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f.WR 4 1977

i?!I_flJ81.ICATI0NS OEPT.



SMITHSONIAN INSTITUTION

UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM.



BULLETIN



OF THE



UNITED STATES NATIONAL MUSEUM.



IS'o. 49.



BIBLIOGRAPHY OF THE PUBLISHED WRITINGS OF PHILIP

LUTLEY SCLATER, F. R. S., SECRETARY OF THE

ZOOLOGICAL SOCIETY OF LONDON.



Prepared uuiler the direction of

Gr. BRO^VN pOODE.



WASniNGTON:

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE.
1896.



ADVERTISEMENT.



This work (Bulletin No. 49) is one of a series of papers intended
to illustrate the collections belonging to the United States, and con-
stituting the National Museum, of which the Smithsonian Institution
was placed in charge by the act of Congress of August 10, 1846.

The publications of the National Museum consist of two series
the Bulletins, of which this is No. 49, in continuous series, and the
Proceedings, of which the eighteenth volume is now in press. A
small edition of each i)aper in the Proceedings is distributed in pam-
phlet form to specialists, in advance of the publication of the bound
volume.

The Bulletins of the National Museum, the publication of which
was commenced in 1875, consist of elaborate papers based upon the
collections of the Museum, reports of expeditions, etc., while the
Proceedings facilitate the prompt publication of freshly-acquired
facts relating to biology, anthropology, and geology, descriptions of
restricted groups of animals and plants, the discussion of particular
questions relative to the synonymy of species, and the diaries of
minor expeditions.

Other papers, of more general popular interest, are printed in the
Apjjendix to the Annual Report.

Full lists of the publications of the Museum may bo found in the
current catalogues of the publications of the Smithsonian Institution.

Papers intended for publication in the Proceedings and Bulletins
of the National Museum are referred to the Committee on Publica-
tions, composed as follows: Frederick W. True (chairman), Marcus
Benjamin (editor), J. E. Benedict, Otis T. Mason, Leonhard Stej-

neger, and Lester F. Ward.

S. P. Langley,

Secretary of tlie Smithsonian Institution.

Washington, D. C, Augitst 1, 1896.
u



. THE



PUBLISHED WRITINGS



OF



PHILIP LUTLEY SCLATER,



1844-1896./



Prepared under tlie directiou of

Gr. BI^OAVN G^OODE.



WASHINGTON:

GOVERNMENT PRINTING OFFICE.
1896.



OOI^TEI^TS.



Page.
Frontispiece Portrait of Philip Lutley Sclater.

Contents v

Introduction vii

Biographical sketch ix

Chronological catalogue of separate works, 1844-1894 1

Chronological catalogue of papers published in the memoirs, proceedings,

and journals of learned societies and other periodicals. 5

List of new families and genera described 75

List of new species described 79

List of species figured 105

Index to the subjects of the separate works and papers catalogued in Parts

I and II 121

Appendix List of separate works and papers published subsequent to

December, 1894, and not included in Parts I to VI 133

V



I]S"TRODU0TIOK



Many years ago the publication of a series of bibliographies of rep-
resentative American naturalists was begun in the Bulletins of the
United States National Museum. The series was intended to include
analytical discussions of the writings of the men who have been espe-
cially prominent in the study, classification, and naming of the animals
and plants of America, with a view to facilitating the use of the very
extensive, widely scattered, and very complicated literature which
has grown up in connection with American systematic biology.

Five bulletins have been published in this series: No. 20, The Pub-
lished Writings of Spencer Fullerton Baird, 1843-1882, by G. Brown
Goode; No. 23, The Published Writings of Isaac Lea, LL. D., by
Newton Pratt Scudder; No. 30, Bibliography of Publications Relating
to the Collection of Fossil Invertebrates in the United States National
Museum, including complete lists of the writings of Fielding B. Meek,
Charles A. White, and Charles D. Walcott, by John Belknap Marcou;
No. 40, The Published Writings of George Newbold Lawrence, 1844-
1891, by L. S. Foster, and No. 41, The Published Writings of Dr.
Charles Girard, by G. Brown Goode.

