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liver removed. After this operation the Terrapin is stewed until thoroughly cooked. The stew
is then garnished with eggs, cream, butter, and spices, and when ready for the table a little
wine is added. The Philadelphia style is different from the preceding only in the addition of
terrapin eggs, which, in the estimation of epicures, are necessary to complete the dish.

43. THE POND TORTOISES.

THE GENUS CHRYSEMYS. Three species of genus Ghrysemys, the Pond Tortoises, inhabit
the United States: 0. picta, whose range extends from Nova Scotia and Maine to Wisconsin and the
States on the east bank of the Mississippi, and southward to Louisiana, Northern Mississippi, and
Georgia; 0. Belli, whose range is from the States on the west bank of the Mississippi, and Texas,
westward to the Sierra Nevadas, excepting the Sonoran region ; and G. reticulata, whose range is
from Southern North Carolina to Florida and west to Louisiana. Of these the most important,
perhaps, is the Chrysemys picta. It is a very abundant species, is of considerable size, the shell
being six or seven inches in length, and has no disagreeable qualities. It lives in ponds, ditches,
and sluggish rivers, where it is almost invariably seen lying on rocks and fallen trees, backing in
the sun. It is very timid, dropping into the water immediately on the approach of man, and soon
dies in confinement. It feeds on worms, insects, and small aquatic reptiles.

THE "CHICKEN TORTOISE." Of the two remaining species G. reticulata is the more valued.
It is known under the name of "Chicken Turtle" in the region where it occurs. Its habits are
very similar to those of the preceding species, but it is a somewhat larger animal. It is
frequently brought to the Southern markets, and is somewhat more highly esteemed than the
Yellow-bellied Terrapin PseuAemyK scabra.

BELL'S TORTOISE. The remaining species, G. Belli, is a fine Tortoise, but appears to be ran-.
except in the Cumberland and Tennessee Rivers. Little is known of its habits, except that it
prefers clear waters. So far as I am aware it is but rarely eaten.

THE GENUS CHELOPUS: THE "EL-LA-CHICK." Four species belonging to tins g-ims inhabit
the United States, of which the most important, commercially, is ('. ninrniorntiiit, occurring on the
Pacific coast between the Sierras and the sea. from Vancouver's Island to Monterey, California.



158 NATURAL HISTORY OF AQUATIC ANIMALS.

It lives in the rivers and fresh- water ponds, preferring those of which the water is somewhat warm.
It grows to a very considerable size, the shell frequently measuring seven or eight inches. It is
said to deposit its eggs in June. "They are almost constantly for sale in the markets of San Fran-
cisco, and make pretty good soups, though much inferior to the Sea Turtles." They are also seen
in the markets in other parts of California. The species is called "El-la-chick" by the Nisquallies.

THE WOOD TORTOISE: OTHER SPECIES. Chelopus insculptus, or the "Wood Tortoise,"
which inhabits the Eastern States from Maine to Pennsylvania and west to Ohio, is a species of
medium size, but though available for food, it is, as far as I am aware, rarely eaten. It lives mostly
in ponds, but is frequently seen on land, either in search of food, or, as has been suggested, to rid
itself of the leeches which cling very persistently to it. The "Spotted Tortoise" or "Speckled
Turtle," Chelopus guttatus, and Muhlenberg's Tortoise, Chelopus Muhlenbergi, are comparatively
worthless varieties. The former occurs in the New England States and in New York, Pennsylvania,
and Michigan, and probably also in Ohio. The latter inhabits southern New York, New Jersey,
and eastern Pennsylvania. The Speckled Turtle lives in ponds and running waters, but C. Muhlen-
bergi is frequently found on land. Both subsist principally on an animal diet. The Speckled
Turtle, when feeding, uses the fore-feet in retaining the prey, in a manner reminding one of that
of the domestic cat.

THE GENUS EMYS. Only one species of this genus inhabits the United States; it has, so
far as I am aware, no common name. This is the Emys meleagris. It occurs in the New England
States and westward to Wisconsin. It is a rare animal and seldom seen, and hence little is known
of its habits.

