G. T. (Gideon Tibbetts) Ridlon.

History of the families Millingas and Millanges of Saxony and Normandy, comprising genealogies and biographies of their posterity surnamed Milliken, Millikin, Millikan, Millican, Milligan, Mulliken and Mullikin, A. D. 800-A. D. 1907; containing names of thirty thousand persons, with copious notes on online

. (page 2 of 109)
Online LibraryG. T. (Gideon Tibbetts) RidlonHistory of the families Millingas and Millanges of Saxony and Normandy, comprising genealogies and biographies of their posterity surnamed Milliken, Millikin, Millikan, Millican, Milligan, Mulliken and Mullikin, A. D. 800-A. D. 1907; containing names of thirty thousand persons, with copious notes on → online text (page 2 of 109)
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ViKws of Rksidkncks. r'our of the full-page halftone views of family
seats now published was reproduced from paintings in black and white for
this book by the celebrated artist, C. I. (3strand of Boras, Sweden. The
original photographs were not clear and it was found necessary to have
paintings made, and from these the plates were copied — an expensive ven-
ture. 'I'hree of these views represent homes in England, Scotland, and
Ireland and show the architectural character of the ancient low-browed
cottage, the modern home of a well-to-do farmer, and the palatial residence
of baronial style.

The view of Bvma House at Faan in the Province of Groningin, the
Netherlands, was furnished by the Commissioner and represents the resi-
dence of Krnst de Millinga as it appeared in 1780. 'i'his seat has been dis-
mantled.

The view of Dunstan was made from an old print found in I'.ngland by
Hon. James P. Baxter of Portland, Me. It shows the castle, the village,
and the market-house. The title on the old print is spelled Dmistcr, and
knowing of a town in Somersettshire, England, of this name, the author
hesitated about publishing the view ; but was assured by Mr. Baxter that
it represented the Diinstan from which the Scarborough Algers came. If
this assumption is correct — and the authority is reliable — this picture must
be of great interest to all who were descended from the Alger family. So
earlv settled in the Dunstan of Maine.

MiLMKKx Arms. The drawings of coats-of-arms found in this volume
were made by authorized heraldic descriptions procured from the highest
official on the subject ; the Lyon-King-at-Arms in Edinburgh, and correctly
represent all the arms, crests, and mottoes known to have been granted to,
or claimed by, the Mullikins, Millikens, or Milligans.



(L-rrah.



Page 3, for " Kilmarnock," read Kilmarnock.
" 489, for "Mary Horn," read Mary Haun.
" wri, for " deviatitjn," read derivation.



kJ:lM






wsm^m^msk












*.! \d



All ancient nations mentioned in history, wore some kind of defensive
armor when in battle ; sometimes of leather, of brass, of iron and of steel.
Some of the more luxurious had their coats of mail and helmets richly or-
namented with gold and silver. In "Bible times" the sacred writers were
familiar with shields, breastplates and helmets.

When coats of armor were of thick leather, they were padded with some
elastic material that would deaden the blow of sword or spear.

Scale armor was composed of plates of brass, iron, or steel, so formed
and united as to adapt itself to the necessary movements of the wearer's
body.

Armor originally only covered the head and shoulders, but in the days
of William the Conquerer, men of war were clothed from crown to toe in
armor made of plate, or of steel rings.

In process of time the old knights and chiefs had devices on their
shields which represented their prowess and were sometimes significant of
their family names or place of residence ; then a crest was worn on the
helmet, well known by the followers of the chief, that could be seen in bat-
tle, and served as an ensign. These symbols and devises painted on the
shields were of endless variety, "from the highest things celestial, to the
lowest things terrestrial."

Sometimes surcoats made of leather were worn over the armor of pol-
ished brass or steel, to protect the wearer from the heat of the sun, and the
devices that had been painted on the shield, were also embroidered on
their overgarments ; thus the arms became visible to every beholder in bat-
tle, without the aid of a standard. From this method of displaying emblems
and armorial bearings, arose the term cote anniire or coat-of arms.

