G. Brown (George Brown) Goode.

The fisheries and fishery industries of the United States (Volume 1:1) online

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I desire, in this place, to express my high appreciation of the manner in which the gentlemen
associated with me in the preparation of this work have performed the tasks which they had
undertaken, (heir work having been in large degree voluntary and unrenmnerated.
I have the honor to be, very respectfully, your obedient servant,

G. BROWN GOODE.
Professor SPENCER F. BAIRD,

United States Commissioner of Fish and Fisheries.



TABLE OF CONTENTS.



PART I. MAMMALS.

Puce

A. THE WHALES AND PORPOISES. BY G. BROWN GOODE.

1. The Sperm Whale 7

2. The Blacklishes or Pilot Whales 11

'.!. The Grampuses or Cowtishes 13

4. The Harbor Porpoises or Herring Hogs 14

.">. The Dolphins 16

G. The Killer Whales or Orcas 17

7. The Sperui Whale Porpoise 18

8. The White Whale or Beluga 18

!). The Narwhal 19

10. The Greenland, Bowheod, or Polar Whale 20

11. The Right Whales 24

12. The Humpback Whales 26

13 The Sulphur Bottom Whales 27

14. The Finback Whales 28

15. The Scrag Whales 30

16. The California Gray Whales 31

B. THE SEALS AND WALRUSES. BY JOEL A. ALLEN.

17. The Seal tribe in general 33

18. The Walruses 34

19. The Sea Lions ai Fur Seals in general 37

20. TheSeaLion 38

21. The Califorr.ia Sea Lion 44

-".'. The Fur-Seal 49

->:!. The Harbor Seal 65

24. The Harp Seal 62

25. The Ringed Seal 65

26. The Ribbon Seal 67

27. The West Indian Seal 67

28. The Hooded Seal 68

29. The California Sea Elephant 72

C. THE HABITS OF THE FUR SEAL. BY HENRY W. ELLIOTT.

30. A life history of the Fur-Seal 75

U. THE MANATEES AND THE ARCTIC SEA-COW. BY FREDERICK W. TRUE.

31. The Manatees 114

J. The Arctic Sea-Cow 1*8

xiii



x j v TABLE OF CONTENTS.

PART II. REPTILES AND BATRACHIANS.
BY FREDERICK W. TRUE.

Page.

E. THE ALLIGATOR AND THE CROCODILE:

33. The Alligator and the Crocodile 141

F. TORTOISES, TURTLES, AND TERRAPINS:

34. The Marine Turtles iu general 147

35. The Loggerhead Turtle 147

36. The Hawk's-bill Turtles 149

37. The Green Turtles 150

38. The Soft- shelled tortoises 152

39. The Snapping Turtles 153

40. The Musk Tortoises 154

41. The Fresh-water Terrapins 155

42. The Diamond-back or Salt-water Terrapin 156

43. The Pond Tortoises 157

44. The Box Tortoises 158

G. THE AMPHIBIANS:

45. The Bull-frog 159



PART III. FISHES.
BY G. BROWN GOODE.

WITH DISCUSSIONS OF THE PACIFIC SPECIES BY DAVID 8. JORDAN AND TARLKTON H. BEAN, NOTES ON THE FISHES
OF THE GUM' OK MEXICO BY 8ILA8 STEARNS, AND CONTRIBUTIONS FROM JOSEPH W. COLLINS, N. E. ATWOOD,
MARSHALL MACDONALD, R. EDWARD EARLL, LUDWIG KUMLIEN, AND OTHER AUTHORITIES.