The scope of this series would seem appropriately limited to the
work of the naturalists living and working in America, but there is
one exception which no one can doubt the propriety of making that
in the case of Mr. Philip Lutley Sclater, the secretary of the Zoological
Society of London, who has confined his work for the most part to
American ornithology, and whose contributions to the sj^stematic
ornithology of the American Continent have far exceeded in extent
those of anyone working in this country. His opportunities have
been almost unlimited, and his utilization of these opportunities has
been wonderfully effective.

The ornithology of Neotropical America was but little known when

he began his work. Mr. George N. Lawrence, of New York City,

also an indefatigable worker in the same field, has left an extensive

record in his bibliography already published. His studies were

carried on, however, in the intervals of an active business life, while

Mr. Sclater has been able to devote his entire time for more than half

a century to systematic work, and has given most of his attention to

the bird fauna of Central and South America, with results the extent

of which is well shown by the analytical catalogue of his writings now

published.

vu



VIII INTRODUCTION.

It is believed that this bibliography will materially lighten the
labors of everyone engaged in the study of American birds or of the
problems of geographical distribution.

Since Mr. Sclater is not an "American naturalist" in the same
sense as the others whose bibliographies have already l)een published,
the present work is not included in the series of "Bibliographies of
American Naturalists." lie is, however, in another and a broader
sense, one of the most eminent and prolific of American naturalists.

The plan adopted in the present volume is essentiall}' different in
its entirety from any previously used, although many of its features
are familiar. The metlKxl of citation is essentially that of Coues, but
the annotations to the titles are made as brief as possible. The object
of such annotations is understO(xl to be simply to describe each paper
so that a pei*son consulting the bibliography can determine without
further research whether the paper cited is one which he needs to
consult. The customary practice of analyzing the paper and enumer-
ating under its title all the species, genera, and families which it
describes is not followed. It is thought that a much more satisfac-
tory plan has been adopted, namely, that of combining this enumer-
ation of species with the alphabetical index, so that a person desiring
an exact reference for use in synonymy, or indeed for immediate use
in consulting the literature, can find in one alphabetical series all the
names for which the author is responsible, each accompanied by an
exact statement of place of description, the locality of the specimen,
and the place where the type is to be found.

A separate list of species figured, with an exact bibliographical
citation for the plate and the page related to it, is also given. The
reason for including a separate list of the species figured is obvious,
since a large number of Mr. Sclater's figures relate to forms not for
the first time described by him.

Much care has been given to the typography of this bibliography,
with the purpose of securing compactness as well as clearness. The
material here included, if printed in the same style as the bibli-
ographies previously issued by the Museum, would have occupied
at least four times the space. Notwithstanding this compactness of
typography, the arrangement of the matter and the contrasts secured
by the choice of type and by the system of spacing and indentation
adopted has, it is believed, produced a page which is clearer and
easier of reference than any previously used, at all events in the pub-
lications of the Museum.

Special acknowledgment is due to Mr. George Arthur Doubleday,
clerk in the library of the Zoological Society of London, by whom the
titles have l>een copied and arranged. Mr. Charles W. Richmgnd, of
the National Museum, lias done excellent service in reading i)roof and
verifying the citations.



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH OF PHILIP LUTLEY SCLATER.



Mr. Philip Lutley Sclater, secretary of the Zoological Society of
London, is one of the best known of living zoologists. Few men
have contributed so much as he to systematic ornithology, and none
have done so much in the identification and description of new forms
from the Western Continent. His work has been largely in connec-
tion with the luxuriant fauna of Neotropical America, little known at
the time when he began his researches. Nearly every year since he
began work in 1853, his correspondents in tropical America have laid
at his feet new wealth in the form of collections from regions hitherto
unexplored.

He has characterized 1,0G7 new species (245 in collaboration with
Osbert Salvin), 135 new genera (25 with Salvin), and two new fami-
lies of American birds.

Remarkable as has been his industrj'^ and his accuracy in diagnosis
and description, the fact should be recognized that but for his energy
and Ills skill as an organizer many regions now well known to the
ornithologist would doubtless still remain unexplored.

