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a p. QUACKENBOS, A.M.,
nmroiFAL or **«■ collboiatb school,^ v. t. ; ▲itthos of **nB8T uasoHl i
OOMPOftlTXOir;* « ADYANOZD COITBSB OF OOICPOSZTION AND BIIITOItlO,**
** ▲ XATVBAL PHIL080PHT," " ILLVBTRATXD SCHOOL HI8T0ET
OF THX imiTSD BTATSS,^* ** FBIMAXT HISTOST
OF THX msnXD STATU,'* WO,
D. APPLETON AND COMPANY,
448 iB 446 BBOADWAY.
By the same Atlfhor :
FIBST LESSONS IN COMPOSITION: In which the Principles of the Art are
developed in connection with the Principles of Grammar. 12mo., pp. 182. 50 eta.
ADVANCED COUESE OP COMPOSITION AND BHETOBIC: A Series of
Practical Lessons on the Origin, History, and Peculiarities of the English Langoaee,
Pnnctaation, Taste, Figures, Style and its Essential Properties, Criticism, and the
yarioos Departments of Prose and Poetical Composition. 12mo., pp. 461. fl.
ILLUSTRATED SCHOOL HISTOEY OF THE UNITED STATES: Embracing «
fall Account of the Aborigines, Biographical Notices of Distinguished Men, nu-
merous Maps, Plans of Battle-fields, ana Pictorial Illustrations. 12mo., pp. 473. $1.
PBIMABT HISTOBT OF THE UNITED STATES: Made easy and interesting
for Beginners. Child*s Quarto, splendidly illustrated, pp. 192. 60 ets.
A NATUBAL PHILOSOPHY: Embracing the most reoent Discoyeries in Physics.
Adapted to use with or without Apparatus, and aooompanied with Practieal
Exercises and 886 Illastrations. 12mo., pp. 450. $t
Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1802, by
G. P. QUACKENBOB,
In tha Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for tha
Southern District of New York.
I. Letters, Syllables, Wordi, Sentences . '^?
IL Classification of Letters . * , ' ' ^
IIL Accent.— Primitive, Derivative, and Componnd Words * 11
IV. Formation of I>erivatives. - Insepar»We Boots * i«
V. Prefixes ... ' ' tJ
VL Snlfixes „
Vn. Analysis of Words. JI
Vin. Rnles of SpeUing ~; tZ
IX. Syllabication . ...*.* * «
X Forms of the Letters . . * . * ' * S
XL The Parts of Speech . . * , * ' S
XII. Nonns and their Classes .*.'.*.* ' M
XIIL SnbdivlBions of Common Nonns * ' * m
XrV. The Person of Nonns . . . ' . * * * 2
XV. The Nnmber of Nouns . .... 88
XVI. Irregular Flnrals . •*•*.*.' 88
XVIL Plural of Compound and Complex Nonns , * 88
XVin. Plural of Foreign Nouns . . . . * . ' 40
XIX. Nouns not used in both Numbers . ... 48
XX. The Gender of Nouns . . . . , .44
XXI. Masculine and Feminine Correlattves . . . * . 47
XXII. The Case of Nouns, * 80
XXIII. The Declension of Nouns . . , . ' . 88
XXIV. The Prononn.— Personal Pronouns . . • * . * 84
XXV. Rules for Nouns and Pronouns . , . * . 88
XXVI. Parsing Forms for Nouns and Pronouns . . ' . * 80
XXVII. Simple Relative Pronouns . , . . ' . 82
XXVIII. Compound Relative Pronouns . , . * . * 84
XXIX. Interrogative Pronouns . . . , . ' . 88
XXX. I Adjective Pronouns .... 70
XXXI. The Article * . 72
XXXIL Adjectives and their Classes . .*.'.'.' 78
XXXIII. Comparison of Adjectives . . ... 77
XXXrV. Irregular Oomparisom . . . , ' ' * 80
XXXV. A Written Exercise ....'* 88
XXX VL Verbs and their Classes ... ' «i
XXXVIL Voice ' 88
XXXVIIL Properties of Verbs. —Mood. - Tense ... 88
ZXXIX. The Indicative Mood and its Tenses . . * 00
XL. The Potential Mood and its Tenses . . . . 83
XLI. The Subjunctive and Imperative Mood . . * 08
XLIL The Infinitive Mood—Person and Nnmber of Verbs' . ' 00
XLin. Participles ^
XLIV. Construction of Participles . . ' . ' ' ' \t^
XLV. Anxillaries.-Bc,Ao«s •...*' 107
XLVL The Auxiliaries do, ditf, »ia, s*aB . . . * , ' 100
XLVn. The AnxUiaries ifuj^, am, muH^ need, mightf eould, ^ . 112
The Verb BS
Conjugation of a TransitlTe Verb in the Aotlire Voioe
Con jngation of a Transitive Verb in the PaieiTe Voioe
Progressive Form of the Verb ....
