G. T. (Gideon Tibbetts) Ridlon.

History of the ancient Ryedales, and their descendants in Normandy, Great Britain, Ireland, and America, from 860 to 1884 online

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of the figures represented on the shields. This neres>ity led, in the course of
time, to the development of a regular system of heraldry, and the ancient rolls
show that the process was going on in the thirteenth and fourteenth ceuturies.
In England, the assumption of arms by private persons was first restrained by a
proclamation from Henry V, which prohibited every one who had not borne arms
at Agincourt to assume them, except in virtue of inheritance or a grant from the
crown. To enforce this rule, heralds' visitations through the counties were insti-
tuted, and continued from time to time, for centuries. So strict were the laws
regardiug coats-of-arms at this time, that a man who had assumed certain armo-
rial bearings without proper authority, lost one of his ears as a penalty. When
herald visitations were instituted, all persons claiming the right to bear anus
were warned to assemble at some stated place in the district, and to bring with
them all arms, crests, and pedigrees, for examination by the herald's deputy,
and present evidence of their genuineness.

In the united kingdom of Great Britain, no one is entitled to bear arms with-
out a hereditary claim by descent, or a grant from the competent authority,
this jurisdiction being executed by the Herald's College in England, the Lyon
Court in Scotland, and the College of Arms in Ireland. It is illegal to use
without authority, not only a coat-of-arms, but even a crest. The passion for
outward distinction is so deeply implanted in human nature, that in this country,
where all differences of rank are repudiated, men are found assuming heraldic
devices, and the interest in this practice has so increased that hundreds of
families have framed coats-of-arms hanging on the walls of their houses, en-
graved on their jewelry, displayed on their stationery, and even painted on the
doors of their carriages, in imitation of the aristocracy of Great Britain. Some
of these coats-of-arms were authoritatively borne by their ancestors in the old
country, and others are fictitious, having been originally drawn or painted by men
who early canvassed New England with books containing cuts of shields and
appendages, purporting to have been granted to families in England and Scot-
land, which they claimed our American ancestors had a right to bear, by virtue
of relationship.

As many who will read this book do not understand the "language of her-
aldry," the characters and abbreviations used in describing the coats-of-arms that
have been borne by the various branches of the Riddel] and Ridley families, will
be unintelligible, unless a comprehensive explanation is given, to which reference
may be had for directions. Such a chapter will be both interesting and instructive
to all who possess any family pride, as well as to the general reader. The fol-
lowing articles, with tables, will be all that is necessary for this purpose: —




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HERALDR Y. 2



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ATTITUDES AND POSITIONS OF ANIMALS IN COATS-OF-ARMS.

When a lion, or other beast of prey, stands upright, with only one eye and
ear seen, he is termed rampant; when walking forward with one eye and ear
seen, passant; when sitting with one eye and ear seen, sejant; when lying
down with one eye and ear seen, couchant. If in any of these positions the
animal turns his face fully to the front, so that both eyes and ears are seen,
the word guardant is annexed to those of rampant, passant, sejant, as the case
may be. If the animal look backward with only one eye and ear seen iu any
of the positions above named, the word regardant is annexed to those of ram-
pant, passant, sejant, as the case may be. An animal in a coat-of-arms is said
to be saliant when leaping forward. Animals of the deer kind, when looking
full-faced, are said to be at gaze; when standing, statant ; when walking, trip-
pant; when looking forward, springing; when running, courant ; and when at
rest on the ground, lodged. A horse when running, is said to be courant, or
full-speed; when leaping, saliant; when standing, forcene. Birds when standing
with wings down, are said to be close; when preparing to fly, rising; when
flying, volent ; when stretched out and their breast seen, displayed; when wings
are open and against each other, they are said to be endorsed ; only one wing is
called dernivol. Fishes, when placed horizontally, are called naiant; when per-
pendicular, hauriant ; when in an arched form, they are embowed.

APPENDAGES TO THE SHIELD.