The labors of Mr. Sclater have also resulted in great additions to our
knowledge of the geographical distribution of vertebrates. Not only
has he worked out many local faunas, but his generalizations upon the
distribution of life and the division of the globe into zoogeographical
regions have had great influence upon scientific opinion. lie was
one of the pioneers in this field of investigation, and his writings
upon the subject have always been full of suggestion and have stim-
ulated many others to engage in similar inquiry. His views as to the
geographical distribution of birds are undoubtedly more widely
accepted throughout the world than those of any other authority,
and though, with increasing knowledge, modifications in the scheme
proposed by him long ago will doubtless become moi-e and more
numerous, his studies of geographical distribution will always be
considered as of fundamental importance, and the terms which he
suggested for the principal divisions of the earth's surface will doubt-
less remain in ordinary use.

For more than thirty years the chief executive officer of the most
wealthy and vigorous zoological society in the world, his influence
upon the progress of natural history exploration has been very great,
and his relations witli American natui'alists have always been cordial
and cooperative.

IX



X BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH OF PHILIP LUTLEY 8CLATER.

Notwithstanding the great bulk of his technical publications, he
has for four decades been prominent in the activities of scientific
London and a noteworthy figure in the midst of every important sci-
entific gathering.

At the age of sixty-seven he is still productive and adding each
year a number of titles to the already remarkable assemblage of
papers which have been published under his name.

It is tlie object of this bibliography to render thoroughly available
to American naturalists all the results of the work of this eminent
scholar, who has done for the ornithology of Central and South Amer-
ica what has been done by Nuttall, Wilson, Audubon, Baird, Allen,
Merriam, Ridgway, and their associates for that of the Northern
continent.

Philip Lutley Sclater was born November 4, 1829, at "Tangier
Park," in Hampshire, the residence of his father, William Lutley
Sclater, Esq.; and his boyhood* was passed chiefly at "I loddington
House," another estate i" ^he same county, belonging to his father,
who died there in 1885 at the age of ninety-seven.

In beautiful Hampshire, close to the home of Gilbert White at
"Selborne," he acquired early in life a love for outdoor life and a
taste for the study of birds.

At the age of ten, he was sent to a well-known school at Twj^ford,
near Winchester. In 1842 he went to Winchester College, and in
1845 was elected scholar of Corpus Christi College, Oxford. Being
at that time under sixteen years of age, he was not called into resi-
dence at the University until Easter, 1846.

At Oxford his attention was given principally to mathematics,
though his spare time was occupied by the study of birds and of the
excellent series of natural history books then in the RadclifTe Library.

Hugh E. Strickland, the well-known ornithologist, who was at that
time resident in Oxford as reader in geology, became interested in
young Sclater and took him under his protection. At Strickland's
chambers he met John Gould, shortly after his return from his great
journey to Australia. From Strickland he received his first instruc-
tion in scientific ornithology. He began his collection of bird skins
at Oxford, making British skins for himself and buying foreign species
at a shilling apiece, whenever he could get to London for a run among
the bird shops.

In December, 1849, he received the degree of Bachelor of Arts,
obtained his first class in the mathematical school and a " pass " in
classics. At that time these were the only two recognized subjects
for study in the university, no sort of encouragement being given to
natural history.

After taking his degree he remained at his college in Oxford for
two years, devoting his time principally to natural history. Ho also
gave much attention to modern languages, studying with masters at



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH OF PHILIP LUTLEY SCLATER. XI

home and always visiting the Continent in vacation time, and thus
soon made himself familiar with French, German and Italian.

At this period of his life he was often in Paris, where he made the
acquaintance of the great ornithologist, Prince Charles Bonaparte, at
whose house, until his death in 1858, he was a frequent visitor.

In 1851 he entered himself for the bar, becoming a student at
Lincoln's Inn, occasionally visiting Oxford, and passing his leisure
time at Hoddington, but always enthusiastically engaged in natural
history j)ursuits. The winter of 1852-53 was given to travel in Italy
and Sicily.

In December, 1855, he was admitted fellow of Corpus Christi Col-
lege, and having in the previous June completed his legal education
and been called to the bar by the Honorable Society of Lincoln's Inn,
he went the Western Circuit for several years.