H. THE FILE FISHES, PIPE FISHES, AND ANGLERS:

46. The Ocean Sun Fishes (Ortkayoriscidoe) 169

47. The Porcupine Fishes (Diodontida) 170

48. The Bellows-Fish Family (Tetrodontidas) 170

49. Tuc Trunk Fishes (Ostraciontidw) 170

50. The File-Fish Family (BalistuUe) 171

51. The Sea-Horse Family (Hippocampidce) 172

52. The Pipe- Fish Family (Syngnathidce) 172

53. The Devil Fishes (AntennarUdas and Maltheidas) 173

54. The Goose Fish (Lophiue piseatorius) 173

I. THE FLAT FISHES AND FLOUNDERS:

56. The American Soles (Soleida) 175

56. The Plaice (Paralichihya dentatas) 178

67. The Bastard Halibut (Paralichtltyt maculosw) 182

58. The Flat Fish or Winter Flounder ( 1'seudopleurontctes americanus) 182

69. The Flat Fishes ami Soles of the Pacific Coast 184

60. The Halibut (Hippoylotsus vutyaria) 189

til. The Sand Dab or Rough Dab (Jlippoglomsoiden platetioides) 197

<tl. The Greenland Turbot (I'latijsomaticMnj* kippoylowoideti) 197

<>.'i. The Pole Flounder or Craig Flounder (Glyplocephalua cynogheua) 198

64. The Spotted Sand Flonnder (Lophopsetta maoulata) 199



l.MU.i: OF CONTKNTS. XV

.). TUB COD FAMILY AND ITS KINDRED:

i,.,. Hi, c.iil (Gadiumorrhua) 800

66. Tin' Tom ('ml* ( Mil rwjadui lomcod nuil M. proiimiu) 223

(57. Tin- Haddix-k (AfrlamMjrantnui wglefinHt) 883

68. The Pollock (rullinhiuncarbotiariiit) 888

IS). The disk (Brotmiaa brotme) 233

70. The IIak,- d'hycis chun, etc.). -' :i

71. The Burbot (Lota maiulosa). By TARLBTON H. BEAN 235

72. The Silver Hake ami tin- Merliiecio 240

73. Several 1 'a mi lies rlii(l to the (iadidtu 243

74. Tin- Liint. or Sand Eel (Ammodytai lanceolalM) 244

K. WOLF-FISHES, SCULPINS, AND WHASSES:

7.'.. TheLycodes Family (Lyoodida) .- 247

7(5. The \Volf-l-Vhes or Sea Cat fishes (.limiTAickadMto) 24H

77. The nit-niiy Family (llleni>iid(t) 250

78. The Toal-Fi.di (liulraclmi lau) 251

T'.i. The Lumi>-.Snekra: Lump-fish and Sea-Snails. 863

80. The Gobies (Gobiida) 256

81. The Sea-Robin or Gurnard Family ( Triglidai) . . ; - 255

B. The Sculpin Tribe (Cottida) 258

83. The Rose-Fish or Red Perch (Sebtulea marinta) 260

84. The Rock Cods of the Pacific. By DAVID 8. JORDAN 262

85. The Rock Trout* ( dtirida). By DAVID 8. JORDAN 267

86. The Tautofj: or Black Fish (Tanloga onitit)...

87. The Cbogset or Cnnner ( Ctenolabru* adiperius)

88. The Parrot Fishes and some of their Allies

H9. The Demoiselle and the Cichlid Families

90. The Surf-Fish Family ( Embiotocida). By DAVID S. JORDAN 276

91. The Mobarru Family (Gerridv) -"''

M. The Thread-Fish Family ( Polynemida)

IK}. The Surgeon-Fish Family (Acanlkuiida)

!M. The Angel-Fish Family (Chielorionlida) ' '"

L. THE MACKEREL AND ITS ALLIES:

95. The Mackerel (Scomber scombrut) ^

96. The Chub Mackerel (Scomber cotiat)

97. The Frigate Mackerel (Aux\ thazard) 3 05

98. The Spanish Mackerel and its Allies

99. The Hon it (Sarda mediterranea) 316

100. The Horse Mackerel, Tunny, or Albicore (Orcyniu %mw)

101. The Little Tunny or Albicore (Orcyniw allUeratta)

102. The Silver Moon-Fishes

103. The Cavally, the Scad, and the Jnrels

104. The Pom patios ( Trachynottu carotin**, etc.)

105. The Pilot Fish (Naucratt* ductor)

IOC. The Ainlier Fishes and the Leather Jackets

I(i7. The Dolphins (Coryphtenida)

108. The Rudder- Fish Family (Stromatfida)

109. The I >ory. Hen-Fish, and Opah Families

110. Tin- Cutlass Fish (Trichiurtu lepturut)

111. The Sword Fish Family (XipMida)^. 336



xv j TABLE OF CONTENTS.

