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UNITED STATES COMMISSION OF FISH AND FISHERIES

SPENCER E\ BAIRD, COMMISSIONER,



THE FISHERIES



AND



FISHERY INDUSTRIES



OP TITK



UNITED STATES



PREPARED THROUGH THE CO-OPERATION OF THE COMMISSIONER OF FISHERIES
AND THE SUPERINTENDENT OF THE TENTH CENSUS

BY

GEORGE BROWN GOODE

ASSISTANT SECRETARY OF THE SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION

AND A STAFF OF ASSOCIATES

~

^

foHIV]



SECTION II

A GEOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF THE FISHERIES INDUSTRIES
AND FISHING COMMUNITIES FOR THE YEAR 1880



WASHINGTON

QOVEUNMENT FEINTING OFFICE

1887



'






ASSOCIATE AUTHORS.



JOEL A. ALLEN Museum of Comparative Zoology, Cambridge.

TAULETON H. BEAN U. S. National Museum, Washington.

JAMES TEMPLEMAN BROWN U. S. National Museum, Washington.

A. HOWARD CLARK U. S. National Museum, Washington.

JOSEPH W. COLLINS Gloucester, Massachusetts.

R EDWARD EARLL U. S. Fish Commission, Washington.

RICHARD H. EDMONDS Baltimore, Maryland.

HENRY W. ELLIOTT Cleveland, Ohio.

ERNEST INGERSOLL New Haven, Connecticut.

DAVID S. JORDAN Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana.

LUDWIG KUMLIEN : Milwaukee, Wisconsin.

MARSHALL MCDONALD U. S. Fish Commission, Washington.

FREDERICK MATHER N. Y. Fish Commission, Cold Spring, New York.

BARXET PHILLIPS Brooklyn, New York.

RICHARD RATIIBUN U. S. National Museum, Washington.

JOHN A. RYDER U. S. Fish Commission, Washington.

CHARLES W. SMILEY U. S. Fish Commission, Washington.

SILAS STEARNS Pensacola, Florida.

FREDERICK W. TRUK U. S. National Museum, Washington.

WILLIAM A. WILCOX Boston, Massachusetts.

m



LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL.



WASHINGTON, D. C., March 1, 1883.
Prof. SPENCER F. BAIKD,

U. 8. Commissioner of Fish and Fisheries :

SIR: I have the honor to submit herewith a geographical review of the fisheries of the
United States, including the fishery districts of the Atlantic, the Gulf, and the Pacific coasts, and
of the great lakes. This report has been prepared by the following-named census agents and
assistants of the United States Fish Commission : Dr. Tarleton H. Bean, Mr. A. Howard Clark,
Capt. Joseph W. Collins, Mr. li. Edward Earll, Mr. Kichard H. Edmonds, Mr. Ernest Ingersoll,
Prof. David S. Jordan, Mr. Ludwig Kumlien, Col. Marshall McDonald, Mr. Frederick Mather,
Mr. Silas Stearns, Mr. Frederick W. True, and Mr. W. A. Wilcox. The manuscript of this volume
was prepared for the press by Mr. R. E. Earll, and has been printed under the editorial supervision
of Mr. A. Howard Clark.

This report constitutes Section II of the Special .Report on the Food Fishes and Fishery In-
dustries of the United States, prepared through the co-operation of the Commission of Fish and
Fisheries and the Superintendent of the Tenth Census. Section I, the Natural History of Useful
Aquatic Animals, has already been published.

The accompanying statistical statement gives a summary of the fisheries of the country in
1880. We find that the total number of persons actually employed in the fishery industries, either
as fishermen or in preparing the products for market, was 131,426, of whom 101,684 were fisher-
men, and the remainder shoresmen. The fishing fleet consisted of 6,605 vessels (aggregating
208,297.82 tons) and 44,804 boats, and the total amount of capital invested was $37,955,349,
distributed as follows: Vessels, $9,357,282; boats, $2,465,393; minor apparatus and outfits,
$8,145,261 ; other capital, including shore property, $17,987,413.

The value of the fisheries of the sea, of the great rivers, and of the great lakes was $43,046,053,
and that of those in minor inland waters was $1,500,000; in all, $44,546,053. These values were
estimated upon the basis of the prices of the products received by the producers, and, if average
wholesale prices had been considered, the value would have been much greater.

v



VI LETTEll OF TEANSMJTTAL.