In 185G he made his first journey across the Atlantic, in company
with the Rev. George Hext, a fellow collegian. Leaving England in
July, they went by New York up the HU(il>^ji to Saratoga, and there
attended the meeting of the American Association for the Advance-
ment of Science. After that they went to Niagara, and thence
through the Great Lakes to Superior City, at the extreme end of
Lake Superior. Here they engaged two Canadian "voyageurs" and
traveled on foot through the backwoods to the upper waters of the
St. Croix River. This they descended in a birch-bark canoe to the
Mississippi. Mr. Sclater subsequently published an account of this
journey in the third volume of "Illustrated Travels." (See paper
No. 576.)

Returning by steamboat and railway to Philadelphia, he spent a
month in that city studying the splendid collection of birds belong-
ing to the Academy of Natural Sciences, where he formed the
acquaintance of John Cassin, Joseph Leidy, John Le Conte, and other
then well-known members of that society. He returned to England
shortlj' before Christmas, 1856.

For some years after this he lived in London, practicing occasion-
ally at the bar, but always at work on natural history. He was a
constant attendant at the meetings of the Zoological Society, of which
he was elected, in 1850, a life member and in 1857 a member of the
council.

In January, 1859, he made a short excursion to Tunis and eastern
Algeria, in company with Mr. E. C. Taylor and two other friends.
They visited the breeding places of the vultures and kites in the in-
terior and gathered many bird skins, returning to London at the end of
March.

At this time Mr. D. W. Mitchell, secretary of the Zoological Society,
was about to vacate his post in order to take charge of the newly
instituted Jardin d'Acclimatation in Paris. For this position Mr.
Sclater was selected by Owen and Yarrell, then influential members



XII BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH OF PHILIP LUTLEY SCLATER.

of the council. IIo was formally elected to it on April 30, 1859, and
he has been re-elected annually ever since.

He found it necessary to devote himself entirely for three years to
the reorganization of the affairs of the Society. The " Proceedings"
and "Transactions" were at that time several years in arrears they
were brought up to date; the Garden (Tuide, which was out of print,
was rewritten; the large staff at the gardens was rearranged and
divided into departments under the superintendent, and various other
reforms were introtluced.

For thirty-five yeai*s his life has been almost entirely spent in work
connected with natural history.

In 1874, when his brother (then the Right Hon. George Sclater-
Booth, M. P., and afterwards Lord Hasing) accepted office in Mr.
Disraeli's administration as president of the local government Imard,
Mr. Sclater became his private secretary, a position which he occu-
pied for two years. But when subsequently offered a permanent
place in the civil service he declined it, because he could not make
up his mind to give up his dearly loved work in natural history.

His most engrossing duties have been in connection with the
Zoological Society of London, to which, as principal executive officer,
he has, of course, devoted most of his time. It is conceded by all
that its affairs have prospered well under his direction. The number
of fellows of the society, in 1859 about 1,7(K), has increased to ov'er
3,000. The income of the society, which in 1858 was a little over
14,0(X), is now seldom under 25,000. Besides this, nearly all of the
principal buildings in the society's gardens have been rebuilt during
the past thirty-five years and fitted up with every sort of modern
convenience for animals. The old office building (No. 11 Hanover
square) has been sold and a larger and more convenient one (No, 3
Hanover square) bought in the same vicinity. A debt of 12,000 to
the society's bankers, originally secured upon its house, lias been
paid off, and this property is now entirely the property of the
Society without any sort of incumbrance.

The first floor of the society's house is devoted to the accomodation
of a large and very valuable zoological library, under the care of a
librarian and his assistant, and is the constant resort of the working
zoologists of the metropolis. This library has been almost entirely
accumulated since 1859.

The publications of the society, consisting of Proceedings, Trans-
actions, Lists of Animals (of which eight editions have been pub-
lished), the "Garden Guide" and "Zoological Kecoixl," are all issued
from this office, with almost unfailing regularity. The scientific
meetings of the society are held here during the eight uionths of the
scientific session, and an abstract of their proceedings is always
printed and issued within a week after each meeting has taken place.

Mr. Sclater was selected by the British Onithologists' Union as the
first editor of "The Ibis," in 1859. He linished the first series in 18G4



BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH OF PHILIP LUTLEY SCLATER. XIII

Professor Newton took his place as editor of the second series, and
Mr. Salvin as editor of the third. In 1877 he was associated with Mr.
Salvin as joint editor of the fourth series, and in 1883 commenced the
editorship of the fifth series, with Mr. Howard Saunders as co-editor.
When the fifth series was completed, in 1888, he became sole editor of
the sixth, which he finished in 1894. In 1895, having again obtained
the assistance of Mr. Howard Saunders, he commenced work on the
seventh series, of which two volumes are already complete.