Negative and Interrogative Ooqjngations .
Verbs distingnished as Regular and Irregolar .
Table of Primitive Irregular Verba .
Defective Verba .....
The Adverb .....
Adverbs (continued) ....
Comparison and Constmotion of Adverbs .
The Preposition .....
The Cox^unction .....
The Interjection ....
A Practical Review ....
Bentences classified according to their Meaning
Sentences classified according to their Form .
Structure of Sentences
Analysis of Sentences ....
Analysis (continued) ....
Explanation of Difficult Constructions
Subject.— Nominative Independent.— False Syntax
Substantives modifying Nouns.— False Syntax
Object.— Objective of Time.— False Syntax
Substantives in Apposition.— False Syntax .
Substantives after Verbs.— False Syntax
Pronouns.— False Syntax
Pronouns (continued).— False Syntax .
Relative Pronouns.- False Syntax .
Pronouns (continued).— False Syntax .
Articles.— False Syntax
A4jectlves.— False Syntax
Adjectives (continued).— False Syntax
Finite Verbs.— False Syntax
Finite Verbs (continued).— False Syntax .
Finite Verbs (coutinued).— False Syntax
The Infinitive.— False Syntax
Partidplee.— False Syntax
Participles (continued).- False Syntax
Adverbs.-~False Syntax . . . ,
Prepositions.— False Syntax .
(injunctions.— False Syntax
Miscellaneous Exercise in False Syntax
Rules for Capitals .....
Punctuation (continued) ....
Punctuation (continued) ....
Apostrophe.— H3rphen.—Quotation-points .
Figures of Etjrmology.— Hgurea of Syntax ,
Figures of Rhetoric ....
Prosody (continued) ....
flsTEBAi. years ago^ the author was engaged by the publishers
of Weld's En^^ish Graimnar to revise that worl:, with instructioDs
to loake such changes in it as would in his opinion perfect the
sjstem therein presented. This task he performed to the best
oi hia ability, making as good a book as he knew how to produce
om Weld^s cistern. This system, however, was not his own ; in
many important points it did not represent his views ; nor was
it his province, being simply its editor, to introduce his own pe-
culiar views into the revised book. They have been retained for
the present work, contemplated long before the revision was un-
dertaken, and here presented as a new and distinct System of
In ofQering tiie present Grammar to the public, the author
begs leave to refer to the work itself as the best exponent of those
peculiarities by which it is to be improved or condemned. A few
words, however, may not be improper here as to its plan and gen-
Grammar has hitherto been a dry and hard sul^ject to teach.
It is here sought to make it ea^ and interesting by combining
practice with theory, example with precept, on a more liberal
scale than has heretofore generally been done. The matter i^
divided into short lessons, followed in every case by an Exercise,
which applies in every variety of way the principles just laid
down, and frequently ^nbodies a practical review of what has
been preyiousl j learned.
Definitions are approached by means of preliminary illustra-
tions, which make their abstract langnage intelligible while it is
in process of learning.
Words are classified as parts of speech solely and ezdnsively
according to their use in the sentence. This course does away
with all arbUrary distinctions, and enables the pupil to classify
words readily and correctly for himselfl
The Bules of Syntax are introduced as they are needed, in
connection with etymological parsing. Thus, among other ad-
Tantages, is avoided the unreasonableness (inevitable, when these
roles are kept back) of requiring a pupil to give the case of nouns
under circumstances in which he can have no possible due to it.
A sunple method of analyzing sentences is presented, not en-
cumbered with technical terms or requiring labor on the teacher's
part to make it available.
There is no avoiding of difliculties. A lesson is expressly de-
voted to the explanation of perplexing constructions.
