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Drawing by H. L. Todd, from No. MM, U. & National Mnneuiu, coll. c-ti-d at Ecorne, Michigan, February, 1872, by George
C'Urk.

The Carp Mullet, Moxottoma carpio (Vol.) Jordan ................................ at i

Drawing by II. L. Todd, from No. 10793, U. S. National Museum, collncted at Cincinnati, Ohio, by J. W. Mllner.

SfiT.t. The Montana Sucker, I'atiatomuii retropinnis Jordau ........................................ gig

The Brook Sucker or Common Sucker, Catontomun Couiaiersoni (Lac.) Jortlati .............................. gjj

Drawing by H. L. Todd, from No. 10548, U. S. National Muiurani, collected at Kcotse, Michigan, by J. W. Mllner.

224. The Black Horse, n/ci>y>ru elonyatu* (L S.) A ..................................................... H I 6

Drawing by H. L. Todd, from No. 10790, U. S. National Muteuni, collected at Cincinnati, Ohio, by J. W. Milner.

225. The Quill-liark, < ,;r/m/i.s r///iriHw (Le 8.) Ag ........................................ gjg

Drawing by H. L. Todd, from No. 33073, TJ. S. National Museum, collected at Havre do Grace, Maryland. June, 1882,

by Dr. T. H. Bean.
22*i. The Red Mouth Buftalo-fi.sh. f<ti,,bii* bubalat (Raf.) Ag ................................................... B16

Drawing by H. L Todd, from No. 20774, U. S. National Museum, collected at Normal, Illiuoi*. 1877, by Profenor 8. A.
Forlx-t

227. The Golden Shiner or Bream, XotemiyoHUH chrymleucus (Mitch. ) Jordan ................................... gig

Drawing by II. L. Todd, from No. 20243, U. 8. National Museum, collected at Hackensack River, 1S75. by Professor

5. F. Bsird.

The Sacramento "Pike," I'tgchochilut oregonentw (Rich.) Grd ............................................. glC

Drawing by H. L. Todd. from No. 27291, U. S. National Mnaeum, collected at Columbia River. 1880, by Profeuor
D. S. Jordan.

228. The Fall-fish or Silver Chub, .Vwo(i/s button* (Raf.) Jordan ......................................... 616

Drawing by H. L. Todil. from No. 1J359, U. S. National Museum, collected at Balnbridge, Pennnylvnnin, May, 1873, by
Dr. T. H. Bean.

The Horn Dace, Scniotilni rorporalii (Mitch.) Putnam ....................... .-. ....................... 617

Drawing by H. L. Todd, from No. 10163. U. S. National Museum, collected at Au\ Plains River by K. Ki-nnii-ott.

229. The Horn.v Head or River Chub, Ceratichtliya bigultalut (Kirtland) Girard ................................ 617

Drawinc by H. L. Todd. from No. 1C969. U. S. National Museum, collected at Bainbridge, Pennsylvania, 1875 by Dr
T. II Bean,

The Orthodon Chub, Orlhodon microlepidotut (Ayres) Girard .............................................. 617

Drawing by H. L. Todd, from No. 27139, TJ. S. National Museum, collected at Sacramento River, California, 1880, by
Jordan and Gilbert.

230. The Leather Carp, Cyprinun carpio L. (var. ooriaseiu) .................................................... 618

Drawing by H. L. Todd, from No. 25217, U. S. National Museum, collected at the Carp Ponds, Washington D. C
April 26, 1880, by U. S. Fish Commission.

231. The Gold Fish, Caramius aiiratus (L.) Blecker ...........................................................

Drawing by U. L. Todd, from No. 22107, U. a National Museum, collected at Carp Ponds. Washington, D. C., January 2,
1878, by William Palmer.

232. The Channel Catfish of the Potomac, Ictalurui albidut (LeS.) J. &.G ..................................... 628

Drawing by H. L. Twld, from No. 2925, U. S. National Museum, collected at Potomac River, 1877, by Professor D. 8.
Jordan.