Taae.

M. THE TILE FISH FAMILY AND OTHERS:

112. The Tile-Fish Family (LatiUdce) 360

113. The Red Mullet Family (Mvllidai) 3lil

114. The Icosteus Family (Icosteidai) 361

115. The Beryxfamil (Beryaidas) 301

N. THE DRUM FAMILY:

116. The Squeteague (Cynoscioii regale) 362

117. The Spotted Squeteague (Cynosdon maculatum) 365

118. The Silver Sqneteaguo (Cynoscion not/mm) 367

119. The Drum (Pogonias chromis) 367

120. The Fresh Water Drum ( Haploidonotm grunniens). By DAVID S. JORDAN '370

121. The Spot, or Lafayette (Liostomus xanthurus) 370

122. The Eed Fish, or Bass of the South (Sciasna ocellata) 371

123. The Yellow Tail (Bairdiella, chrysura) 375

124. The King Fish (Menticlrrus nebulosus) 375

125. The Whitings (Alentleirrus alburnue and M. littoralis) 376

126. The Croaker (Micropogon unditlatus) 378

127. The Corvinas and Roncadors of the Pacific coast. By DAVID S. JORDAN 378

O. SHEEPSHEAD, BASS, BREAM, PERCH, ETC:

128. The Sheepshead (Diplodus probatocephalus) 381

129. The Scup or Scuppaug (Stenotomtig cliryaops and S. aculeatus, = S. Gardeni of text) 386

130. The Sailors' Choice (Layodon rhomboides) 393

131. Certain Minor Sparoids 394

132. The Red and Gray Snappers 395

133. The Grunts or Pig Fishes 397

134. The Big-Mouth Black Bass (Micropterus salmoides), and the Small-Mouth Black Bass (M. Dolomici) 401

135. The Sun-Fishes and their Allies. By DAVID S. JORDAN. 404

136. The Sea Bas(Strranus atrarius) 407

137. The Groupers 410

138. The Serranoid Fishes of the Pacific coast. By DAVID S. JORDAN 413

139. The Yellow Perch (I'erca americana) 414

140. The Log Porch (Percina corrodes). By DAVID S. JORDAN 417

141. The Pike Perches 417

142. The Striped Baaa(Roccm lineatiu) 425

143. The White Bass (Hoccus chrysopi) 423

144. The Yellow Bass (Hoccus interrupt) 431

145. The White Perch (Roccug americanui) 431

14(i. TheBluelish Family (I'omatomida) 433

147. The Cobia or Crab-Eater (Elacate Canada) 444

1 I-. The Triple Tail or Black Perch (Lobotes surinanensia) 444

149. The Moon Fish (Chatodipteni' faber) 445

150. The Remora Family ( Eclieiicidice) ' 446

P. BABRACOUTA, MULLET, PIKE, AND MUMMICHOGS:

151. The Barracouta Family (Siiliynenidai) 448

152. The Deal-Fish Family (Trachypteridai) 449

153. The Mullets (Mugil albula ami M. brariliengis) 449

154. The Sand Smelts or Silver Sides (Alherinidtf) 456

l.V>. Tho Sticklcliack Family (Gattirosteidas) 457

156. The Silver Gar-lmhrs (liilonida) 458

167. The !' lying- lish I'amily (Scombtresocidce) 459

158. The Pike Family (Esocidai) 461

l.V.t. The Mummicuog I'amily (Cyprinodontidce) 466



TABLE OF CONTENTS.
Q. THE SALMON TRIBE:

160. The Salmon (Salminalar) 468

101. The .Salmons of the Pacific. By DAVIDS. JORDAN 474

It'.-. 1 . The Quiunat or California Salmon (OitcorAyitcAii* diouicka). By LIVINGSTON STONE 479

