considerably larger and more oblique in their direction, so that the surface of the timber thus
undermined by these destructive animals is rapidly washed away by the action of the sea, and
the excavations are exposed in the greater part of their extent, the wood appearing plowed
up, so to speak, rather than burrowed into. Upon the whole, Chelura would seem to be a still
more destructive creature than even Limnoria."


This little crustacean pest, which measures less than one-fifth of an inch in length, is a very
common habitant of our Atlantic coast from the Gulf of Saint Lawrence to Florida, and also
occurs abundantly on the coasts of Great Britain and of other parts of Europe. In spite of its

Online LibraryG. Brown (George Brown) GoodeThe fisheries and fishery industries of the United States (Volume 1:1) → online text (page 136 of 146)