When the British Ornithologists' Club was established in 1892, he
joined heartily in the movement inaugurated by Dr. R. Bowdler
Sharpe, and has usually had the honor of occupying the chair at its
meetings and of delivering an inaugural address at the commence-
ment of each session.

With the British Association for the Advancement of Science he
has had a long connection, having become a member in 1847 at the
second Oxford meeting, and having attended its meetings with few
exceptions ever since. For several years he was secretary of Section
D, and at the Bristol meeting in 1875 he was president of that section
and delivered an address "On the present state of our knowledge of
geographical zoology" (Paper No. 743). In 1876 he was elected one
of the two general secretaries of the association, together with Sir
Douglas Galton, and served in that capacity for five years, thereby
becoming an ex officio member of the council, at the meetings of
which he is a constant attendant.

Ever since the scientific journal " Nature" was started by Professor
Lockyer in 1869, he has been a frequent contributor to that most
imjwrtant periodical.

In 1886 he began the transfer of his private collection of American
bird skins to the British Museum. This collection contained 8,824
specimens, representing 3,158 species, belonging to the orders Pas-
seres, Picarife, and Psittaci. It may be remarked that when he
began his collection at Oxford in 1847 he intended to collect birds of
every kind and from ail parts of the world, but after a few j^ears
resolved to confine his attention particularly to the ornithology of
South and Central America and to collect only in the orders just
mentioned, which were at that time generally less known than the
others and of which the specimens are of a more manageable size for
the private collector.

At the time of the begijining of this transfer, which waS onl}'^ com-
pleted in 1890, he agreed to prepare some of the volumes of the
British Museum "Catalogue of Birds," relating to the groups to which
he had paid special attention. In accordance with this arrangement
by the expenditure of fully two years of his leisure time for each vol-
ume, he prepared the eleventh volume in 1886, the fourteenth in
1888, the fifteenth in 1890, and half of the nineteenth in 1891.

When the Challenger expedition started around the world in 1873,
at the request of his friend, the late Sir Wyville Thomson, he agreed



XIV BIOGRAPHICAL SKETCH OF PHILIP LUTLEY 8CLATER.

to work out all the birds. Soon after the return of the expedition in
1877 the specimens of birds collected were placed in his hands, and
with the assistance of his ornithological friends wore speedily reported
upon in a series of papers contributed to the Zoological Society's
** Proceedings." The whole of these papers were reprinted with addi-
tions and illustrations, and now form part of the second volume of
the "ZtK)logy " of the ChaUemjer expedition.

Geography, being very closely connected with zoology, has always
commanded Mr, Sclater's hearty interest. lie became a life mem-
ber of the Royal Geographical Societyin 1880, and has attended its
meetings regularly ever since. lie has also served two years on the
council, and is a member of the Geographical Club. He has assisted
in promoting many researches in foreign parts, chiefly, however, with
a view to obtaining collections of natural history from strange places.
Among these may be especially mentioned Sir 11. 11. Johnston's expe-
dition to Kilima-Njaro in 1884 and Professor IJalfour's visit to Soco-
tra in 1880. He also took a leading part in sending out naturalists
to Kerguelen Land and Rodriguez, along with the transit-of- Venus
expeditions of 187475, and in manj'^ other similar efforts to explore
little-known parts of the earth's surface. At the present time he is
serving on two committees of this kind one for the investigation of
the fauna and flora of the Lesser Antilles, and the other for the fur-
ther exploration of the fauna of the Hawaiian Islands. In both of
these countries collectors are actively at work.

In 1884 he took advantage of the opportunity of the visit of the
British Association to Montreal to cross the Atlantic a second time,
and after the meeting to visit the United States. He was not in
good health at that jjeriod, and did little, if anything, in the way of
zoology. But he had the i)leasuro of seeing several of his former



Online LibraryG. Brown (George Brown) GoodeThe published writings of Philip Lutley Sclater, 1844-1896 → online text (page 1 of 28)