The helmet, helme, casque, or morion, as it is variously designated, has varied
in shape in different ages and countries. The most ancient form is the sim-
plest, — composed of iron, of a shape fitted to the head, and flat upon the top,
with an aperture for the light. This is styled the " Norman helmet," and appears
on very ancient seals, attached to the gorget, a separate piece of armor which
covered the neck. In the twelfth century a change was made, to mark the
rank of the individual bearer.

The helmet assigned to kings and princes of royal blood is placed upon the
shield in arms with the face full to the front, and composed of gold, with the
beauvoir, or visor, divided by six projecting bars and lined with crimson.

The helmet of the nobility is of steel, with the five bars of gold, and is placed
on the shield in coats-of-arms, inclining to profile.

The helmet of knights and baronets is of steel, full-faced, with the visor thrown
back, and without bars.

The helmet of esquires always depicted in profile, is of steel, with the visor
closed.

Each of the helmets is placed immediately above the shield, or escutcheon,
and supports the wreath, which is under the crest. The lambrequin, a kind of
mantle or hood, is placed on the head between the helmet and crest, and
depicted, in heralds' language, fiattant behind the wearer. The shape of the
lambrequin was most capricious, for, as it was probably cut through with the
sword iu battle, it afforded certain evidence of prowess.

The wreath, upon which the crest is usually borne, is composed of two cords
of silk twisted together; the one tinctured with the principal metal, and the
other with the principal colors in the arms. The wreath, in ancient times, was
used to fasten the crest to the helmet. It is made circular, but when seen in
coats-of-arms, is seen with the side view.

The crest, or cognizance (derived from the Latin word, crista, a comb, or



28 HEBALDRT.



tuft), originated in the thirteenth century; and, towering above other objects,
served to distinguish the combatants when engaged in conflict. No crest is
ever found on the arms borne by females. Unless otherwise stated, it is always
on the wreath ; which need not, therefore, be named on the blazon.

Supporters are figures placed on each side of the shield in coats-of-arms ; and,
as the name indicates, seem to hold it up. In England, the right to bear sup-
porters is confined to Peers of the Realm, Knights of the Garter and Bath, and
to those who may have obtained them by royal grant. The Gartcr-King-at-arms
has no right to grant them to any person of lower rank than a Kuight of the
Bath, unless acting under special directions from the Sovereign ; but in Scotland,
Lord Lyon may, by virtue of his office, do so without any royal warrant. In
Scotland, the right to bear supporters is universally conceded to the chiefs of
the various clans.

DIVISIONS OF THE SHIELD.

The surface of the escutcheon, or shield, is called the field, and is divided into
the following parts, A. B, C : the chief, sub-divided into A, the dexter, or right-
hand chief point; B, the middle chief point; C, the sinister, or left-hand chief point;
D, the collar, or honor-point; E, the heart, or fess-point; F, the nombriel, or
naval-point; and G, H, I, the base, sub-divided into G, the dexter base-point; H,
the middle base-point; and I, the sinister base-point.

TINCTURES USED IN ARMS.

The shield, or escutcheon, in arms is distinguished by certain armorial colors,

called tinctures, which are separated by division lines which run across the

shield, and are ornamented with animals, instruments, and other objects called

charges. The tinctures used in heraldry are metals, colors, and furs; and by

the ancient heralds precious stones were used. (See heraldic tables.)

Or — gold, is known in uncolored drawings and engravings by small dots or
points on the white surface.

Argent — silver, is expressed by a plain, white surface iu the shield, in uncol-
ored views.

Azure — blue, is depicted by horizontal lines, finely drawn across the surface
of the shield.

Gules — red, is depicted by perpendicular lines, finely drawn from the top to
the base of the shield.

Vert — green, is depicted by lines running from the dexter chief- to the sini-
ster base-points on the shield.

Sable — black, is depicted by cross-lines running horizontally and perpendic-
ularly across the shield.

Purpure — purple, is depicted bylines running from the sinister chief- to the
dexter base-points on the shield.