STATISTICS OF THE FISHERIES OF THE UNITED STATES IN 1880. (a)



1

2
3
4
5

g

7
1

9
10
11
12
111
It
15
1(1
17
18
1!)
20
21
22
23
24
25
M

27
28
29


States and territories.


GBAKD TOTAL.


PERSONS EMPLOYED.


APl'AIiATUS AND CAPITAL.


Persons
em-
ployed.


Capital in-
vested.


Value of

products.


Fisher-
men.


Shores-
men.


Vessels.


Number.


Tonnage.


Value.


The United States - - -


Number.
131, 426


$37, 953, 349


$43, 046, 053


Number.
101, 684


Ifumber.
29, 742


6, 605


208, 297. 82


$9, 357, 282




37, 043

14, 981
52, 418
5,131
1C, 803
5,050


19,937,607

4, 426, 078
8, 951, 722
545, 584
2, 748, 383
1, 345, 975


14, 270, 393

8, 676, 579
9, 602, 737
1, 227, 544
7, 484, 750
1, 784, 050


29,838

12,584
38, 774
4,382
11, 613
4,493


7,205

2,397
13,644
749
5,190
557


2,066

1,210
3,014
197

56
62


113, 602. 59

23,566.93
60, 886. 15
3, 009. 86
5, 463. 42
1, 768. 87


4, MJ2, 131

1, 382, 000
2, 375, 450
308, 051
546,450
183, 200


Middle states, exclusive of great lake fish-




G-ulf states








635
8,130
3,094
3,131
1,979
2,480
899
300
52
1,597
11,071
26, 008
20, 117
1,781
35
186
414
6,220
7,266
5,274
1,046
6,835
552
2,310
1,005
601
18,864
744
800


38,200
447, 000
1, 139, 675
1, 421, 020
268, 231
406, 117
78,770
83, 400
29,360
93, 621
3, 375, 994
6, 342, 443
14, 334, 450
442, 665
10, 160
8,800
209, 465
1,492,202
2, 629, 585
506, 561
473, 800
1, 131, 350
119, 810
596, 678
0, 275
42, 400
1, 914, 119
30, 358
222, 840


119, 275
2, 661, 640
1, 860, 714
1, 456, 866
997, 695
643,227
119, 993
60, 100
32, 740
392, 610
3, 614, 178
5, 221, 715
8, 141, 750
716, 170
5,200
22,540
176, 684
3, 176, 589
4, 380, 565
845, 695
518, 420
2, 781, 021
320, 050
880, 915
212, 482
128, 300
3,124,444
181,372
253, 100


545
6,000
2,089
2,585
1,662
2,284
809
265
45
1,300
8,110
15, 873
17, 165
1,600
M
110
376
5,659
5,650
4,729
025
2,795
511
1,602
964
491
1(5, 051
729
730


90
130
1,005
546
317
196
90
35
7
297
2,961
10, 135
2,952
181
5
76
38
561
1,616
645
121
4,040
41
708
41
110
2,813
15
70


24


317. 20


14,585


Alaska


California . ....


49
291
69
124
1
3
1
49
606
1,450
1,054
36
1


5, 246. 80
9, 215. 95
1, 226. 00
2,152.97
12.00
209. 73
21.90
539. 69
17, 632. 65
43, 500. 00
83, 232. 17
914. 42
33.59


535, 350
514, 050
51,600
372, 645
450
8,500
2,500
20, 821
6:13, 542
1, 750, 000
3, 171, 189
98, 500
5,000










Illinois






Maine














23

590
541
95

1


1, 019. 05
10, 445. 90
11, 582. 51
1, 457. 90
359.51


51,500
545, 900
777, 600
39, 000
38,400




New York




Ohio






11
92

22


321.99
2, 502. 77
337. 32


10, 500
191, 850
15, 000








Virginia


1,446
7
11


15, 578. 93
216. 62
220. 25


571, 000
11,100
28, 700









a The value of fishery products taken by unprofessional fishermen in the minor inland tvaters of the United States is roughly estimated
nt $1,500,000. It was impossible daring the fishery investigation to obtain details of this industry.



LETTER OF TRAXSMITTAL. Vll

STATISTICS OF THE FISHERIES OF THE UNITED STATES IN 1880.



AFFAP.ATU8 AND CAPITAI^COntinUed.


VALUE OF FllODUCTS BY FISHERIES.


1

2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
13
13
14
15

in

17
18
19
20

21
22

2:t

24
25
20
27
28
29


Boats.