163. The Namaycush or Lake Trout (Sali-rlinu* namaycutk) r. 485

11)4. The Speckled Trout (Salrrlinits foHtinalin) 497

165. The Saibliug or liavarian Char (Kalrrliiiun alpiniu) 600

106. The Dolly Varden Trout (.So/r/iii mo/mo). (By DAVIDS. JORDAN 604

167. The Qiayliiig (Thitmallug tricolor) 606

168. The Lake White-fob ( Coregonut vlupeiformit). By R. I. GBARE 607

lf.lt. The Lesser White-fishes. By DAVID S. JORDAN 641

170. The Smelt Group 643

171. Families related to the Salmouidie 547

R. THE HERRINGS AND THE MENHADENS:

172. The Herring (Clupea harengun) 549

173. The Herrings of the Pacific Coast. By DAVID S. JORDAN 568

174. The Menhaden (lireroortia tyrannu*) 569

IT.".. The Gulf Menhaden (Breeoortia pa(roniu) 675

S. THE SHAD AND THE ALEWIVES. BY MARSHALL MACDONALD.

176. The River Herrings or Ale wives (Clupea attivali* C. and vernalU) f>70

177. On the occurrence of the Branch Alewifeiu certain Lakes of New York. By TAKLETON H. BEAM.. 688

178. The Inland Alewife or Skipjack (Clvpta chrysocJtlorii) 694

179. The Shad (Clupta sapidigrima) 594

180. The Hickory Shad or Mattowacca ( CUpea medioerii) 607

T. FAMILIES RELATED TO THE CLUPEID.E :

181. The Mud Shad (Dorotoma cepedianum) 610

182. TheTarpum (Megalopi thrioide) 610

183. The Big-eyed.Herring 611

184. The Anchovies (E*graulida) 611

185. The Lady-fish Family (Albitlidas) 618

186. The Moon-eye Family (Hyodontida) 618

U. CARP, SUCKERS, CATFISH, AND EELS:

187. The Sucker Family (Calostomida). By DAVID 8. JORDAN 614

188. The Carp Family (Cyprinida). By DAVID S. JORDAN 616

189. The Carp (Cyprinut carpio). By RUDOLPH HESSKL 618

189. The Catfish Family (Siluridat). By DAVID 8. JORDAN 687

190. The Morays (Afttranidat) 629

191. The Eel (Anguilla ruJjorw) 630

192. The Conger Eel (Lfptocrpkalut conger) 666

V. STURGEONS, SKATES, SHARKS, AND LAMPREYS:

193. The Bowfins ( Amiidce) 654>

194. The Paddle-fishes (Volyodontidae) <KW

195. The Sturgeons (Acipmterida) 660

196. The Chirnsera Family ( Chimaanda) 663

197. The Gar Pikes ( Lepidosleida;) 663

198. The Torpedoes and Skates (Raid) - **

199. The Saw-fish (Prt(i prclixaliu) eee

200. The Sharks (Squali) 688

201. The Sharks of the Pacific Coast. By DAVID 8. JORDAN

202. The Lampreys (Petromyzontida) fl77

203. The Hag Fishes (Myiinida) ^

204. The Lancelots (Branchiottomidtr) 688



TABLE OF CONTENTS.



PART IV. MOLLUSKS.

Page.

W. MOLLUSKS IN GENERAL. BY ERNEST INGERSOLL.

205. The Cuttles: Cephalopoda ............................ ....................................... 687

206. The Sea-snails : Gasteropoda ................................................................... 693

207. The Wing-shells: Pteropoda ...................... ............................................. 702

208. The Tusk-shells : Solenoconcha ................................................................ 703

209. The Bivalves: Lamellibranchiata .............................................................. 703

X. THE LIFE HISTOEY OF THE OYSTEE. BY JOHN A. EYDER.

210. Outline Sketch of the Coarser Anatomy of the Oyster .......................................... 711

211. The Minute Anatomy of the Oyster ............................................................ 715

212. Sex of the American and European Oysters ........................ ... ........................ 719

213. New Methods of Distinguishing the Sexes and of Taking the Eggs of the Oyster ................ 722

214. Rate of Growth of Ostrea virginica:

215. The Food of the Oysters ..................................... .................................. 729

216. The Cause of the Green Color of Oysters ....................................................... 735

217. Local Variations in the Form and Habits of the Oyster ......................................... 742

218. The Oyster Crab as a Mess-mate and Purveyor ................................................. 744

219. Physical and Vital Agencies Destructive to Oysters ............................................ 746

220. Natural and Artificial Oyster Banks ............................................................ 750

PART V. CRUSTACEANS, WORMS, RADIATES, AND SPONGES.