44. THE BOX TORTOISES.

THE CAROLINA Box TURTLE. To the genus Gistudo belong the Tortoises which have the
power of shutting the body and limbs within the shell, and from this peculiarity are known as
"Box Turtles." The most common species is Cistudo Carolina, with its Southern variety, triunyuix,
which singularly has but three claws on the hind foot. It occurs all over the eastern United States
from the coast to the States on the west bank of the Mississippi River. In the Southern States it
is known as the "Pine-barren Terrapin," and is also called "Cooter" by the negroes. It lives
almost entirely on land, feeding on insects and other animal matter, and also on certain kinds of
vegetables.

It is said to do damage in the fields to cucumbers and other growing vegetables. In confine-
ment it can be readily raised on apples and other fruits. It has been sometimes kept in
cellars to destroy mice and rats, but it is doubtful whether so sluggish a tortoise would be able to
capture so nimble a rodent as a mouse.

Another species, or perhaps only a variety of the preceding, known as Cistudo ornata, occurs
in the Mississippi Valley. 1

1 Although not appertaining strictly to the subject of this report, but as completing the foregoing sketch of the
Tortoises of the United States, I may be allowed to allude to the three Gopher Tortoises of the South and West. The
Florida "Gopher," Xerobate* poli/phemus, (Dnudin) Cooper, inhabits the Southern States from South Carolina to Texas;
Agaasiz's Gopher, X. Agasrizi, Cooper, is found iu Southern California and Arizona; and Berlandier's Tortoise, X. Ber-
landieri, Agnus., Southern Texas and Northeastern Mexico. All live in dry and sandy regions, and feed upon vegetable
matter. The eastern and western Gophers, and possibly Berlandier'g Tortoise, dig deep burrows in which to dwell.
The Florida Gopher famishes no inconsiderable proportion of the meat supply of many negro families in the South.



THE BULLFROG. 159




G. THE AMPHIBIANS.

45. THE BULL-FROG.

I)iscd\ I:IM in mi: BULL-FROG. The first meiitiou of the Bull frog, Rana Catexbiana, Shaw,
is found in the eighteenth volume of the Philosophical Transactions, published in London in 1694,
in which Clayton alludes to it as being a larger Frog than any found in England, and one
which " makes a noise something like the bellowing of a bull." 1 Years later it was accurately
described by Catesby under the name of "Bull-frog," an appellation by which it is now universally
known.

RANGE. The geographical range of the Bull-frog has never been accurately defined. It is
found in all the States on the Atlantic seaboard, and in Canada. In the collections of the
National Museum there are specimens from Alabama, Mississippi, Louisiana, and Arkansas,
among the southwestern States; from Ohio, Wisconsin (Racine), and Montana (Yellowstone
liiver); and from California (San Diego). If the specimens have been correctly identified, the
species must extend over the greater part of the United States.

SIZE: MODE OP LIFE. In regard to size, the Bull-frog is undoubtedly the largest animal of
its kind inhabiting North America. Holbrook* states that it reaches a length of twenty one
inches, although the average, of course, is considerably less. It lives in quiet ponds and slug-
gish rivers, and is solitary in habit, collecting together only during the breeding season. Like
other Frogs, it is carnivorous, feeding upon insects, mollusks, and other small animals which live
in or near todies of fresh water. It seizes its prey when in motion, and bites greedily at the hook.

BREEDING HABITS: FROG CULTURE. The Bull-frog breeds in spring, at which time hundreds
are to be seen together in small ponds. During this season the male utters the well-known
bellowing cry which may be heard at a long distance.

The artificial culture of Frogs has been attempted in a number of localities, with greater or
less success. Mr. Seth Green gives the following account of a method for propagating them,
which he employed with good results:

"1. How to get the spawn. Take a large dipper and go to the pond where the frog casts
ita spawn. You will find them in a glutinous bunch. When you dip them up, be very careful
not to break the glutinous matter which binds them together. Put them in a pail or can, filled
with water, and take them to your hatching-box, which is made after the fashion of the shad-
hatching box. It is a box two feet long, eighteen inches wide, and a foot deep, covered on the
bottom with gas- tarred wire sieving, twelve wires to the inch. Anchor the box in a gentle
current. They will hatch in from seven to fifteen days, according to the temperature of the
water.