Valne of
minor appa-
ratus and
outfits.


Other cap-
ilal, includ-
iug shore
property.


General fish-
eries. (6)


Whale fish-
ery.


Seal fish-
ery.


Menhaden

fishery.


Oyster fish-
ery.


Sponge fish-
ery.


Marine-
salt in-
dustry.


Number.


Value.


44, 804


$2, 465, 393


$8, 145, 261


$17,987,413


$22, 405, 018


$2, 323, 943


$2, 289, 813


$2,116,787


$13,403,852


$200,75"


$305, 890


14, 787

8,293
13, 331
1,252
5,547
1,5'J4


739, 970

54G, 647
640, 508
50, 173
404, G95
83,400


5, 038, 171

674, 951
1,145,878
52, 823
467, 238
766, 200


9, 597, 335

1,822,480
4, 789, 886
134, 537
1, 330, 000
313, 175


10, 014, G45

2, 882, 294
2, 217, 797
713, 594
4, 792, 638
1,784,050


2, 121, 385


111, 851


539, 722

1, 261, 385
315, 680


1, 478, 900

4, 532, 900
7, 068, 852
313, 200
10, 000




3,890




408










200, 730




202, 150


2, 177, 962




302, 000


















119
3,000
853
1,173
839
1,058
358
101
15
165
5,920
2,825
G, 749
454
10
58
211
4,065
8,441
2,714
487
1,300
15G
734
501
1C7
G, CIS
334
819


10, 215
60, 000
91, 485
73, 585
33, 227
28, 508
15, 425
2,000
3,630
4,800
245, G24
186, 448
351, 736
10,345
900
4,600
7,780
223,963
289, 885
123, 175
29, 830
2)6, 600
13, 272
01,245
9,790
15, 000
292, 720
6,610
24,075


7,000
7,000
205, 840
375, 535
70, 324
39, 927
18,445
11,900
20, 210
18, 000
934, 593
297, 145
3, 528, 925
272, 920
3,760
1,600
CO, 385
232, 339
390, 200
225, 436
253, 795
l'i.1, 730
40, 538
138, 733
25,985
4,400
5GO, 763
8,648
145, 165


6,400
380, 000
307, 000
457, 850
113,080
05, 037
44, 4oO
61, 000
5,000
50, 000
1, 562, 235
4, 1C8, 850
7, 282, 600
60, 900
500
2,000
89, 800
490, 000
1. 171, 900
118, 950
151,775
G39, 000
55, 500
204, 850
35, 500
23,000
489, G36
4,000
26, 000


74, 325
564, G40
1,341,314
383, 887
309, 029
426, 527
84, 993
60,100
32, 740
192, 610
3, 576, G78
479, 388
5,581,204
716, 170
5,200
12,540
170, 634
949, 678
1, 689, 357
785, 287
518, 420
2, 776, 724
132, 550
302, 242
192,189
81,000
602, 239
109, 960
253, 100








44,950






500
201, 650
32, 048


2, 096, 500
15, 750
111, 851














302, 000


256, 205
941


672, 875
687, 725
15, 950
35,000












200, 750








































200, 000
37, 500
4, 730, 476
405, 550





















11,851
ni,7G9






2, 089, 337






3,890
























10,000
6,050
2, 080, 625
1, 577, 050
60, 000




















146, 286

1,114,158














408


















4 300
















187,500
356, 925
20, 000
47, 300










221,748




























303, 829


2, 218, 376
10, 000









61, 412























t Includes fisheries for all food species except oysters.



Vlll LETTER OF TRANSMITTAL.

Since 1865 the fisheries have greatly increased in extent and value, chiefly due to improved
methods of preservation of products and means of transportation.

The fisheries of the New England States are the most important. They engage 37,043 men,
2,066 vessels, and 34,787 boats, and yield products to the value of $14,270,393. In this district the
principal fishing ports, in order of importance, are : Gloucester, Portland, Boston, Provincetown,
and New Bedford, the latter being the center of the whale fishery. New England was settled in
1620 by colonists chiefly from the western counties of England, who selected that portion of the
coast on account of its peculiar fitness for the prosecution of the fisheries, and by the middle of
the seventeenth century there was a considerable fleet of ketches and snows engaged in the cod
fishery on the off-shore banks, where especially on the banks of Newfoundland France, Spain.
Portugal, and England already had a fleet of several hundred large vessels. Just before the war
of the Kevolution New England had 665 vessels and 4,405 men employed in its fisheries.