Many minor points may also be noticed ; such as doing away
with the neuter gender, a factitious distinction engrafted on English
Grammar from the classical languages; the view taken of com-
parison ; the comprehensive treatment of auxiliaries, and direo-
tions fbr their proper use ; the introduction of needy as an auxil<
iary of the present potential ; the unusually full Exercises on False
Syntax ; and the general arrangement and adaptation of the whole.
It is believed that this Grammar will be found to work well in
the dass-room, and, whetiier used in connection with the author's
books on Composition or independently of them, to impart a
thorough knowledge of our language.
LETTERB, SYLLABLES, WORDS, 8BNTEN0XB.
1. What Grammar is. — ^Men liave minds; with
these they think. Men have speech; this enables
them to express their thoughts.
Thoughts are expressed with words. Grammar
teaches us how to put words together, to express
Thoughts naay be either spoken or written. Gram-
mar, therefore, teaches us how to speak and write cor-
Different languages, such as English, French, Latin,
have different pecuKarities. Hence every language has
its own grammar. English Grammar teaches us how
to speak and write the English language correctly,
2. Words. — ^A Word is the sign of an idea.
1. With vrhat do men think f How are they enabled to ezpreat their thought* t
With what are thoughts ezpreesedf What teaches ub how to put words to*
gether, to express thoughts correctly f How m&y thoughts be made known t
What, then, does Grammar teach us f What does English Grammar teach us f
What if a Word! Give an example. How are words combined f Give an
8 LETTEBS. — 8TLLABLB8.
Thui, the word nm is a sign that stands for the queen of flowers, ^le
word viilage isa sign that stands for a small ooUection of houses.
To express thoughts, words, which are the signs of
distinct ideas, are combined in Sentences. When I say,
"The rose is sweet," I express one thought, with four
words combined in one sentence.
3. Lbttbes. — ^When spoken, a word is a sound or
erivatives t Why is
thUf What derivattTes are Ibnnedftom the ^rimitiTe port 7 How are these d*-
14 WGBMXTKm OF DEBITATIVIIS.
derivatiyee. Tliis is because many deriyatives some-
times come from a single primitive. Thus from the
primitive pa/rt are formed
coanter/Hzr^, party, impartod,
depwrty partiBajij copartner,
impart, ^article, imparting, &c., dec. -
It will be seen that these derivatiTes are formed by placing certain let-
ters before or after the primitiye, or both. The letters thus placed are
called Prefixes and Suffixes. .
19. Prefixes and Suffixes. — ^A Prefix is a letter or
letters placed before a primitive or compound, to modify
its meaning ; as, efo in depart j un in ungentlemanly.
A Suffix is a letter or letters placed after a primitive
or compound, to modify its meaning; as, iaan iapart-
isan^ ly in ungentlemanly.
Prefixes and suffixes modify the meaning of the word to which they are
joined. Thus, the prefix un means not ; the suffix new means the quality
of being. Then unkind means not hind; kindness is the quality of being
hind; unhindness is the quality of being not hind» So with unsound,
soundnessj unsoundness^ &c., &o.
20. Inseparable Koots. — Some derivatives come
from roots not separately used as words. Thus, averty
revertedy converiMe^ and many other derivatives, come
from the root vert^ meaning to tv/m.
These roots are mostly from Latin words, and some of them enter into
a great number of deriTatives. The most important ones are given belov
with their meanings, and should be committed to memory.
OBDE, OBED, 0E8S, tO gO. f OTTB, OXJBS, tO nUl.
cosiTB, OBPT, to take. diot, to say, to speak.
tJLUDE, OLUS, to shut. I DUOB, DUOT, to lead.
rtrativee formed t 19. What ii m Prefix t What ig a Suffix t What is the fbroe
of profizee and sofflzes t Uliutrate thii with the prefix un and the saffix neM.
fO. From what sort of roots do some derivatlYes oome t Qiye examples. Fram
what language are these inseparable roots mostly deiiyed ff
■SOT, noi, to do, make.
wxRy to bear, to carrj.
FUSE, to pour,
JBOT, to cast
lATB, to bear, to carry.
UECT, to choose, to gather.
I.X7DB, Lus, to play.
JOT, MISS, to send.
PKL, FULB, to drive.
PIND, PEV0, to hang;
PONS, POBB, to place.
POST, to carry.
SOBIBE, BOBIPT, tO WlttO.
8I8T, to stand.
TAIN, TENT, tO hold.
TEND, TENS, tO Strctdu
TBAOT, to draw.
TBNE, TENT, tO OOIDe.