BY EIOHARD EATHBUN.
Y. OBUSTACEANS:

221. The Crabs ..................................................................................... 763

222. The Common Edible or Blue Crab ............................................................. 775

223. The Lobsters ............. . .................................................................... 70

224. The American Lobster ......................................................................... 781

225. The Cray Fishes, Astacus and Cambarng ........................................................ 812

226. The Shrimps and Prawns ...................................................................... 816

227. The Mantis Shrimps : Squillidse ............................................................... 823

228. TheAmphipods ............................................................................... 824

229. Tholsopods ................................................................................... 826

230. The Eiitomostracans .......................................................................... 827

231. The Cirripedia ................................................................................ 828

232. The Xiphosnra ............................................................................... 829

Z. WOEMS:

233. The Annelids .................................................................................. 831

234. The Leeches ................................................................................... 833

ZA. THE EADIATES:

235. Tin' I'.i-liiiiodcrras .............................................................................. 838

236. The Coelenterates ............................................................................. 841

ZB. THE PORIFEES:

237. The Sponges .................................................................................. 843

238. The Genus Spongiu, and the American Commercial Sponges ..................................... 846

239. Injurious Sponges ................................ , ............................................ 850



LIST OF PLATES.



(Engraved by the Photo-Engraving Company of New York City.)

[The plates are bound together in the accompanying volume. The figure* at the right refer to the page* of the text upon which

the species illustrated are described.]



1. The Sperm Whale, Phi/utter ni<i'i-<ry</>u/k L

Outline from Sc.iiiiiiion'it Mnrine Mammilla of the Northwest Cout, pUte xiv.

2. The Pygmy Sperm Whale, Kogia (loodei True 11

Drawing by H. L. ToiUl. from No. 13738, 0. S. National Museum. Stranded at 8] ring Lakr, Kew Jeney, Apt II 27, 1883.

The Blacklist), <;/../m..r; halm mtlas (Traill) 11

Prom Transact ions of the Zoological Soriety of London, vol. 8, plate 30.

3. Tlie capture of a t-chool of Black lisli in Cape Cod 18

Drawing by Henry W. Elliott, from a sketch by John S. Ryder.

4. The CowfiHhorGraiupns, (Irampvn griseui (Less.) Gray 13

Ontline by Henry W. Elliott, from cast No. 12839, U. S. National Unsrum.
The Harbor Porpoise, or " Henim: Hoe;," I'luxama bracliycion Cope 14

outline by Henry W. Elliott, from photograph by U. S. Fish Commission.
6. The Skunk Porpoise i>r Bay Porpoise, Lagenorh/nchiu gubtmator Cojie (= L. ptrtpicillolmi Cope) 16

Outline from plate iv, Proceedings Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia. 1878.
The Hij;li - tinned Killer, Orca rectipinnis Cope 17

Outline from Scammon's Marine Mammals of the Northwest Coast.
The Sperm Whale Porpoise, HyperaoAon 6trfenOwen 18

Sketch by James Henry Blake. 1869, from specimen stranded at North Denuia.

6. The White Whale, or Beluga, DelpMnaplenii calodon (L.) Gill 18

Oulliuo by Henry W. Elliott, from cast No. 12490, U. S. National Museum, obtained tear Quebec, 1K75.

The Narwhal, Monotlon monomv* L 19

Sketch by Henry W. Elliott, adapted from Vofrt and Specht'a "Saogethlere," p. 236.

7. The Bowhead or Arctic Whale, Hnlium mysticetui L S80

Outline from Scammon's Marine Mammals, plate xi.

The Right Whale of the Pacific, Baltma japonira Gray. (Eubaltma cnllamach') 24

Outline from Scammon's Marine Mammal*, plate xii.

-. Diagrams illustrating the nse of the whalebone plntes in the month of the Bowhead Whale 88

From sketches by Captain David Grey in Land and Water, December 1, 1877.
(Upper.) The Bowhead with its month open.
(Lower.) The Bowhead with its mouth shut

9. The Humpback of the Paci6c, Mrgaplnn rersabil'u Cope 88

Outline from St-immon's Marine Mammals, plate vii.