Many of the ancient monumental effigies in England, represent men
dressed in armor, covered with a surcoat on which are their armorial bear-
ings, exactly corresponding with those on their battle shields. In the mid-
dle ages, armorial devices had become so systematized that they formed a
language which the most illiterate could understand. The learned or un-
learned could read the symbolic picture, which was presented to the eye in
a thousand ways, till the system was interwoven with the character and
teaching of the people. Nearly every mansion was decorated within and
without with armorial insignia ; the ancestry of a family was known by the
shields in the upper parts of windows.

The church favored armorial bearings. The knights took their banners
to be blessed by the priests before going to engage in the Crusade wars, and
on their return, these trophies, covered with honorable decorative charges,
were suspended in the churches, and being of a perishable nature, the dis-
tinctions were in time permanently displayed in the glass of windows, the
frescoes of the walls, or carved in the stone in the building itself.

In the infancy of heraldry, every knight assumed whatever armorial
distinctions he pleased, without consulting his sovereign. Animals, plants,



IIEKALDRV. xvir



imaginary monsters, things artificial, antl objects familiar to pilgrims were
adopted; and whenever possible, the object chosen was one the name of
which bore some resemblance in sound to suggest the name of the bearer.
In the shield of the .\|)pletons are three apples; in that of the liell family,
three bells; in that of the family of Mason, three trowels; in the arms (jf
the Swan family, three swans; in the escutcheon of the kiddells, three ears
of rye.

As coats-of-arms became more numerous, confusion often arose from the
use, by ililTerent knights, of the same symbols; and this confusion was
augmented by the practice of feudal chiefs in allowing their followers to
bear their arms in battle as a mark of honor. In this way different coat.s-
of-arms so closely resembled each other, that it was imperative, for dis-
tinction's sake, that some restrictions and regulations should be laid down
respecting the character, number, and position of the (igures represented
on shields. This necessity led, in the course of time, to the development
of a regular system of heraldry, and the ancient rolls show that the process
was going on in the 13th and 14th centuries.

In England, the assumption of arms by private individuals was first
restrained by a proclamation from Henry V, which prohibited every one
who had not borne arms at Agincourt to assume them, except in virtue of
inheritance or grant from the crown. To enforce this rule, herald's visita-
tions through the countries were instituted, all persons claiming the right
to bear arms being warned to assemble at some stated jilace in the district,
and to bring with them all arms, crests and pedigrees for examination by
the herald's deputy, and present evidence of their genuineness. So strict
were these laws regarding coats-of-arms at that time, that a man who had
assumed certain armorial bearings without proper authority, lost one of his
ears as a penalty.

In the united Kingdom of Great Britain, no one is entitled to bear
arms without a hereditary claim be descent, or a grant from the competent
authority, this jurisdiction being executed by the Herald's College in Eng-
land, the Lyon Court in Scotland, and the College of Arms in Ireland. It
is illegal to use without authority, not only a coat-of-arms, but a crest.

The passion for outward distinction is so deeply implanted in human
nature, that in America, where all differences of rank are repudiated, men
and women are found assuming heraldic devices, and the interest in the
practice has so increased that hundreds of families have framed coats-of-
arms hanging on the walls of their houses, with shields, crests, and mottoes
engraved on their jewelry, displayed on their stationery and painted on the
doors of their carriages in imitation of the aristocracy of Great Britain.
Some of these arms were legally borne by the ancestors of our American
families in the mother country, and others are spurious, having been orig-
inally drawn or painted by men who early canvas.sed New England with
books containing what purported to be pictures of coats-of-arm.s, crests, and
appendages granted to families in England and Scotland, which they claimed
our American families had a right to bear by virtue of possessing the same,
or a similar surname.



XMU HERALDRY.



^rms of the familn.

Mii.LANGES (France), Simon Millanges the distinguished citizen of Bor-
deaux, France, had produced for him a coat-of-arms abounding in angels
bearing pahns as emblems of victory or success. This error was attributed
to a mistake in spelling the surname, making it " Mille-anges " or, in
English, a thousami a)igeh.