233. The Bull-Head, Amiurus m<7n(Raf.) Jord. <t Copeland .................................................. 628

Drawing by H. L. Todd, from No. 1497, D. S. National Museum, collected at Am Plains River by B. K.-i,ni. ..t ;.
The Bull-Head or Catfish, Arniurut calm (L.) Gill ........................................................ 088

Drawing by H. L. Todd, from No. 33075, U.S. National Museum, collected at Havre de Grace, Maryland, June, 1882, by
Dr. T. H. Bean.

834. The Bull-Head, Amiuru* rulgarii (Thompson) Nelson ..................................................... ggg

Drawing by II. L. Todd. from No. 31946. U. S. National Museum, collected at Winnepeg, Manitoba, 1883, by Historical
and Scientific Society.

235. The Gaff Topsail Cattish. .Klurii-lirhy* mariiiut (Mitch.) B. & G ......................................... 628

Draw-in-: by H. L. Todd, from No. 10422. U. S. National Must-urn, collected at Wood's Holl, Massachusetts, 1871, by
Professor S. F. Baird.

236. The Salt Water Cattish, Anus felii (L.) J. & G .......................................................... 62!)

Drawing by H. L. Todd, from No. 21487, U. S. National Museum, collected at Pcnsacola, Florida, 1878, by Silas Sfeama.

237. The Spotted Moray, Gymnotliorat rnorinya (Cuv.)Goode & Ifcan .......................................... 629

Drawing by H. L. Todd, from No. 6994, V. S. National Mum-urn, collected at Garden Key, Florida.

838. The Spiny-back Eel, l'iili< lilh,i* C.oodti Bean ............................................................

Drawing by H. L. Todd, from No. 26619, U. S. National Museum, collected at Ilinliuk, Alaska, July 28, 1880. by Dall

6. Bean.



LI ST OF PLATES.

Page.
239. The Common Eel, Aaguilla rulgaris Turton 630

Drawing by H. L. Todd, from No. 20470, U. S. National Masenm, collected at Holyoke, Massachusetts, 1876, by U. S.
Fish Commission.

S40. The Conger Sea Eel, Leptocephalus conger (L.) J.& G 656

Drawing by H. L. Todd, from No. 16027, 0. S. National Museum, collected at Noank, Connecticut, October 10, 1874, by
J. H. Latham.

241. The Bowtin or Mudfish, Amia calta L 659

Drawing by H. L. Todd, from No. 6702, U. S. National Musenm.

The Short-nosed Gar Pike. Lepidosteus plaiystomus Rat' 664

Drawing by H. L. Todd, from No. 3241, U. S. National Museum, collected at Cleveland, Ohio, by Professor S. F. Baird.

542. The Paddle-fish, Polgodon spatula (Walb.) J. &G 660

Under view. Drawing by H. L. Todd, from No. 12235, U. S. Notional Museum, collected at Cincinnati, Ohio, by J. W.

Milner.

Side view. Drawing by H. L. Todd, from No. 12235, U. S. National Museum, collected at Cincinnati, Ohio, by J. W.
Milner.

243. The Common Sturgeon, Acipenser sturio L. (= A. oxijrhtjnchus) 660

Drawing by H. L. Todd, from No. 22495, IT. S. National Museum, collected in Potomac River by William Woltz.

The Short-nosed Sturgeon, Acipenstr breviroatris Le Snenr 660

Drawn from a photograph of a specimen collected at Wood's Holl, Massachusetts, 1871.

244. The Lake Sturgeon, Acipenser rubicundits Le Sueur 661

Drawing by H. L. Todd, from No. 10252, U. S. National Museum, collected at Ecorse, Michigan, by J. W. Milner.