Next to New England in importance are the South Atlantic States, employing 52,418 men,
3,014 vessels (the majority of which are smalt and engaged iu the shore and bay fisheries), and
13,331 boats, and returning products to the value of $9,602,737.

Next are the Middle States, employing in the coast fisheries 14,981 men, 1,210 vessels, and 8,293
boats, with products to the amount of $8,676,579.

Next are the Pacific States and Territories, with 16,803 men, 56 vessels, and 5,547 boats, with
products to the amount of $7,484,750. The fisheries of the great lakes employ 5,050 men, 62 vessels.
and 1,594 boats, with products to the amount of $1,784,050. The Gulf States employ 5,131 men,
197 vessels, and 1,252 boats, yielding products to the value of $1,227,544. '

Forty-three distinct fisheries are recognized by American writers, each being carried on in a
special locality and with methods peculiar to itself. Among the most important of these are thw
oyster fishery, the off-shore cod fishery, the whale fishery, the fur-seal fishery, the mackerel fishery,
the menhaden fishery, the halibut fishery, the'antarctic seal and sea-elephant fishery, the west-coast
salmon fishery, the lobster fishery, the shad and alewife fisheries, the swordfish fishery, and the
clam fishery.

The off-shore fisheries are carried on by citizens of the New England and Middle States, and
are prosecuted on the great oceanic banks extending from Nantucket to Labrador, and upon the
ledges and shoals between these and the coast.

The great purse-seine fisheries for mackerel and menhaden are carried on north of Cape
Hatteras, at distances from the shore varying from 1 mile to 150 miles. The fishing-grounds in
the Gulf of Saint Lawrence, formerly frequented by many hundreds of American vessels, have been
almost entirely abandoned since the introduction of the purse-seine, and in 1882 only one vessel
visited those waters, returning with about 200 barrels of mackerel. The oyster fishery is located
for the most part between Cape Hatteras and Cape Cod, chiefly in the great inland bays. In all
the great rivers of the Atlantic coast are fisheries for the anadrornous shad and the two species of
alewife. About the keys of Southern Florida is an extensive sponge fishery, and on the shoals of
the Gulf of Mexico the red-snapper and grouper fisheries are yearly increasing in value. The fur-
seal fishery is chiefly located upon the Pribylov islands of Alaska. A small fleet of vessels yearly
penetrates to the ice-bound islands of the Antarctic for seal-skins and sea-elephant oil. The whal-
ing fleets, with headquarters at New Bedford and San Francisco, frequent all oceans, the larger
vessels cruising chiefly iu the North Pacific, while the smaller ones pursue their prey throughout
the Atlantic and South Pacific. The salmonfishery is seated upon the Columbia River and its trib-
utaries, though other rivers iu Oregon and California produce large quantities of salmon, which is
extensively canned and exported. The most valuable product of the great-lake fisheries is the
whitefish. The swordfish fishery of Southern New England, though employing but 40 vessels and
perhaps 160 men, produces 1,500,000 pounds weight annually.

The export of American fishery products is comparatively small, owing to the fact that the
demand for such products for home consumption is really greater than the supply, and is constantly
on the increase. In 1880 the total value of exported fish products amounted to $5,741,580, of
which, according to custom-house records, England received $2,601,017. Of the quantity sent
to England, $1,596,007 was iu canned preparations, find $303,790 iu fresh oysters, the remainder



LETTER OP TBANSMFTTAL. IX

being chiefly products of the whale fishery. In former years there was an extensive export trade
in dried cod with Spain and Portugal. Large quantities of canned salmon are sent to China,
Japan, and Australia.

At present no subsidies are allowed to fishermen, except that the duties on imported salt used
in the preparation of fish are remitted. This practice was begun in 1866, at which time the old
bounty law was repealed.

The United States, with the intention of aiding its fishermen, has paid to Great Britain the
sum of $5,500,000 for the privilege of fishing in the British provincial waters from 1873 to 1885.

Since 1871 the United States has appropriated over one million dollars to be used by the United
States Fish Commission in behalf of the fishermen and fish consumers, and under the direction of
the Commissioner, Prof. Spencer F. Baird, very important results have been accomplished. All
the State Governments, with the exception of six, have established State fish commissions, and
most of these have been liberally supported by grants of money.

The undeveloped fishery resources are very great. Many of the fishes and invertebrates
which in Europe are highly valued by the poorer classes are never used here. Only about 150 of
the 1,500 species of fishes known to inhabit the waters of the United States are ordinarily found
in the markets.