There was once a tradition, now exploded, making a remote ancestor,
of the family slay so many of his enemies in battle that he was knighted
by his sovereign on the field as Sir Mylligaunt, meaning a thousand gloves,
or the iJiousand Jiaiulcd.

An authentic record exists in the Department of Mss., in the National
Library of France, of a coat-of-arms borne by John de Milligen and Caezar
de Milligen, who were citizens of a foreign country the name of which was
not legibly written.

A coat-of-arms long in possession of the descendents of Samuel Milliken
of the Scarborough (Maine) family is said to have three castles in a blue
shield, and the family tradition is as follows : That Sir Hugh Milliken, the
ancestor of that family was conspicuously connected with the taking of
certain castles, that he received the honor of Knighthood and had this
coat-of-arms granted to him. Capt. Isaac Milliken, who was a master
mariner in early days, is authority for the foregoing statement. The
authorities in the Lyon Office at Edinburgh find no record of such transac-
tion nor of such a coat-of-arms.



MiLLiNGA (Netherlands) Laguenle a la croix latine d' or ancastec enpal
de deus bancs a trois pieds de meme.

Milligen (Netherlands).

MiLLiNGEN (Netherlands).

Millikine (Scotland) Az. three lions gu, issuing out of two bars wavy
az ; two out of the uppermost and one from the undermost.

MuLLiKEN (Scotland) Az. three demi-lions gu. issuing out of water ppr.

Milliken (Scotland) A fesse az. with five castles in the blue. Crest
resting on a helmet which surmounts' the shield. In a schroll under the
escutcheon the words "By the name of Milliken."

Milliken (Scotland) Argent. A fess azure voided of the field between
three demi-lions crowned gules. Crest: A demi-lion crowned gules ram-
pant holding a dagger in dexter paw. Motto: "Regard Bien."

MiLLiGAN (Scotland) Ar. three demi-lions rampant gules issuing out of
two bars vavyazure ; two out of the upper and one out of the under bar.
Crest : A demi-lion rampant gules. Motto : "Regarde Bien."

MiLLiGAN (Scotland) Quarterly, ist and 4th two spears, a heart and a
hand; 2d and 3d 3 swans. Crest: A ship in full sail. Motto: "Just in
time."




MILLIKEN




-fMJW^^;^,




MILLIGAN



/-'L4A




MILLIGAN



•4vr n.L O.^t;^'', ^



\



p ■ ■ ■

IL. . d


E;.-. ■ ■ . ,^:,J^ ■




1


(llviqin ;mi) IL jancics of ^urnaincs.











The use of established surnames cannot be traced backward to a period
much earlier than the middle of the tenth century. The fust came into
use in Normandy, France, and at the coming of William the Concjueror
(1066) were quite generally introduced into England. Many of the Nor-
man adventurers who assisted in the Conquest had taken the names of their
places of residence, or of villages and hamlets near their ancestral cha-
teaux, names that were used with ^the French preposition ^/t- before them.
Nearly all of the soldiers of William's army returned to their homes in Nor-
mandv, and bestowed the lands awarded them in Kngland upon their
vounger sons, who came over and settled upon them, giving to these new
estates their own surnames. When the Norman-French language, so popular
after the Conquest, disappeared from Kngland, the prefix t/c was almost
universally discarded, unless retained for suphony, and the Knglish word
"of " used as a substitute.

The Scotch have a more expressive designation which they apply to
families who have a territorial surname; they say, "of that ilk." In Scot-
land, surnames were seldom used till the twelfth century, and were for a
long time variable. The assumption of surnames by the common people
is everywhere of a later date than that of so-called gentle families. In
England, the number of surnames is about forty thousand, or one to every
five hundred individuals. In Scotland, there are far fewer surnames in
proportion to the population.