The Shovel-nose Sturgeon, Scaphirhi/nchops platyrhynchtis (Raf.) Gill 663

Drawing by H. L. Todd, from No. 22159, U. S. National Musenm, collected at Mount Carmel, Illinois, 1878, by Robert
Ridgway.

245. The Southern Sting Ray, Trt/gon sabina Le Sueur 665

Drawing by H. L. Todd, from No. 31043, U. S. National Museum, collected at Galveston, Texas, by Professor D. S.
Jordan.

^46. The Barn-door Skate, JftVfariMitchiH 667

Drawing by H. L. Todd, from No. 21577, U. S. National Museum, collected at Gloucester, Massachusetts, October, 1878,
by U. S. Fish Commission.

247. The Torpedo, Torpedo occidentalis Storer 667

Drawing by II. L. Todd, from cast of specimen in U. S. National Museum, collected at Wood's Holl, M:t-:-hnrtt,
1871, by U. 8. Fish Commission.

-248. The Sawfish, Pristis pectinatue Latham 668

(Side view.) Drawing by H. L. Todd, from No. 30678, U. S. National Musenm, collected nt Pensacola, Florida, by Silas

Stearns.

(Under view.) Drawing by H. L. Todd, from No. 30678, U. S. National Museum, collected at Pensacola, Florida, by
Silas Steam*.

249. The Basking Shark or Bone Shark, Cetorhinus maxima* (L.) Blainville 668

Copied by H. L. Todd, from Plat* 6, Annales du Mnsee d'Histoire Naturelle, Vol. 18.

The Mackerel Shark, Lamna cornubica (Gmel.) Fleming 670

Drawing by H. L. Todd, from No. 27368, U. S. National Museum, collected at Santa Cruz, California, 1880, by Jordan
&. Gilbert.

250. The Thrasher Shark. Alopias vulpes (Gmel.) Bonap 672

Drawing by H. L. Todd, from No. 25962, U. S. National Museum, collected at Eastern Point, Newport, Rhode Island,
August 11, 1880, by Captain Rockliff.

The Horned Dogfish, Sqitalu* acanthias L 673

Drawing by H. L. Todd, from No. 22316, U. S. National Museum, collected at Gloucester, Massachusetts, 1878, by U. S.
Fish Commission.

The Tope, or Oil Shark, Galeorhinus galena (L.) Blainville 676

Drawing by II. L. Todd. from No. 26973, U. S. National Museum, collected at Monterey, California, 1880, by Jordan &
Gilbert.

-251. The Sea Lamprey, Pelromijzon marinm L 677

Drawing by H. L. Todd, from No. 10654, U. S. National Museum, collected at Wood's Holl, Massachusetts, by Vinal N.
Edwards.

The Alaska Brook Lamprey , A mnwc rtes aureim Beau

Drawing by H. L. Todd, from No. 21524, U. S. National Musenm, collected at Yukon River, Alaska, by L. M. Turner.

252. The Slime Eel or Hag, Mi/xine glutinom L 681

Drawing by H. L. Todd. from No. 23466, U. S. National Museum, collected at sea, by Captain R. L. Morrison.

253. The Short-finned Squid, Ommastrephes illecfbrotitt (Le 8.) Verrill 687

Drawing of young male from Provincetown, Massachusetts.

The Giant Squid, Ardiiteiitliis princeps Verrill 687

Drawing by Professor A. E. Verrill, from specimen obtained at Fortune Buy, Newfoundland, December, 1874.

Common Squid, Loligo 1-ealti (Le8.) 687

Drawing of female from Vineyard Sound, MnsaachtuelU



LIST OF PLATES. XXXJii



854. Sea SnailH, Periwinkles, Drills, ami Borers 099

Fie. 1. I. mnitia herot. Se> Uepori I . S. l'i-li Commission. I';irt I, p. 700.

I'n:. _'. I'lir/iura Iniiilliii. See Keport U. 8. Fish Commission. Part I, p. 698.