The Sulphur Bottom of the Pacific, Sibbaldius nulfureu* Cope 87

Outline from Scammon's Marine MnmmaU, plate xili.

10. Cutting in a Humpback Whale at Provincetuwii, MaasachugetU 28

From a sketch by John S. Ryder.

11. The Finback of the Pacific, italtr noplera retiferg Cope 88

Outline from Scammon'H Marine Mammals, plute ii.

The California Gray Whale or Devil-fish, Khavhianectet glaucut Cope 31

Outline from Scammon's Marine Mammals, plnte ii.

12. The Pacific Walrus, Odobanuo obenus (Illiger) Allen 34

Sketch by Henry W. Elliott. Walrus Island. Alaskn, July 5, 1873.

13. Steller's Sea Lion, Kametopiai Slelltri (Less.) Peters 38

Sketch from life by Henry W. Elliott

14. The California Sea Lion, Zalophu* mlifurniantu (Less.) Allen 44

Sketch from life by Henry W. Elliott.

16. The Harbor Seal, J'hoca rilulina L W

Sketch from life by Henry W. Elliott. Alaska. 1872.

Til



xx LIST OF PLATES.

Page.

16. The Harp Seal, Phoca groenlandica Fnbricius 62

Sketch by Henry W. Elliott, from specimens in Ihe U. S. National Museum, Nos. 13741, 13748, 13938, and 13939 obtained
on the north shore of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence by Dr. C. Hart Merriam.

17. The Ringed Seal, Phoca fwtida Fabricius 65

Sketch by Henry W. Elliott, adapted from figure in Allen's North American Pinnipeds, p. 601.

18. The Ribbon Seal (Male and Female) HMriophoca fasciata (Zini merman n) Gill 67

Drawing by Henry W. Elliott, from specimens in U. S. National Museum, No. 13284, obtained at Plover Bay, East
Siberia, August 12. 1880. by W. H. Dall, and No. 13285, obtained from lining Sea. 1880, by Captain H. E. Williams.

19. The West ludian Seal, Monachm Iropicalis Gray 68

Drawing by Henry \V. Elliott, from specimen in U. S. National Muaenni. No 13950, obtained by Professor Felippe Poey
at Matanzas, Cuba,

20 The Hooded Seal (adult and young) Cystophora cristata ( Erxl. ) Nilss 68

Sketch by Henry W. Elliott, from specimens in U. S. National Museum. Nos.13742 and 13753, collected by Dr. C. Hart
Merriam, off Labrador, 1883.

21. The Gray Seal, Halichcema grypus (Fabricius) Nilss 70

Sketch by Henry W. Elliott, from specimen in U. S. National Museum. No. 5851, collected at Sable Island, Nova Scotia,
1862.

22. The Square Flipper Seal, Erignathus barbatus (Fabricius) Gill 70

Sketch by Henry W. Elliott, from specimen in U. S. National Museum, No. 13755, collected by Dr. C. Hart Merriam, off
Battle Harbor, Gulf of Saint Lawrence, 1883.

23. The Sea Elephant, Macrorhinus angustirostris Gill 72

Drawing by Henry W. Elliott, from specimen in U. S. National Museum, from Santa Barbara Island, California.

24. Map of the world on Mercator's Projection, showing the geographical distribution of the Species of the Hair

Seal Family. Prepared by J.A.Allen 33

25. Map of the world on Mercator's Projection, showing the geographical distribution of the Walruses, Fur

Seals, Sea Lions, and Sea Elephants, prepared for the illustration of the chapter by J. A. Allen. Prepared

by J. A. Allen 33

26. The countenance of Callorhinus ...'. 75

A life study of an adult male fur-seal. (Full face of old male, profile and under view of feniale heads.) Drawing by
Henry W. Elliott, North Bookery, Pribylov Group, July 5, 1873.