Surnames may be divided into several classes, as territorial, character-
istic, mechanical and personal. The names 15urbank, Burnham, P)radbury,
Fairtield, Fairbanks, Manstield, Merrytield, Ivillburn, Swinburn, Washburn,
Woodbridge and Woodbury are territorial or local in origin. The names
Carpenter, Turner, Wheelright, Cartright, Brewer, Boulter, Baxter, Thatcher,
Gardner, Goldsmith, Chaplain, Chamberlain and Csher, were all derived
from the occupation of ancestors of those families. Among the surnames
taken from some physical characteristic of the individual are Walker,
Spinger, Jumper, Armstrong, Longstaff, Lockheart, Douglass, Broadhead,
Longfellow and Crookshanks.

Besides those surnames mentioned there is another class called patro-
nymics often formed by a Christian name with that of son or its equivalent
added. This form of family names prevails to a greater extent in Scandi-
navian countries ; hence, we have Anderson, children of .\ndrew ; Hender-
son, the son of Henry ; Malcolmson, son of Malcolm, and Peterson, son of
Peter.

Writers of ecjual claims to scholarship and to anticiuarian research have
given various opinions respecting the origin and signilicance of the sur-
names Milligan, Millican, Millikan, Milliken, Mulliken and Mulligan, some
of the theories advanced being purely fanciful and without any documen-
tary evidence to prove them. If we are to find the meaning of such sur-
names we must trace them backward to their source.



XX ORIGIN AND CHANGES OF SURNAMES.



The late James Milliken F.sq., of New York and Bellefont, Pa., who had
given this subject much attention and had spent considerable sums of money
in trying to discover the derivation and meaning of the surname, found it
to have been of Saxon-Norman origin and spelled originally '■'■ Millingas''^
and produced by the Normans as '■'■Millanges,'''' meaning Mill-manor, or the
manor-house by the mill. Passing from Saxony to the Netherlands where,
cadets of this family established themselves at an early date in history, we
find the surname produced as *' Millinga," " Milligen," and " Millingen, '
and there is a village named Milligen in that country. From these earliest
forms used by the Saxon and Norman ancestors of the family the name was
modified in France to '' Milanges," and " Miligen " as found on old manu-
scripts in the National Library in Paris. In early times all surnames such
as ('hamberlain in which the letter i was used were spelled Chamberlayne.

According to registers of sasine, in the Register House, Fdinburgh, of
date 14 May 1633, there is mentioned James Myllighan (Milligafi), son of
James Myllighan, of Blackni^re, Galloway. The numerous families in Cum-
berland, Fngland, have unformily spelled their surname Millicati. In the
south of Scotland, families have used the forms Milliken and Milligan, but
in the northern shires some have spelled their surnames Mullikin and Mul-
liken.

Crossing the channel to the north of Ireland we find numerous families
who originated in the Lowland counties of Scotland using the same ortho-
graphy, viz. : — Milliken and Milligan.

In the broad dialect spoken by the Lowland Scotch, milk is pronounced
7ni(lk, and any native of the Border shires, where so many of the families
under notice resided, Milliken would be called Mullikin, and Milligan Mul-
ligan. Where an Englishman or an American would say to his dairy-maid,
" milk the cows," a Scotchman would say: " Mulk the .Kye," or "Kine."
This fact may account, in part, for the existence '\x\ Scotland, at an early
day, of families named Millikin, Milligan, and Mullikin ; and after the re-
moval of families to Ireland there was the change, permanently, from Mul-
likin to Mulligan.