Ermine — a white shield with black spots, representing ermine fur worn by
members of the royal household.

Ermines — a black shield with white spots, — an exact contrast to the former.

Erminois— a gold surface to the shield, with black spats.

Pearl — a shield with black surface, filled with gold spot>.

Vair — composed originally of pieces of fur, but now of silver and blue colors,
cut to resemble the flower of the campanula, and opposed to each other in rows.
When depicted iu colors, they are specified vaire.

CoiJNTER-VAii: — differs from vair by having the bells, or cups, arranged base
against base aud point against point, just the reverse of vair.

Potent-( orxTER-i'OTENT — is composed of figures, resembling crutch-heads,
placed in rows upon the white shield.



HERALDRY.



29



Old heralds used more minute distiuctious. The arms of gentlemen, esquires,
knights, and baronets, they blazoned by tinctures ; those of the nobility, by
precious stoues; and those of emperors, kings, and other sovereign princes,
by planets.

HERALDIC TABLE.



Color* and Metals.


Tinctures.


Precious Stones.


Planets.


Nam is
Abbreviated.


Yellow, or Gold.


Or.


Topaz.


.Sol.


O., Or.


White, or Silver.


Argent.


Pearl.


Luna. £


A., A.R.


1 Slack.


Sable.


Diamond.


Saturn. »>


S., S v.


Red.


Gules.


Ruby.


Mars, j 1


G., <,i .


Blue.


Azi;re.


Sapphire.


Jupiter. %


B., Az.


Green.


\ ERT.


Emerald.


Venus. ;


V., Vert.


Purple.


PlJRPURE.


\MKTIIVST.


Mercury. $


P., PURP.


Tawny.


Tenm:.


JACYNTH.


Dragon's Head.


T., Ten.


Murrey.


Sanguine.


Sardonyx.


Dragon's Tail.


Sg.; Sang.



PARTITION LINES.

The partition lines in heraldry are those that divide the shield, or charge, and
are always right lines unless otherwise described by the following names, viz.,
engrailed, invected, wavy, nebule, embattled, indented, and dancette. Added to
these are sometimes ragnly and dove-tails. The following will explain the divi-
sions of the shield in coats-of-arms : —

Per-pale. The shield divided into two equal parts, by a perpendicular line.

Quarterly. The shield divided into four equal parts, by a horizontal and
perpendicular lines, crossing at right angles in the center.

Party- per-fess. The shield divided by a horizontal Hue into four equal parts,
chief and base.

Party-per-bend. The shield divided into equal parts by a line running from
the dexter chief to the sinister base.

Party-per-chevron. The shield divided by lines running from the sinster
and dexter naval-points to the centre of the field, in the form of rafters.

Party-per-saltire. The shield divided by two lines running from sinister
and dexter naval-points, and crossing each other in heart or fesse-point of the
escutcheon.

Gyronny-of-Eight. The shield divided into eight parts by two lines running
horizontally and perpendicularly, crossing in the fesse-point; and two lines run-
ning from the dexter and sinister naval-points to the dexter and sinister chief-
points.

The Chief. The shield divided by a horizontal line one-third below the top
of the escutcheon.

The Pale. The shield divided by two perpendicular lines, which leave the
field in three equal parts.

The Bend. The shield divided by two lines that run from the dexter-chief
to the sinister-base.

Bend Sinister. The shield divided by lines running at right angles, and
forming a cross with perpendicular and horizontal bars.

The Fesse. The shield divided by two lines running horizontally across the
field at the honor- and fesse-points.



30 IIERALDlt ).



The Saltire. The shield divided by lines running from the sinister and dex-
ter base- to the sinister and dexter chief-points, forming a cross.

The Chevron. The shield divided by rafters, which rest at the dexter and
sinister naval-points, and unite at the middle chief-point.

The Border. The shield divided by a line running inside of the border lines
of the field, representing a smaller escutcheon of the same form.

The Orle. Lines that describe the form of a bow in the center of the field
with cross-top.