Yours, very respectfully,

G. BROWN GOODE,
Special Agent Tenth Census, in charge of Fishery Investigation.



TABLE OF CONTENTS.



PAUT I. TOE COAST OF MAINE AND ITS FISHERIES.. By It. EDWAKD EARLL.

PAKT II. THE FISHERIES OF NEW HAMPSHIRE By W. A. WILCOX.

PART III. THE FISHERIES OF MASSACHUSETTS By A. HOWARD CLARK.

PAKT IV. THE FISHERIES OF RHODE ISLAND By A. HOWARD CLARK.

PART V. CONNECTICUT AND ITS FISHERIES By A. HOWARD CLARK;.

PART VI. NEW YORK AND ITS FISHERIES By FEED. MATHER.

PART VII. -NEW JERSEY AND ITS FISHERIES By R. EDWAKD EARLL.

PART VIII. PENNSYLVANIA AND ITS FISHERIES By R. EDWARD EARLL.

PART 1X.-DELAWARE AND ITS FISHERIES . By J. W. COLLINS.

PART X. MARYLAND* AND ITS FISHERIES By R. EDWARD EARLL.

PART XI. VIRGINIA AND ITS FISHERIES By MARSHALL MCDONALD.

PART XII. NORTH CAROLINA AND ITS FISHERIES By R. EDWARD EARLL.

PART XIII. THE FISHERIES OF SOUTH CAROLINA AND

GEORGIA ... By R. EDWARD EARLL.

PART XIV. EASTERN FLORIDA AND ITS FISHERIES By R. EDWARD EARLL.

PART XV. THE FISHERIES OF THE GULF OF MEXICO ..By SILAS STEARNS.

PART XVI. THE FISHERIES OF THE PACIFIC COAST By DAVID S. JORDAN.

PART XVII. THE FISHERIES OF THE GREAT LAKES By FREDERICK W. TRUE.

REFERENCES TO FISHERIES By A. HOWARD CLARK.

3



PA.KT I.



THE COAST OF MAINE AND ITS FISHERIES.



By R. EDWARD EARLL.



ANALYSIS.



A. GENERAL REVIEW OF MAINE AND ITS FISHERIES:

1. Descriptive and statistical recapitulation

of the fisheries of the State.
B. THE PASSAMAQUODDY DISTRICT:

2. General review of the fisheries of the dis-

trict.

3. The fisheries of Calais, Robbinston, and

Perry.

4. Eastport and its fisheries.

5. The fishing towns between Eastport and

Lnbec.
0. Lubec and its fisheries.

7. The fisheries of Trescott and Whiting.
C. THE MACHIAS DISTRICT:

8. General review of the fisheries of the dis-

trict.

9. Cutler to Jonesboro', inclusive.

10. Jonesport and its fisheries.

11. Millbridge, Steuben, and other towns in the

vicinity.
D. THE FRENCHMAN'S BAY DISTRICT:

12. General review of the fisheries of the dis-

trict.

13. Gouldsboro' and its fisheries.

14. Sullivan, Hancock, and Lamoine.

15. Mount Desert Island and its fisheries.

16. Trenton, Ellsworth, and Surry.
E. THE CASTINE DISTRICT :

17. General review of the fisheries of the dis-

trict.

18. Blue Hill, Brooklin, and Swan's Island.

19. Deer Island and its fisheries.

20. Isle an Haut, Sedgwick, and Brooksville.

21. Castine and its fisheries.

22. Penobscot, Orland, and Bucksport.
F. THE BELFAST DISTRICT :

23. General review of the fisheries of the dis-

trict.

24. Belfast and adjacent towns.

25. Camden and its fisheries.
' 26. The Fox Islands.



G. THE WALDOBOEO' DISTRICT :

27. General review of the fisheries of the dis-

trict.

28. Rockland, Thora.aston, and Saint George.

29. Matinicns Island and its fisheries.

30. Gushing, Friendship, Waldoboro', and Bre-

men.

31. Bristol and its fishery interests.

32. Mouhegan Island and its fisheries.

33. Damariscotta and adjoining towns.
II. THE WISCASSET DISTRICT :

34. General review of the fisheries of the dis-

trict.

35. New Castle and Edgecomb.

36. Booth Bay and its fisheries.

37. Southport and its fisheries.

38. Wiscasset and Westport.
I. THE BATH DISTRICT :

39. General review of the fisheries of tbo dis-

trict.