We now present the earliest recorded forms of this surname found in
the old documents of Great Britain. In his dictionary of surnames Bards-
ley mentions a/c//// Mulkyn in Suffolk, England, of date 1273, "who prob-
ably came from the Low Countries." He assumes that this was an isolated
instance of the surname with the suffix kin, and that was only a sharpened
form of the Irish Milligan ; but he furnishes no proof by citing the various
orthographies that would necessarily appear during the gradual transition.
And from what Irishman dwelling in the Low Countries, the Netherlands,
so early as A.D, 1273, did this Dutchman, John Mulkyn, derive his name.'
Bardsley did not know that there was a record in the Lyon Office, .'^linburgh,
of ■Aja7nes Mylikyn who was appointed money tavious for life by K'.ig David
II. in 1360, called a Florentine, and of a Donatius Milikyne, who in 1364,
was paid for making ornaments for the same monarch. Like many others
who are quoted as authorities on surnames, Bardsley, governed by some
principle of etymology, was mistaken and his assumption is groundless.
Families of Milligan were resident of the Border counties of Scotland two
hundred years before the name appeared in Ireland, to which country it was
carried at the plantation of Ulster, 1608-1620. But P>ardsley continues by



ORIGJN AND, CIJAJS'GES OJ-' SLKA'AMES. XXI

saying: "The following entr\, however, practically settles the question,
being a halfway house between Miliigan and Millikin, viz. : — '1798. Married.
John Chandler and Susanna Millican of St. (leorge, Hanover S(|uare." ' He
probably diil not know that this form of s|)elling was peculiar to the families
in Northumberland, and Cumberland, Kngland, where they had been chjmi-
ciled for two centuries before the marriage date quoted by him, and was a
modified fashion of the name Millikan used by a family in the South of
Scotland.

To satisfy the curiosity of the families who bear some form of this name
I will quote briefly from a few of those who have published books on the
subject.

Barbkr. "British Family Names." Mulligan, Irish, servant to the bald-
headed man, i.e. the priest. Milican. A local name in Scotland, or Dutch
Miliigan. Miliken, Flemish, Milecan, personal name diniinitive of Miles.

Maxwell. "Scottish Names of Scotland." Millegan Gaelic, Molla-
ghan, a hillock.

Johnston. "Place Names of Scotland." Milliken is perhaps Gaelic
Maologan, little shaveling, as in surnames Miliigan and Mulligan.

LowKR. " Dictionary of Family Names." Milligan-O'Milligan, an an-
cient Irish name. Milliken, Millikin, Milligen, corruptions of Miliigan.

GuppY. "Homes of family names in Great Britain." Millican-Milli-
kin, Cumberland and \\'estmoreland. Miliigan rare. Milliken is characteristic
of Northumberland.

Ferguson. "Teutonic Names System," Milliken, Diminutive of Mel
or Mill, to beat.

O'Hart. "Irish Pedigrees." Maolagan (Irish, the bald little man) his
son ; aquo O'Maolagain, anglaised Mulligan and Molyneux.

It will be seen by the foregoing quotations that the authorities (?) do
not agree. From such a variety the family may take their choice. So much
from books.

We do not find Milican among the local names of Scotland in the Gaze-
teers.

Molyneux is not Fnglish, but is a French form of spelling Milliken.

The traditional theories held by some of the Scottish families are in-
genius, and may have a logical surface but are without documentary proof.
One statement may be summarized as follows : One of the early Kings of
Scotland (name and date not given), required his subjects to plant trees
for ornament and shade beside of all the principal roads of his Kingdom.
These small saplings were called " canes " and as they were of the same
distance from each other as the milestones they were called "mile-canes,"
and the superintendent of this arboreal employment was designated "The
Milecane"; and this was afterwards modified or changed to Millican and
became the surname of his family. But the name Millican is not a Scotch,
but an Fnglish form of spelling.

Another traditional theory. In the north of Scotland, cows were called
Kine, as they were in "Bible times," and when the dairymaids brought them
home at milking time, they called " come Mull, come Mull " ; and mothers
speaking of them to their children in nursery days, called them " Mul!y
Kine," a name which, tradition savs, was afterward applied to a cowherd,
and in course of time, was adopted as a family name. This is made the



XXII ORIGIN AND CHANGES OE SURNAMES.

more plausible from the fact that a coat-of-arms was granted in Scotland-
no date given — to a family surnamed MuUikine ; a name identical in spell-
ing with that applied to the cows.