The Pretence. A small shield in the center of the large one, on which the
wife's arms are emblazoned.

The Quarter. Liues running from the top and side of the shield, and meet-
ing in the center so as to cut one quarter from the dexter chief.

The Canton. Lines that cut out the dexter corner of the shield, upon which
is sometimes an open hand.

Checque. Lines running across the shield at right angles, dividing the field
into checques.

Billets. Three oblong figures, two in the chief and one in the middle, base-
point like billets of wood.

The Paile. Lines running from the middle base-poiut to the dexter and sin-
ister chief-points, forming the letter Y.

The Pile. Lines running from the sinister and dexter chief-points to the
middle base-point, in the form of the letter V, — said to represent the three nails
of the Saviour's cross, when there are three.

The Flauxce. Liues running from the sides of the shield in the form of half-
circles.

Losexge. Three small diamond-formed figures, sometimes one within the other,
making a border to each.

The Fret. A large diamond, whose points nearly reach the sides of the shield,
crossed by two lines running from sinister and dexter chief-points to sinister
and dexter base-points.

Lozengy. Caused by lines crossing each other in diamond-form.

ARMS OF RIDDELLS, IN SCOTLAND.

[From the Lyon Office, Edinburgh.]

George Riddell, Esq., doctor of medicine, heir male, and representative of
the family of Kiuglass, who was descended of Riddell of that ilk : Bears quar-
terly, first and fourth argent on a chevron gules, betwixt three ears of rye,
slipped and bladed vert, a mollet of the field of Riddell. Second and third
argent, a fess between three bay leaves vert for Foulis, as being descended
from Foulis of Ravelston by his great-grandmother, who was aunt to Sir John-
Foulis Primrose of Ravelston and Dunipace, Bart. ; Crest, a demi-greyhound
argent. Motto, "Right to Share." Matriculated 7th August, 1765.

James Riddell, Esq., of Riddell-Lodge, in the County of Berwick, and of
Belton, in the County of Suffolk (descended of the family of Riddell of King-
lass, by Elizabeth Foulis, aunt to Sir John-Foulis Primrose of Ravelston and
Dunipace, Bart.; who was descended of Riddell of that ilk), and who married
Mary, eldest daughter of Thomas Milles, Esq., of Billockby-hall, in the County
of Norfolk : Bears quarterly, first and fourth argent, on a Chevron invected
gules, betwixt three ears of Rye slipped and bladed vert: a cross moliue of the
field for Riddell ; second and third or, a lion passant between three billets
sable by the name of Milles. Crest, a demi-greyhound argent. Motto, " Right
to Share." Matriculated 7th August, 1765.

James Riddell, of Ardnamurchan and Sunart, in the County of Argyle; of
Mains, in the Stewartry of Kirkcudbright; of Riddell-Lodge, in the County of