'2. How to take care of them. Soon after they are hatched, they should be turned loose
in a pond prepared with great care, as they have numerous enemies, such as fish, snakes, birds,
lizards, coons, and many other animals. The pond should be made where the ground is springy,
and have plenty of soft muck in the bottom. In this muck the frog lies during the winter.
The pond should have a tight board fence, so that no animals could get in, and should be built
so close to the water that no bird could stand on the ground inside the fence and pick up the

1 Philosophical Transactions, xviii, 1694, p. 125.
'HouiROOK: North Aim -ru-in Herpetology, iii, 1838, p. 82.



160 NATURAL HISTORY OF AQUATIC ANIMALS.

polliwogs. If you do not heed all these precautions, and more too, your young fry will all
disappear down the stomach of some bird or animal ; and if you are not an unusually close
observer, you will be in great wonder where they have gone. You will have no trouble in feeding
the young while they are polliwogs ; nature has provided for that in all waters. They feed upon
microscopic forms found in the sediment." *

MODES OF CAPTURE. The capture of Frogs is effected in various ways. In Canada the fishery
is carried on largely by boys, who employ spears, in the use of which they are said to become quite
expert. In some localities scoop nets are used. Mr. Paul Pieombo, of Oakland, California, informs
me that he seldom has need of any apparatus, as he finds no difficulty in securing the Frogs
by grasping them with his hands.

In regard to the capture of Frogs in Europe, where the species Rana esculenta is most
generally eaten, Mr. Buckland furnishes us with the following information :

" The old fishwife of whom I bought the frogs informed me that she had a man regularly in
her employ to catch them. He went out every evening at dusk to the ponds in the neighborhood
of Paris, with a lantern and a long stick, to end of which was attached a piece of red cloth. The
frogs were attracted by the light to the place where the fisherman stood. He then lightly dropped
his cloth on the surface of the water; the frogs, imagining that some dainty morsel was placed
before them, eagerly snapped at it, and, their teeth becoming entangled, they Became an easy prey,
destined for to-morrow's market and the tender mercies of the fish or rather frog woman." 2

ECONOMIC USES. Desmarest, in his article on Frogs in the " Dictionnaire d'Histoire Naturelle,"
makes the following remarks regarding the uses to which these animals may be put :

"The flesh of Frogs is white and delicate, and contains a great deal of gelatine. It is eaten
almost everywhere in Europe, but particularly in France. Frogs taken in autumn are in the best
condition for food, but they are also taken in the summer. In spring the flesh is not at all delicate.
In England all parts of the Frog are eaten except the skin and the viscera, but with us only the
hind legs are employed.

"Frog soup is used in medicines in cases of phthisis, hypochondria, and all those chronic affec-
tions which are accompanied by permanent irritation. This remedy, which has been prescribed by
a celebrated Doctor Pomme, is not in use at the present time. In ancient days many preparations
were made from Frogs, such as oil and salve, and from the spawn, water and oil, etc. Dioscorides
recommended Frogs cooked with salt and oil as a remedy for the bite of the venomous serpents,
and would have the patient swallow a heart every morning as a pill for incurable diseases. In the
country the lack of ice is sometimes supplied by the application of a frog to the forehead in cases
of cerebral congestion." 3

The late Mr. Buckland, in his entertaining work on " Curiosities in Natural History," already
quoted, also alludes to the gastronomic value of the Frog, in his usual inimitable style, as follows:

" Frogs are not often used in Germany, but in France they are considered a luxury, as any ban
rimnt, ordering a dish of them at the 'Trois Freres' at Paris, may, by the long price, speedily
ascertain. Not wishing to try such an expensive experiment in gastronomy, I went to the large
market in the Faubourg Saint-Germain and inquired for Frogs. 1 was referred to a stately looking
dame at a fish stall, who produced a box nearly full of them, huddling and crawling about, and
occasionally croaking, as though aware of the fate for which they were destined. The price fixed
was two a penny, and, having ordered a disli to be prepared, the Dame de la Halle dived her hand in



'Report, United Sfatex Fish Commissioner, part ii, 1H74, pp. 587, >-.
'BUCKLAND, FRANCIS T. : Curiosities of Natural History, 1840, p. '''.'.
3 Dictiounaire UnivcrM-1 il'Mistnm- XntnrHli', vi, 1H4.">, p. 328.