Another has assumed that the name Milliken was derived from the em-
ployment of the milkmaid when milking the cows slightly changed to Mill-
kine and Milliken.

Leaving all such fanciful and traditionary theories relating to the devia-
tion of the family cognomen, we go back to solid historic ground of docu-
mentary statements where we find such primitive forms as Alulkyn and
Alilckyjie, aud from these by an easy transition the names MuUikin and
Milliken were evolved. In passing from one nation to another and, conse-
quently, from one language to another, many surnames have been changed,
and this statement applies to the families under notice.

Note — Thomas Milliken of Isle Magee, Ireland, informs me that in the Province of
Ulster, the Presbyterian families spell their surname " Milliken " and " Millikin," \\hile
the Episcopalians spell theirs " jNIilligan." Author.

The earliest emigrants of the family known to have settled in the Ameri-
can colonies were James Mullikin and Patrick Mullikin, evidently brothers,
who came with Lord Baltimore and sat down on lands in Maryland, as the
Dorchester county records prove, in 1654. This family, as well as their
kindred in Virginia and South Carolina, have spelled the name " Mullikin."
A branch of the Scottish family settled in Boston, Mass., as early as 1680,
have since spelled the name " MuUiken " ; while some of their kindred re-
moving to Maine, have almost always used the form "Milliken."

The family from Castledawson, Ireland, early planted in Washington,
Mass., and in Middleton, N.H., spelled their names " Millikan," and " Milli-
ken " but the latter was adopted only by the New Hampshire branches.
Families descended from \^'illiam Millikan, a Quaker, who removed from
Chester County, Pa., to Randolph Co., N.C. in 1758, have nearly all followed
their ancestors form of " Millikan."

The families early settled in Georgia, and their kindred in Tennessee
and other of the Southern states, evidently came from Cumberland, Eng-
land, and spell the name " Millican." However, tradition says the name
was early changed from " Milligan."

One family, and one only, a branch of the Maine stock, removing to
Georgia early in the fifties, have omitted the middle letter and spell their
names " Milikin " ; an action to be regretted.

On some early records and gravestones in Massachusetts I believe the
name " Mullicken " has been found, but the family have not, for genera-
tions, varied from " MuUiken ".

The changes of this, like all surnames, are easily accounted for as the
cadets of the family passed from one country to another and, consequently,
their names from one language to another. This family designation may
be traced, with its possessors, from its original Saxon and Norman forms
of Millingas and Millanges through all of its mutations in France, Eng-
land, Scotland, Ireland and the American and British Colonies, to its present
varied forms of orthography ; and the conspicuous and stereotyped character-
istics of the numerous branches of the family bear witness to the unmistak-
able relationship between them.



ORIGIN AND CHANGES OF SURNAMES. ■ \\\\\



On old tombstones, in old documents, in heraldic records, in vital statis-
tics and in hooks, this family name has been found in the following forms
of ortht)graphy :

AIlLLINGAS, MiLI.ANGKS, MlLANGKS, MlLI.IOEN, MiLKlKN, MyM.YKYNK,
MyLLYKIN, MiLLYKYN, MiLLIKYN, MyLLIGYN, MyM.IGHAM, MlLLrNT(JN, Mll.-
LIGIN, MiLLIGAN, MiLLIKAN, MlLLICAN, MiLLIKKN, MlI.MKENE, MiM.IKIN,
Ml'I.I.IKINE, MULI.IKIN, Ml'LLIKKN, Mui.LICKEN, MULMCAN and MuLrjr.AN.



(L-rruta.



The following typographical corrections are required. Others may be



Online LibraryG. T. (Gideon Tibbetts) RidlonHistory of the families Millingas and Millanges of Saxony and Normandy, comprising genealogies and biographies of their posterity surnamed Milliken, Millikin, Millikan, Millican, Milligan, Mulliken and Mullikin, A. D. 800-A. D. 1907; containing names of thirty thousand persons, with copious notes on → online text (page 2 of 109)