HEBALDBY. 31



Berwick ; of Castlelaw, iu the County of Mid-Lothian ; of Belton, in the County
of Suffolk; and of Caister, in the County of Norfolk, esquire. One of His
Majesty's Justices of the Peace for the Counties of Argyle and Suffolk, LL. D.,
and member of the Society for Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures, and Com-
merce, whose lady was Mary, daughter and heiress of Thomas Milles, of
Billockby-hall, esquire, iu the County of Norfolk, and who was third son of
Capt. George Ridded, representative of the family of Kinglass, and Christian
daughter of Andrew Patterson, of Kirktowu, esquire, which George was eldest
son of George Riddell, of Kinglass, esquire, and Jean, eldest daughter of Capt.
John Taillyeour, which last George, who succeeded his elder brother James
Riddell, of Kinglass, who died without issue, was second son of James Riddell,
of Kinglass, Commissary General to the Parliament's army in the north in
the reign of King Charles I, and Elizabeth, daughter of George Foulis, of
Ravelston, esquire, which last James was only son of James Riddell, the only
son of Robert Riddell, second son of Walter Riddell, of Riddell, esquire, chief
of that name in this kingdom, the thirteenth in descent from Geoffrey Riddell,
who obtained from King David I, these lands in the County of Roxburgh,
erected on his account into the Barony of Riddell, which Geoffrey was
grandson of the Sieur Riddell, who was descended from the House of Aujou,
who vvas one of the noblemen that came from Normandy with William the
Conqueror, and had a command in his army at the Battle of Hastings, iu the
year 106C> : Bears quarterly, first and fourth argent, on a chevron invecked
gules between three ears of rye slipped and bladed proper, a cross Moliue of
the field for Riddell; second aud third or, a lion passant between three billets
sable for Milles. Crest, a demi-greyhound argent. Motto : " Right to Share,"
and below the shield, Utile et Dulce. Supporters : On the dexter, a lady, the
emblem of agriculture, holding iu her right hand the Zodiac, together with
three stalks of corn, and iu her left, an imperial crown proper; her upper gar-
ment vert, aud the under one or. On the sinister, the emblem of Honour,
wreathed about the head with laurel, crested with broom, holding a spear in
his dexter hand, and a shield in his sinister, whereon are represented two tem-
ples proper, vested above a white garment with a robe azure, with a chain
around his neck, and bracelets round his wrists or. Matriculated 7th February,
1775.

Sir James-Milles Riddell, of Arduamuichan and Sunart, in the County of
Argyle, Bart., eldest son and heir of Thomas-Milles Riddell, Esq., and Mrs.
Margaret Campbell his spouse, which Thomas-Milles was only son of the late
Sir James Riddell, also of Ardnamurchan, etc., Bart., by his spouse Mary, only
daughter and heiress of Thomas Milles, of Billockby-hall iu the County of
Norfolk, esquire : Bears quarterly, first on three piles in point gules, sur-
mounted by a bend azure ; second quarter counter-quartered, first lozengy or.
and gules; second gules, three lions rampant or; third gules, two pales vair a
chief or ; fourth barry of six or, and sable in chief, a label of six points of the
last. Third grand quarter counter-quartered, first azure, a wolf's head erazed
argent ; second and third argent, three barry gules ; fourth barry wavy of six,
or. and gules. Fourth grand quarter or. a lion passant, between three billets
sable, the badge of a British baronet being placed in the heart-point. Above the
shield is placed a helmet befitting his degree with a mantling, gules doubled
argent, and on a wreath of his liveries is set for crest a hand issuing out a
coronet of an earl of France, holding baton all proper, over which upon an
exvol is the motto "de Apulia" and beneath the shield upon a compartment



32 HERALDRY,



whereon is inscribed utile dulce, are placed for supporters, on the dexter a
female representing agriculture, habited as the ancient Ceres, holding a plough
with her right hand and in her left a poppy-seed vessel with ears of wheat and
rye; and on the sinister an armed knight of the eleventh century representing
Honour holding a pennon with the red cross of England upon a white field.

These arms are destined by letters -patent from the Lord Lyon, bearing even
date with the Matriculation the twenty-second day of April, 1829, to the said
Sir James-Milles Riddell, Bart., and his heirs, with due and proper differences
according to the law of Arms, the exterior decoration of supporters and the
baronet's badge being the distinct ensigns of the said Sir James-Milles Riddell
and his male representatives.

ARMS OF VARIOUS HOUSES OF RIDDELL.

1. Riddell, of Ardnamurchan and Sunart, Scotland. Or, three piles in point
gu., surmounted by a bend az. Crest, a hand issuing from an earl's coronet
of France, holding a baton, all ppr. Supporters, dexter, a female, in her ex-
terior hand three ears of rye ; sinister, a knight in complete armor. Motto,
" Utile et dulce " (useful and agreeable). This coat was created in 1778, and has
now many quarteriugs.

2. Riddell, of Roxburghshire, Scotland. Ar. a chev. gu. betw. three ears
of rye ppr., slipped vert. Crest, a demi-greyhouud ar. Supporters, two grey-
hounds ar. Motto, "I hope to share."