THE IHJLLKKOC: (1. \STHONOM 1C QUALITIES 101

among them and, having .secured her victim by the hind legs, severed him in twain with a sharp
knife; tin- legs minus skin still struggled and were placed on a dish, and the head witli tin-, fore
lejjs aflixetl retained life and motion and performed such motions that the operation became painful
to look at. These legs were afterwards cooked at the restaurateur's, being served up fried iu bread-
eniinbs, as larks are in England; and most excellent eating they were, tasting more like the
delicate flesh of the rabbit than anything else I can think of.

" I afterwards tried a dish of the common English frog, but his flesh is not so white nor so
tender as that of his French brother.

" Should any person wish to have a dish of real French frogs, he can buy them at Fortnum
and Mason's for half-a guinea, a tin-easeful. They are beautifully preserved aud are ready for
cooking. I have eateu them at the house of a lady who kindly invited me to luncheou when she
tried the experiment. . . .

"The edible frog (rana esculenta) is brought from the country, in quantities of from thirty to
forty thousand at a time, to Vienna, and sold to great dealers who have conservatories for them.
These conservatories are large holes, four or five feet deep, dug in the ground, the month covered
with a board, and in severe weather with straw. In these conservatories, even during a hard
frost, the frogs never become quite torpid; they get together in heaps one upon another,
instinctively, and thereby prevent the evaporation of their humidity, for no water is ever put to
them." 1

The custom of eating Frogs was introduced into the United States from Europe, and has
spread from the cities on the east coast to those in the interior and on the west coast. On account
of the limited supply which is sent to market, frog meat has hitherto been considered an article of
luxury, rather than one of general consumption. In restaurants and hotels it is seldom found on
the regular bill of fare, but in those of the better class, in the large cities at least, it is not
wanting on the order-list.

The supply of Frogs for the New York market, according to the statement of Mr. E. G. Black-
ford, is obtained principally from Canada, Northern New York, and the vicinity of Philadelphia.
The season lasts from May to November. The hind legs, or "hind quarters" as they are termed,
are the only portions usually eaten, there being but an insignificant amount of flesh on other parts
of the animal. Mr. Blackford states that he is accustomed to sell about 12,000 pounds of frog
meat annually, and it is probable that the consumption of New York City is not less than 60,000
1 ni nds. The average retail price is thirty cents per pound.

At Boston "Frogs are sold generally by the dozen, and bring from twenty to fifty cents,
according to quality. As the demand increases the business will fumisb quite a source of rural
income. . . . The subject of canning Frogs is being talked of, and efforts are being made
to discover a good process for this purpose." 1

The following paragraph from an American newspaper of recent date contains some informa-
tion regarding the extent of the business in Minnesota : "A new industry has recently sprang up
in parts of Minnesota, that has already arrived at the dignity of statistics. Frog culture is the
new thing ; it is a simple matter, consisting chiefly in the protection of eggs and tadpoles from
birds and other enemies, by means of wire screens. The product, thus far reported, amounts to
3,000 dozen of frogs' legs, of which about two-thirds have been shipped to Saint Louis. The
average quotation of prices is twenty cents per dozen."

Frogs are quoted regularly as appearing in the San Francisco market Mr. Paul Pieombo,



. ' l!r< K i \ M >. FHANCIS T. : Curiosities of Natural Hirtory, 1840, pp. 38-40.

'Boston Commercial Bulletin.
11 F



162 NATURAL HISTORY OF AQUATIC ANIMALS.

whose name has been already mentioned, if his statements are reliable, is one of the largest dealers
in Frogs in California. He writes, in answer to a circular : " Most of the Frogs caught in this State
are caught by me"; and in response to the questions propounded, states that he sells about three
hundred dozens of live Frogs annually, sending two-thirds of them to San Francisco, and the
remainder to various other localities in California. The price during summer ranges from one
dollar to two dollars and a half, and in winter from three to five dollars.



III.



THE FOOD FISHES

HE

STATES.



OF THE



BY

G. BROWN GOODE.



WITH DISCUSSIONS OF THE PACIFIC SPECIES Y DAVID 8. JORDAN AND TARLETON H. BEAN,
NOTES ON THE FISHES OF THE GULF OF MEXICO I5Y SILAS STEARNS, AND CONTRIBU-
TIONS FROM JOSEPH W. COLLINS, N. E. ATWOOD, MARSHALL McDONALD,
B. EDWARD EARLL, LUDWIG KUMLIEN, AND OTHER AUTHORITIES.