Kit!. :!. r<iri>ur<i l<ti>illu*. bamicd variety.

lit.. I. .\in-iiln iliijiliiiila. See KYport I". S. I 'ish Commission. Parti, p. 700.

In,. .".. lli/ananaobuoleta. See Bcport U. S. Fish Commission. Partl,p.696.

l'n;. i'. I'filiii Iririllalii.

1'iii. 7. The Whelk, Hun-iHum undatum. See Report U. 8. Fish Commission. Parti, p.C99.

1'iii. f. The Periwinkle, Fulgrr carica. See Report U. 8. Fiuli Commission. Part I, p. (594.

FIG. 9. AnlyrittoHiilii.

FlO. Id. .l-tiiri* In mil, i.

Km. 11. Kitnoa aciileatiii.

I'm. 12. The Drill or Borer, Uronalpinx cinerta, p. 697.

855. ViiiioiiM speeies of r hi HIM 703

FlO. 1. .lii'inlun /CHIT.

A i.hmil reduced ono-bnlf. 8e Report 17. S. FUh Commission. Part I, p. 877.

FIG. 2. The Long Clam, Soft Clam, or Mnnninnsr, Mya arenaria.

With amin:il in extrusion, reduced to one-half the natural ilze.

FIG. 3. Tagelus gilbu*.

With animal, the siphon not fully extended. One-half natural size. See Keport U. S. Fiah Commission. Parti, p. 875.

FlO. 4. The Razor Clam, Entatctla amrricana. See Report U. S. Fish Commission. Port I, p. 707.

With animal extended. One-half natural sise.
FIG. 5. Shows some of the terminal papilla- enlarged.

FiG.C. The Razor Clam, Ensatella americana.

Shrll Natural size.
FIG. 7. The Ship Worm, Teredo narali$.

Enlarged two diameters.
FlG. 8. The Scallop, Pecten irradians. See Report U. S. Fish Commission. Part I, p. 709.

Natural aize.
FlG. 9. The Bloody Clam, Argina pexata.

-Natural ize.

256. Various species of clams 703

FIG. 1. The Qnahang or Little-necked Clam, Venus mercenaria.

Natural aize.
FlG. 2. The Quahaug of Puget Sound, Saxidomut Nuttalli.

Natural size of large specimen. Drawn by ,T. II. Euierlon.
FIG. a. The Gaper Clam of the West Coast, Schizotharut \ultalli (Conrad).

(I.) Specimeu of ordinary size, reduced about one-fourth in hnglb. The siphon* are somewhat contracted ; the foot (F)

expands about aa usual.
(II.) Outline of the left valve of a larger specimen, reduced to the same extent. Drawn from nature by K. E. C. Stearns.

257. TheGeoduck, or Giant Clam of the Pacific, Glycimerii generota 70S

Natural size; specimens with siphons partly contracted; weight when alive, 6J pounds. Drawn by K. E. C. Stearni.

258. Mussels and Sea Clams '09

FlG. 1. The Beach Clam or Hen Clam, Spisula tolidunintn. See Report U. S. Fish Commission. Parti, p. 708.

Natural size.

FlG. 2. The Sea Clam, Cyprtna Mandica.

Natural size.

FlO. 3. The Black Mussel, Mytilus edulis. See Report U. 8. Fish Commission. Port I, p. 709.
FIG. 4. The Black HOI-M- Mussel, Modiola tiiyra.

FlG. 5. The Rough Mnssrl, .Vodiola plicatula. See Report U. 8. Fish Commission. Part I, p. 709.
FIG. 6. The Ho:-*- Mussel. Mndiuli maiJiotitt. See Report U. S. Fish Commission. Part I, p. 709.