3. Riddell, of Minto, Scotland. Ar. a chev. gu. betw. three ears of rye,
stalked and slipped vert. Crest, a dexter hand ppr., holding a blade of rye,
slipped, or.

4. Riddell, Durham and Newcastle, Northumberland. Ar. a fesse betw. three
garbs., az. Crest, a demi-lion rampt. erminois, holding betw paws a garb or.
Another az.

5. Riddell, Norfolk. Sa. three martletts within a bordure engrailed, ar.
Crest, a martlett ar.

6. Riddell, Bedfordshire. Paley of six ar. and gu., a bend sa.

7. Riddell, "Middlesex. Gu. a lion rampt or within a bordure. indented, ar.

8. Riddell, Oxfordshire and Gloucestershire. Paley of six, or. and gu. on
a chief az. three lions, rampt. or. Crest, a talbot's head couped az. garnished
and ringed or.

9. Riddell, Felton Park and Swinburn Castle. Arg. a fesse. betw three rye
sheaves, az. Crest, a demi-lion. couped. or. holding a rye sheaf, az. Motto,
" Deus solus augot arestas."*

10. Riddell, Gleu-Riddell, DUmfrieshire, Scotland. Ar. a chev. gu. betw.
three ears of rye ppr. slipped vert. Crest, a sheaf of rye standing upright ppr.f

UNDESIGNATED ARMS OF RIDDELLS.

11. Riddell. Or. on a bend. az. three Catharine wheels ar.

m

* According to the appendix of the Carr MS., Thomas Riddell, sheriff of Xe\veastle-on-
Tyne, 1500 A. D., William Riddell, mayor of that city, 1510 and 1526 A. I)., William Riddell,
sheriff, 1575 A. D., ami Peter Riddell, sheriff, all bore arms as follows: "Gu. a lion rani-
pant within a bordure indented arte." Peter, however, bore "a crescent sa. in dexter
chief, for difference." it will be seen that these differ from the arms of the Riddells of
Feiiham, and the Scottish families. Jordan Ridel, of Tilmouth, England, L230A. I)., "bore
rive bars wavy" in his shield. Ridall, or Ridhull (Herts). "Or, on a bend az."

t For arms of Riddells of Wittering, see pedigree of thai family in i><»ly of lhis book.



HEBALDBY. 33



12. Riddell. Sa. ou a fesse betw. three owls ar. five crosses formee of the first.

13. Riddell. Ar. three piles gu. a quarter sa.

14. Riddell. Or three piles gu. a bencllet. az.

15. Riddell. Sa. ou a fesse. betw. three owls. or. as many cross-crosslets
of the field.

16. Riddell. Arg. a chev. gu. eugr. betw three ears of rye slipped ppr.
in chief an open hand. Motto, " Utile et dulce."

ARMS OF RIDLEYS IN ENGLAND.

1. Ridley, Heatou Hall, County Northumberland, Bart. Quarterly first and
fourth, gu. on a chev. betw. three falcons ar. as many pellets, for Ridley; sec-
ond and third ar. three cocks' heads erased, Sa. for White. Crest, a full pass,
the tail extended over the back, gu. Motto, " Constance fideo"

2. Ridley, Ridley Hall, Chester, and Willimoteswick and Walltown, North-
umberland. Gu. a chev. betw. three goshawks, ar. for Wale, Elias Ridley;
quarterings ar. an ox pas. gu. through reeds ppr. being the ancient coat of
Ridley. Crest, a greyhound courant, ar.

3. Ridley, Atkinton and Linley, County Sallop. Ar. on a mount vert, a bull
standing, gu. armed or.

4. Ridley, Parkend, Northumberland. Gu. on a chev. betw. three falcons



Online LibraryG. T. (Gideon Tibbetts) RidlonHistory of the ancient Ryedales, and their descendants in Normandy, Great Britain, Ireland, and America, from 860 to 1884 → online text (page 5 of 103)