I'..'-



ANALYSIS.



II. THB FILK FISHES, PIPE FISHRS, AND ANOLRRS 169

46. The Ocean Sun Fishes (Orlhagorifdda) 109

47. The Porcupine Fishes (Diodon lidos) 170

48. The Bellows-Fish Family (Trtrodontidcr) 170

49. The Trunk Fishes (Ostradonlidai) 170

50. The File- Fish Family (/ialinlida) 171

51. The Sea-Horse Family (flippocampi<J<t) I7i

52. The Pipe-Fish Family (Syngnalhida) 178

53. The Devil Fishes (Antennanidas and Maltkfida) 173

64. The Goose Fish (Lophiiupitcatorin) 173

I. TIIK FLAT FISHES AND FLOUNDERS 17.1

55. The American Soles (Soteida) 175

56. The Plaice (ParalicHtky* drntatiu) 178

57. The Bastard Halibut (Paralichtkya macuhtut) 182

58. The Flat Fish or Winter Flounder ( Pe*dopleuroHectet umcricantu) . 183

59. The Flat Fishes and Soles of the Pacific Coast 184

60. The Halibut (H\ppoglou vulgaris) 189

61. The Sand Dab or Rough Dab ( Hippoglosoide plateswidrs) 197

62. The Greenland Tnrbot (Platyomatichlhy hippoglotsoidet) . . 197

63. The Pole Flounder or Craig Flounder (Glgplocephalui cynoglositii) 198

64. The Spotted Sand Flounder (Lophopsetta maculala) 199

J. THE COD FAMILY AND ITS KINDRED 200

65. The Cod ( Codas morrim) 200

66. The Tom Cods (Microyadux tomood and M. prozimne) 223

67. The Haddock (Melanogrammus trglrfinux) 223

68. The Pollock (Pollachiiu carbonari**) 228

69. TheCtisk(/{romiuirom) 2XJ

70. The Hakes ( Phycis chuss, etc.) 234

71. The Burbot (Lota maculoia). By TARLBTON H. BKAN 23ft

72. The Silver Hake and the Merluccio 240

73. Several Unimportant Families related to the Gadidie 243

74. The Lant, or Sand Eel ( Ammodytes lanceolate*) 244

K. WOLF-FlSHES, SCULPINS, AND WRAS8R8 247

75. The Lycodes Family (Lycodidte) 247

76. The Wolf-Fishes or Sea Catfishes (AnarrhicJiadidai) 248

77. The Blenny Family (Blenniidai) 250

78. The Toad-Fish (Batrachus tatt) 251

79. The Lump-Suckers: Lump-fish and Sea-Snails ., 253

80. The Gobies (Gobiidce) .' 256

81. The Sea-Robin or Gurnard Family (Trigltda) 256

82. The Sculpiu Tribe (Cottida) 258

83. The Rose-Fish or Red Perch (Sebattai marinux) 2CO

84. The Rock Cods of the Pacific. By DAVID S. JORDAN 262

85. The Rock Trouts (CAiridoi). By DAVID 8. JORDAN !7

86. TheTantogor Black Fish ( Tautoga onitit) 969

87. TheChogset or Cnnner (Ctenolabrui atlipenui) 873

88. The Parrot Fishes and some of their Allies *M

89. The Demoiselle and the Cichlid Families 27S

90. The Surf-Fish Family ( Embiotocidai). By DAVID 8. JORDAN *W

.91. The Moharra Family (Gerrida:) *79

92. The Thread-Fish Family (Polynemi&e) *79

93. The Surgeon-Fish Family ( .Icantkurida) W9

94. The Angel-Fish Family (Ckttiodonlida) '**

165



166 ANALYSIS.

Page.