259. The anatomy of the oyster. (See opposite page for full explanation) 711

260. FIG. 1. The Rock Crab, Cancer trroralus Say ; male one-half natural size 766

FIG. 2. Zoea of the same, in tbo Inst stage hefore it changes to the megalops condition; lateral view,

enlarged seventeen diameters.
FIG. 3. Megalops stage of the same, just after the change from the zoe'a condition; dorsal view, enlarged

thirteen diameters.

FlO. 4. The Jonah Crab, Cancer lorealis Stimpson ; male, two-thirds natural size 769

FIGS. 5, 6. Terminal joints of the big claws of the same, viewed from the outer side, natural size.
Drawings by J. H. Emerton.

261. The Common Crab of the Pacific Coast, Cancer ntagitter Dana; male, somewhat smaller than natural size. . 770

Drawing by H. L. Todd. from No. 2533, TT. S. National Museum. California, William Stimpson.



XXXIV LIST OF PLATES.

262. The Red Crab, Cancer producing Randall; male, natural size 771

Drawing by H. L. Todd, from No. 2529, TJ. S. National Museum. San Francisco, California, H. Homphill.

263. The California Rock Crab, Cancer anfeimariw) Stimpsou ; natural size 771

Drawing by H. L. Todd, from No. 2033, U. S. National Museum. California, William Stimpson.

264. The Stone Crab, Mrvippe mcrcenarius Gibbes; male, about four -ti fibs the natural size 772

Drawing by H. L. Todcl, from specimen obtained at Charleston, South Carolina.

265. The Green Crab, Cardans mceiia* Leach ; slightly enlarged 774

Drawing by J. II. Enierton, from specimen obtained at Wood's Holl, Massachusetts, 1882.

26G. The Lady Crab, Plati/onifliiis orelJaliis Latrcille ; abont one-third Inrger than natural size 774

Drawing by J. II. Emerton, from specimen obtained :it Wnotl'H Holl. Masvai-buRi-tts, 1?82.

267. The Coiuninn Edible or Blue Crab Culliiiecie* liastalus Onhvay ; male, somewhat smaller than natural size. 775

Drawing by J. H. Einei ton, from specimen obtained at Wood's Hull, Massachusetts, 1882.

268. The Kelp Crab, Epialtus producing Randall; female, natural size 778

Drawing by H. L. Todd, from No. 2139, TJ. S. National Museum. Pacific coast of the United States, Dr. Suckley.

269. FIG. 1. The Fiddler Crab, Gelasimits pui/ilator Latreille; male, slightly enlarged 763

FIG. 2. The O.\ ster Crab, Pinnotheres ostreiim Say ; male, enlarged four diametn-s 765

FIG. 3. Thr Mud Crab, Panoiieus depressae Smith; male, natural size 772

FIGS. 4, ;">. The Spider Crabs. Fig. 4, Libiiiia emaryinata Leach; male. Fig. 5, Libinia dubia Edwards;

male. Boih three-fourths natural size 778

FIG. 6. The Sand Bug or Bait Bng, Hippa tal/iaida Say ; enlarged about two diameters 779

FiG. 7. The Hermit Crab, Eu/iagurns bernliardus Brandt; about natural size 7HO

Diawings by J. H. Enierton.

270. The Spiny Lobster or Rock Lobster, Painilirtis interruptiis Randall; somewhat smaller than natural size... 780

Drawing by H. L. Todd, from specimen obtained on the coast of California.

271. The American Lobster, Uomarus americanus Edwards; male, much below natural size 781

Drawing by .1. H. Enierton, from specimen obtained at Eastport, Maine, 1882.

272. The River Cray-fish, Cambarus affini* Erichsou ; one and one-half times t he natural size 812

Drawing by II. L. Todd, from specimen obtained at Havre de Grace, Maryland.

273. The Southern Shrimp, Penceus neliferus Edw ards; about one-fifth larger than natural size 821

Drawing by J. 11. Enierton, from specimen obtained on the coast of Louisiana.