40. Georgetown and its fisheries.

41. Bath and other less important towns.
J. THE DISTRICT OF PORTLAND AND FALMOUTH :

42. General review of the fisheries of the dis-

trict.

43. Harpswell and its fisheries.

44. The fishing towns of Casco Bay.

45. Portland and its fishery interests.
K. THE SACO, KENNEBUNK, AXT> YORK DISTRICTS :

46. General review of the fisheries of the dis-

tricts.

47. Mr. Wilcox's account of Scarboro' Beach,

Pine Point, and Saco Bay.

48. Mr. Wilcox's account of Biddcford Pool and

its fisheries.

49. Mr. Wilcox's account of the fisheries of Kcn-

nebunk and Kennebunkport.

50. Mr. Wilcox's description of the fisheries

between Wells and Kittery.



UNIVERSIT?




THE COAST OF MAINE AND ITS FISHERIES.



A. GENERAL REVIEW OF MAINE AND ITS FISHERIES.

1. DESCRIPTIVE AND STATISTICAL RECAPITULATION OF THE FISHERIES OF

THE STATE.

LOCATION AND EARLY SETTLEMENT. The State of Maine includes an area of 32,000 square
miles in the extreme northeastern corner of the United States. It is claimed that the region was
visited by the Northmen in the latter part of the tenth century. An attempt was made to settle a
colony on Neutral Island, on the Saint Croix River, under a grant from the King of France, in 1604.
In 1G13, French Jesuits established a mission at Mount Desert Island, but they were driven away
by the English the following year. About this time Capt. John Smith with a company of fisher-
men took possession of Monhegan Island, from which point he made visits to different portions of
the coast for the purpose of making maps of the region. In 1C20 the territory was granted to
the Plymouth Company, and three years later the first permanent settlement within the pres-
ent limits of the State was established near the month of the Piscataqua River. From that
time onward the province grew in importance and many colonists were soon comfortably settled
within its borders. The eastern portion was for many years under the control of the French, who
made little effort to develop its resources, but the western part was from the first in the possession
of the English, and by 1650 a number of important settlements, some of them founded fifteen to
twenty years earlier, were scattered along its shores.

The Massachusetts colony obtained control of the region west of the Keuncbec River iu 1077:
nine years later its jurisdiction was extended to the Penobscot, and in 1G91 all of the territory west
of the Saint Croix, as well as Nova Scotia, was transferred to it by the Provincial charter. The
treaty of 1783 ceded to Massachusetts all of Maine's present territory, and she continued her super-
intendence over it until 1820, when Maine became a separate State, at which time it had a population
of over 298,000. In 1860 the State had 628,279 inhabitants, the number increasing to 648,936 iu
1880.

PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE COAST. Geologically considered, the region is one of
peculiar interest. With unimportant exceptions, as at Perry on the Passamaquoddy and Rockland
on the Penobscot, the coast is one huge bed of metamorphic rocks, including granites, syenites,
and mica schists. These are everywhere scraped and grooved by huge glaciers which descended
from the no.rthward and extended many miles into the sea, and which were of sufficient thickness
entirely to cover Mount Desert and of such weight as to plow out enormous valleys and ravines in
the hard granite floor. The principal furrows and ridges extend nearly north and south, the shore-
line being made up of a series of long rocky peninsulas separated by deep and narrow fjords, which

7



8 GEOGRAPHICAL REVIEW OF TEE FISHERIES.

give to Maine a peculiarly ragged and uneven coast with hundreds of excellent harbors, in many of
which the largest vessels of the world can find safe anchorage. Beyond the headlands are scat-
tered innumerable rocky islands and sunken ledges having the same general trend as the penin-
sulas of the mainland. In addition to these we find large rocks and bowlders scattered over the
surface of the land and the ocean bottom, where they have been left by the receding glaciers.
Enormous quantities of these fragments are frequently piled together, many of the well-known
fishing banks, and even the famous George's Shoals being, according to Prof. N. S. Shaler, made
up of glacial deposits.

These sunken ledges and rocks are covered with marine animals, which constitute the favorite
food of many of our most important food-fishes, and the locality is a favorite resort of the cod,
haddock, hake, and other species known as "bottom feeders."

The distance along the ocean shore of the State from Quoddy Head to the mouth of the Piscat
.aqua River is only 250 miles in a straight line, but, owing to the peculiar features already men-



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