Spell and analyze the following derivativei : — [Thus : — £ecewe is
a derivatiye from the inseparable root oeiye, to take ; r^ is a pre-
fix. — Mission is a derivatiye from the inseparable root iciss, to
send; iem is a saf^x,— Copartner is a derivative from the primi-
tive pabt; (JO is a prefix, ner a suflBx.] Tension ; contradict; in-
vented ; susceptible ; translate ; tractable ; conftise ; prevent ; sof-
fident ; ductile ; conference ; scripture ; postpone ; subject ;
inducement; repcS; averting; suppose; illusive.
[For young classes^ divide the follomng List and 36&reis6 int0
three lessansy gi/oing one third of each at a time.]
21. A list of the most common prefixes follows;
learn their meanings. It will be seen that some of them
have diflferent forms. In most cases, this is because the
final letter is changed, to correspond with the first let-
ter of the primitive or root. Thus we have ac-cKmafe,
cEtrtendj in stead of ad-cUmatej aArtend.
1. in, on.
2» [or an], destitute of, want
8. [or AB, ABs], from, away.
AD [AO, AF, AO, AL, an, AP, AB,
AS, at], to. ^
ANTi [ant], opposed, opposite to.
LIST OF ifix moent ooiocok tbxbixba.
BK, by, to make.
ooN [00, ooL, COM, oob], together,
OOSTTBA [OONTBO, OOUNTEB],
DB, from, down, to make, to de-
Dis [di], apart, to remove, not
BK [bm], in, to make, to make or
Bx [b, bo, bf], out, from, beyond.
m [lo, iL, DC, IB], to make, to
pnt in, not
MIS, wrong, HI.
OB [oo, OB, op], before, against.
OUT, beyond, better.
PBB, through, thoroughly.
PBO, forth, forward, for.
BB, back, again.
SB, from, apart, out.
SUB [SUO, SUB, BUG, SUP, SUB,
bus], under, after.
SUPBB [suFBA, bub], over, above,
TBANs [tbah, tba], over, aoroiib
xm, to remove, not
Spell and define the folhwing dervaatwes. They a/re a/nanged
mth their prefixes in the same order as those in the List. When a
prefia has several meanings, one derivative is given to illustrate each,
[Thus: — ^ilblaze — spell — »» a blaze, ulfire-nspell — <mfire. Aceph-
alous — spell — destitute of a head. Anarchy, want of govern-
Ablaze; afire; acephalous; anarchy; avert; a&^act; op-
pend; assist; anf^oom; an^t- American ; antarctic; &^de; be-
numb; 5iform (having Imo forms); circt^mvent; <j<wnpose; co-
tenant; ciEmtradict ; ^«tain; deorj; (Z^base; eZ^fame; <2ilate; dis-
burden ; dfisagreeable ; entwine ; ^rich ; embody ; educe ; e^rclude ;
eo^eed ; inipurple ; incase ; irrational ; interlace ; ^nisbelieve ;
misfortune ; ofl&r ; oZgect' ; <mtearch ; outsdSl ; perceive ; perfect ;
preoccupy ; produce ; propel ; fwoconsul ; repay ; reprint ; «ecede ;
eedude; eelect; eemitone; «t^fficer; et^eceed; m^rmount; super^
scribe; ewperhuman; ^oTisoribe; transport; t^^amontane (be-
yond the mountains) ; t^nload ; t^nfit
Arran^e<?promMCttotwZy;— Collect; sufl5x; embroil; apportion;
imprison; supravulgar; anti-republican; antedate; deject; illegal;
effuse; accede; controvert; allure; di^irit; infirm.
Lurr OF isB xo0r oomioiHr sumxis.
[Far young elaue$^ divide the foUatoing! LUt and Eureue into
Uoo lessons, giving one "half of each at a time.]
22. A list of the most common suffixes follows ;
learn their meanings.
FT7L, OUS, S0I7S, lOUB, T, fbll of.
FT, nrr, vex, to make.
HOOD, DOM, SHIP, the stoto, rank,
mo, ANT, SNT, contmuing to.
ION, ifSNT, T7BE, the act of.
isif, the state of being, system
SIN, LBT, UNO, OCX, ITIB, OITLB, a
LESS, without, that can not be.
LT, in a ( ) manner, like.
NESS, OE, OY, iTY, TT, the stato
or quality of being.