27. The Fur-Seal, Catlorhinu* ureinus 88

A series of life studies by Henry W. Elliott, Pribylov Islands, 1872-1876.
A. Old "Seecatch" or male, eight to twenty-four years.
B. Young " Seecatch," six to eight years.
C. " Holloschickie," or young males, two years.
Ii. - Matkah " or mother nursing her " Pup," I.
E. "Cow" fanning herself.
F. ' Cow " sleeping.
<;. "Cow" napping and fanning herself.
H. " Cow " crooning to the male.
J. Characteristic position of old males.

28. Sundry Seal Sketches on the Pribylov Islands 96

From the portfolio of Henry W. Elliott, 1872-1876.

29. Hauling and Breeding Grounds of the Fur-Seal 99

Sketched from nature on Dm North Rookery, Saint George's Island. Pribylov Group, by Henry W. Elliott, July, 1874.

30. The north shore of Saint Paul's Island, Pribylov Group 99

Sketched from the summit of Hntchinson's Hill, by Henry W. Elliott, looking over a wing of the great Norastoshoah
Bookery, July, 1872.

31. Pelagic attitudes of the Fur-Seal 101

Sketched from life by Henry W. Elliott, Saint Paul's Island, 1872. Village of Saint Pan! in distance. Black bluffs to the
right on middle ground.

1. Position while sleeping.

2. Position when rising to breathe, survey, etc.

3. Position when scratching.

4. "Dolphin jumps."

32. Fur-Seals Sporting around the " bidarrah" 102

Sketched from lifo by Henry W. Elliott in Zoltoi, Saint Paul's Island, 1872. A view of the Reef Point and Gorbatcb
Rookery on the horizon.

33. The Manatee, Trichcchu* munatus L .' 114

Sketch by Henry W. Elliott, from pUto to Transactions, Zoological Society of London.

34. Manatees swimming 114

Sketch by Henry W. Elliott, from plate in Transactions, Zoological Society of London.

35. The Snulisli. Mola rotunda Cnvier 170

From wash-drawing by H. L. Todd. from a cast.

.36. The Swell-fish or Burr-fish, Chilomt/cternH geometrical (Schneider) Kaup 170

Drawing by H. L. Todd, from No. 14825, U. 8. National Mnaenm, collected at Noank, Connecticut, 1874, by U. S. Fish
ComniiMion.



LIST OF PLATES.



The Kiihliit-lUh, /Mgoftplialiiii lariyatut (L.) GUI ......................................................... 170

Drawing by H. L. Todd from No. 20757, V. a National Iluaeam. coUect.il at Newport. Rhode laland. bj Bon. Kamnrl
Towel.

37. The Trm >k-li-h or Cow .fish, (Itlranon qHailriivmii L ..................................................... 170

Drawing by H. L. Todd. from No. 21548, C. S. Nation*! Museum, collected at Charleston, South Carolina, July 1078 by
C. 0. Leslie.

38. The Tii^ner-lixh, IluUxlcs ra;>Kw Gniclin .......................................... J72

Drawing by H. I.. Todd, from No. 15233, U. a National Museum. collected at New York by Mr. Sutheilaud.

39. The Sen Horso, Hippocampi!* hrptagmtti Riif ............................................................. 172

Drawing by H. I.. Todd, from No. 3451, IT. a Nationul Museum. collected at Old Point Comfort, Virginia, by Commodore
Farragut, U. S. N.

40. The G<H)! fish or l!e|]o\v-tish, Luphiun pitcatoritti L ............................................ . ........ 174

Drawing by II. L. Todd, from specimen collected in Vineyaid Sound, Misaachnsetta, by the C. a Flub Commlaalon.

41. Tlie Amerieiin Sole or " Hog Choker," Achirut lineal ut (L ) Cuv .......................................... 176

Drawing by H. L. Todd. from No. 1298J, 17. a National Miueum, collected at Wood'a Boll, Maasachuaetta, Jnly 14, 1871,
by Vinai N. Edwards.

(Upper.) Showing upper Bide of fish.
(Lower.) Showing under side of Ash.

42. The American Plaice or Turbot Flounder, ParalidHkys den tat us (L.)J. &O ............................... 178

Drawing by II. L. Todd, from No. 21279, U. a National Museum, rollected at Arlington, Saint John's River. Florida,



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