274. The Mantis Shrimp, Sqiiilla empiwa Say; natural size 823

Drawing by U. L. Todd, from No. 3752, U. S. National Museum. Wood's Holl, Massachusetts, V. N. Edwards.

275. FIG. 1. The Common Shrimp, Crangon vulgaris Fabr. ; male, natural size 816

FIG. '2. The Common Prawn, Palcemonetes vulgaris Stirapson ; mule, enlarged one and one-half diameters.

FIG. 3. The Deep water Prawn, Pandalui Monlagui Leach ; slightly smaller than natural size.
FIG. 4. The Beach-Flea, Oi'die*tia agllis Smith; male, enlarged live diameters.
FIG. 5. The Scud, Gammarus locusta Gou'd; male, enlarged two diameters.
FIG. 6. The Boring AmpUpod, Che lura lertbrans Phillipi ; enlarged about fourteen diameters.
FIG. 7. The Gribble, Limiioria HyiiorHm White; enlarged ten diameters.
FIG. 8. The Salvo Bug, Mtju. psora Kroyer; young specimen, enlarged three diameters.
FIG. 9. The Horse-Shoe Crab, Limulus Polyphemus Latreille; much smaller than natural size.
Drawings by J. H. Enierton, S. L Smith, aud O. Harger.

276. Marine Annelids, used as bait - 832

FIGS. 1,2,3. Mereis pelaglca Limie". Fig. 1, larger figure, female; smaller, male; natura) size. Fig ; 2, head.

Fig. 3, proboscis, enlarged.

FiG. 4. N<rtis limbata EhletB; male, anterior part of body, head, and extended proboscis, enlarged.
FlGS. 5, 6. Diopatra cuprea Clapare'de. Fig. 5, head and anterior part of hotly, showing part of the branchiae,

side view. Fig. 6, ventral view, showing the mouth open and jaws thrown back, enlarged.
FIGS. 7, 8, 9. Clymenella torquata Vcrrill. Fig. 7, entire animal, side view, natural size. Fig. 8, head and

extended proboscis, front view, enlarged. Fig. 9, posterior aud caudal segments, dorsal view,

enlarged.
Drawings mostly by J. H. Enierton.

277. FiG.l. The Sea-Cucumber, Pentactn frondona Jaeger; much smaller than natural size 840

FIG. 2. The Green Sea Urchin, Stronyyloccnlrotus Drb'baMensis A. Ag. ; side view, much smaller than natural

size.
FIG. 3. The Sand Dollar, Kcbinarachnitm parma Gray; upper surface, with the spines mostly removed,

natural size; a, ambulacra! zones; b, inter-ambulacra! zones.

FiG. 4. The siai - li-.li or "Five Finger," Aslerias Forbesii Yen-ill ; much smaller than natural size.
FlOS.5,6, 7. The Jelly Fishes. Fig. 5, Zyriodactyla Gramlandica Agassis; profile view, one-half natural size.

Fig. 6, Aurelia flavidula Peron and Le Sneur; dorsal view, about one-fourth natural size. Fig. 7,

Dactylometra quinquecirra Agassiz ; lateral view, one-fourth natural size.



MAMMALS.



A. THE WHALES AND PORPOISES BY G. BKOWN GOODK.

B. THE SEALS AND WALRUSES BY JOEL A. ALLEN.

C. THE HABITS OF THE FUR-SEAL BY HENBY W. ELLIOTT.

D THE MANATEES AND THE ARCTJC SEA-COW... BY FREDERICK W. TRUE.



(3)



ANALYSIS.