SOKE, iSH, somewhat.
BY, SBY, the art or practice of.
ABUi, IBI.E, iLB, that may or can
be, worthy of being.
▲eE, a place where, the cost of,
state or rank of^ act of.
▲L, rdating to, the act ot
AN, AB, IAN, relating to, one who.
ABD, 1ST, OB, one who.
ATE, to make, made like, pos-
ED, did, possessed of.
EE, one who is.
EN, to make, made ot
EB, more, one who.
ES, s, more than one, does.
ESS, iNE, IX, a female.
EST, most, dost.
J^ll and define the foUovmg derivatives. They <vre affT<mged
wUh their suffixes in the same order as those in the List. [Thus : —
Chargeo^Z^-Hspell— tAat may be charged. Rouoraible — spell —
worthy of being honored. Moorage — spell— a place where to. moor,
Ohargeo^Z^; honora529; moorage; piloto^a; peerage; mar-
liage; autunmaZ; acquittal; Ohihan; columnar; guardian;
duUori; psalmist; grasitor; ralida^; global; fortuna^; kick^;
good-humor^; employ^tf; shorten; hempen; quicker; keeper;
foxes; waye; crushes; sitf ; priesteia; testatrio;; quickest; keep-
est; feajful; pomp^tM; watery; ju8t(^; msaxhood; judgeiA^;
IdDgdom; hesMng; pendent; missiem; sensnaliwn; protestant-
18 ASriLTBIB OF WOSD0.
urn; hrnhhin; teulem; wteleis; rsablff; qoBeaJfy; oMity;
BOJxmeu; loneiome; hlackUh; herald^; hnSoonmy.
ANALYSIS OP WORDS.
23. FoBMATiON OF Dbeivativbs, — ^A derivatiye may
be formed by unitiiig two or more prefixes or snffixeA
with a primitive or inseparable root ; as,
Be-ex'^rt, to ctmy-out-offain,
Jvustrify-ififfj coniimmng4o make-insL
Me-eolAefA-ionrs^ more than one-aet of-g^iiieTiBg-toffeiher-again.
A derivative may be formed by tmiting a prefix or
suffix with a compomid; as, good-humor-^, Jicmng
24. Formation of Compound Words. — Compounds
may be formed by uniting,
1. Two primitives ; as, moon-beam.
2. A primitive and a derivative ; as, bright-eyed.
Analysis. — Bright is a primitlye ; eyed is a deriyatiye from the primi-
tive eye^ meaning having eyes; bright-eyed is a compound, meaning having
3. Two derivatives ; as, brightest-eyed.
Analysis. — Brightest is a derivative from the primitive bright^ mean-
ing most bright; eyed is a derivative from the primitive eye^ meaning hav-
ing eyes; brightest-eyed is a compound, meaning having the most bright
4. An inseparable root and a primitive ; as, multi*
Analysis. — Multi is an inseparable root, meaning many; form is a
primitive ; multiform is a compound, meaning having many forms,
6. Two inseparable roots ; as, geography.
. ■ " ,.,,.■■■
^fiownayadMivativebelbniiedl Give ezami^eB. HowflMmayaaeriis>
Digitized by VjOOQIC
JUirALTBIS OF W0BD6. 19
JLKALTStB.^'Cho is Ml ins^MUTtble root, meiiiiDg ike emrth; graphf
is an inseparable root, meaning a deseripHon; geography is a compound,
meaning a dewription of the earth,
25. The most important roots that enter into com-
pound words are gbapht, a description or history qfj
and LOOT, the science of, or a treatise on. They appear
in many words, combined with other roots ; such as
Bio, life. i Geo, the earth.
Ethno, a nation. | Mttho, a &ble.
S^l>ell and antUyu, according to the forvM given above : — BeSn-
force; Inrightening ; seemingly; nnattraoted; inadvertently; fistr-
sifted; gentlemanly; powder-h(»n; son-in-law; conmiander-
in-chief; battering-ram; wood-peoker; pew-holder; nnhoped-
for; riding-schools; watering-places; biography; geography;
BULEB OF BPELLINa.
26. In forming compounds, the simple words are put
together without change ; as, green-house.
In forming derivatives, a prefix is joined to a primi-
tive without change ; as, de-form.
On adding a saffix, the primitive is changed in some
cases, but not in others.
mtiT« be formed t 24. What Is the first mode mentioned in which a compound