L. THE MACKEREL AND ITS ALLIES a81

95. The Mackerel (Scomber scombrus) 281

96. The Chub Mackerel (Scomber colias) 303

97. The Frigate Mackerel (Aiucis ihazard) 305

98. The Spauish Mackerel aud its Allies : 307

99. The Bonito (Sarda nxditerranea) 316

100. The Horse Mackerel, Tunny, or Albicore ( Orcynus thynnus) 320

101. The Little Tunny or Albicore (Orcynus alliteratus) 322

102. The Silver Moon-Fishes 322

103. The Cavally, the Scad, and the Jurels 323

104. The Pompauos (Traclii/notus carolinus, etc.) 326

105. The Pilot Fish (Naucrales ductor) 330

106. The Amber Fishes and the Leather Jackets 331

107. The Dolphins (Coryplxenidtn) 332

108. The Rudder-Fish Family (Stromateida,) - - - 332

109. The Dory, Hen-Fish, and Opah Families 3a r >

110. The Cutlass Fish (Trichinrus Upturns)

111. The Sword Fish Family (Xiphitdce) 336

M. THE TILE-FISH FAMILY AND OTHERS 360

112. The Tile-Fish Family (Latilida;) 360

113. The Red Mullet Family (MMidai) 361

114. The Icosteus Family (Icosteidce) 361

115. TheBeryx Family (Berycidae) 361

N. THE DRUM FAMILY 362

116. The Squeteague (Cynoacion regale)

117. The Spotted Squeteague (Cynoscion maeulatum) 365

118. The Silver Sqneteague (Cynoscion nothum) 367

119. The Drum ( Pogonias chromis) 367

120. The Fresh Water Drum (llaploidonotus grunniens). By DAVID S. JORDAN 370

121. The Spot, or Lafayette (Liottomus xanthurus) 370

122. The Red Fish, or Bass of the South (Scitena ocellata) - 371

123. The Yellow Tail (Bairdiella chrysura) 375

124. The King Fish ( Menticirrui nebulonus) 375

125. The Whitings (Afenticirrus alburnus and M. littoralis)

126. The Croaker (Micropogon undulatus) 378

127. The Corvinas and Roucadors of the Pacific coast. By DAVID S. JORDAN 378

O. SHEEPSHEAD, BASS, BREAM, PERCH, ETC

128. The Sheepshead (Diplodus probatocephalus)

129. The Scup or Scuppang (Stenotomu* ctirysopt and S. Gardeni)

130. The Sailors' Choice (Lagodon rhomboides) -

131. Certain Minor Sparoids 394

132. The Red and Gray Snappers

133. The Grunts or Pig Fishes 397

134. The Big-Mouth Black Bass (Micropterus salmoidee), and the Small-Mouth Black Bass (M. Dolomiei) . .

135. The Sun-Fishes and their Allies. By DAVID S. JORDAN '. 404

136. The Sea Bass (Serranvn atrarim) 4(J7

137. The Groupers 4le

138. The Serranoirt Fishes of the Paciac coast. By DAVID 8. JORDAN 413

139. The Yellow Perch (Perca americana) 414

140. The Log Perch (Percina caproda). By DAVID S. JORDAN. 4 17

141. The Pike Perches 417

142. The Striped Bass (Itoccus lineatus) 425

143. The White Bass (Roccun chrysops) 42S

144. The Yellow Bass (Rocciis inlerruptus) 4 31

145. The White Perch (Roccus americanus) 4 31

146. The Blnefish Family (1'omatomiia;) 4 33

147. The Cobia or Crab-Eater (Elacate Canada) 444

148. The Triple Tail or Black Perch ( Lobotes surinamensis) 444

149. The Moon Fish (Chatodiplerm faber) 44r >

150. The Remora Family (Eclieneidida) 446

P. BARRACOUTA, MULLKT, PIKE, AND MUMMICHOGS

151. The Barracoata Family (Sphyranida) 44 ^

152. The Deal-Fish Family ( Trachypterida;) 44 9

153. The Mullets (if ugil alb.tla and M. brasilientit) 449



ANALYSIS. 1(57

PM.
P. BARRACOUTA, MUI.LKT, I'IKK, ANI> MUMMICHOOS Continued.

154. Tlif >.IIH! Sni.-ll* i.i Sihrr Snlrs (.Ir/irniiK/.r) 456

15. r >. Tin- Stieklelmrk Family (Cantiroiilfitlai) 467

156. The Silver Gar-fishes ( IMonida>) 453



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