A. TUB WnAi.r.8 AND PORPOISES :

1. The Sperm Whale ............................................................................... 7

2. The Blackfishes or Pilot Whales ................................................................. 11

3. The (ininipusM or Cowfialics ............................................... . ..................... 13

4. Tln> Ilarlmr Porpoises or Herring Hogs ........................................................... 14

r.. Tim Dolphins ................................................................................... 10

ii. Tin- KilliT Whales or Orcas ...................................................................... 17

7. Th<- Sperm Whalo Porpoise ...................................................................... 18

8. The While \\lialcorl3cluga ..................................................................... 1

9. The Narwhal .................................................................................... 19

10. The Greenland, Bowheatl, Or Polar Whale ....................................................... 20

11. The Ki-ht Whales .............................................................................. 24

12. The Humpback Whales ........... ............................................................... 2tt

13. The Sulphur Hoi torn Whales ..................................................................... -fl

14. The Finback Whales ............................................................................ 28

15. The Si- ra;; W hales ............................................................................... :tO

1C. The California Gray Whales ..................................................................... 31

B. THE SEALS AND WALRUSES :

17. The Seal tribe in general ........................................................................ 33

18. The Walruses ................................................................................... 34

19. The Sea Lions and Fur Seals in general .......................................................... 37

20. The Sea Lion .................................................................................... 38

21. The California Sea Lion ......................................................................... 44

22. The Fur .Seal ....................................... . ............................................ 49

23. The Harbor Seal ................................ ............................................... 55

24. The Harp Seal .................................................................................. 62

25. The Kinged Seal ................................................................................. GC>

26. The Ribbon Seal ................................................................................ 67

27. The West Indian Seal ........................................................................... 67

28. The Hooded Seal ................................................................................ 68

29. The California Sea Elephant ..................................................................... 72

C. THE HABITS OF THB FUR-SEAL:

30. A life history of the Fur-Seal .................................................................... 7.">

D. THE MANATEES AND THE SEA-COW:

31. The Manatees ................................................................................... 114

32. The Arctic Sea-cow ............................................................................. 128

6




THE FISHERIES AND FISHERY INDUSTRIES OF

THE UNITED STATES.



M



A. THE WHALES AND PORPOISES.

1. THE SPERM WHALE.

DISTRIBUTION. The Sperm Whale, I'liyneter macrocephalug Linn., was first described by
Clusius in 1605 from specimens cast up on the coast of Holland in 1598 and 1601. It is the Cachalot
of the French, the Pottfisch of the Germans, Potvisch or Kazilot of Holland, Kaskelot or Potfl.sk
of Scandinavia, and one of the most valuable of cetaceans. Sperm Whales occur in every ocean, and
though preferring warmer waters, are to be found at times close to the limits of the arctic regions.
In the Pacific they have been taken off Cape Ommany, Alaska, latitude 50 12', and in the Atlantic
as far north as Scotland ami Orkney, and perhaps even Greenland. In both Pacific and Atlantic
they range below the southern tips of the continents and are believed to pass freely from ocean to
ocean, around Cape Horn, though they are said never to round the Cape of Good Hope. Murray
states that they have been seen and captured in almost every part of the ocean between latitude
60 south and 60 north. He mentions that they have been recorded as found off the north of
Scotland but no further, though he gives some credence to ancient authors who mentioned their
having been seen off Greenland.

Beale, writing in 1836,' gave a list of their favorite resorts. It is interesting to compare the
range of the species as then understood with their present range as indicated by the locations, and
this comparison has been carefully made by Mr. A. Howard Clark, in the chapter on THE WIIALK
FISHERY, in a subsequent section of this repoit. In discussing the facts before him, Murray*
expresses the opinion that almost every place which has been mentioned as a favorite resort of the
Sperm Whales, although out of soundings, has claims to be considered the site of submerged lands.
The islands of Polynesia, which are their special feeding ground, are the beacons left by the sub-
merged Pacific continent. " They are also to be seen," he continues, "about the equinoctial line in
[li<- Atlantic Ocean, but they would seem to be either straggling 'schools' which have rounded
Cape Horn, or un prospering colonies. It is from these that the specimens which have been O<T.I-



Online LibraryG. Brown (George Brown) GoodeThe fisheries and fishery industries of the United States (Volume 1:1) → online text (page 5 of 146)