G. T. (Gideon Tibbetts) Ridlon.

History of the families Millingas and Millanges of Saxony and Normandy, comprising genealogies and biographies of their posterity surnamed Milliken, Millikin, Millikan, Millican, Milligan, Mulliken and Mullikin, A. D. 800-A. D. 1907; containing names of thirty thousand persons, with copious notes on online

. (page 3 of 109)
Online LibraryG. T. (Gideon Tibbetts) RidlonHistory of the families Millingas and Millanges of Saxony and Normandy, comprising genealogies and biographies of their posterity surnamed Milliken, Millikin, Millikan, Millican, Milligan, Mulliken and Mullikin, A. D. 800-A. D. 1907; containing names of thirty thousand persons, with copious notes on → online text (page 3 of 109)
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Page 154, for "Joseph Z." read Joseph L.

" 513, for "gentry wove," read gentry wore.

" 630, for " wandered," read wandering.

" 645, for " red hided heifer," read red pied heifer.

" 690, for "bretheren," read brethren.

" 798, for "Culgvend," read Colvend.

'' 13, for " Horatio Height," read Horatio Hight.

(Tompcnbium of f amiln Distorn;




In his attempt to produce an authentic history of this ancient, numerous
and widely distributed family the compiler has employed every available
means to aid him in tracing it to its origin.

No circumstantial account of the remote ancestry, before the family was
known by a distinctive title, can be given. They were derived from the
Saxon branch of the Teutonic race and early assumed the name Milliiigas.
The early history of the Saxons is contradictory and uncertain. They in-'
habited a country remarkable for its romantic natural scenery and fertility,
and when at home in times of peace they were a pastoral and agricultural
people. They cultivated the cereals and flax and had numerous flocks and
herds upon the hills and plains. Their simple clothing was homespun of
linen and wool. Their extensive forests afforded abundant timber for their
dwellings ; their manner of life was primitive and wholesome.

The Saxons, however, like their northern neighbors and kinsmen, the
Scandinavians, were a restless, roving, and warlike people, and during their
predatory excursions in midseval times distributed representatives of their
race throughout nearly every part of Continental Europe. Among the
Saxon rovers who went from their native country, cadets of the Millingas
familv established themselves in the Netherlands where the surname is
found in early and modern documents. They figured in the Provinces of
Groningen, Friesland and Overyssel, and some of them were the subjects
of royal favor and were granted heraldic bearings as honorary rewards for
services rendered in official stations.

Branches of the family still exist in the Netherlands and bear the sur-
names Millinga, Milligen, and Millingen ; all evolved from the original
Saxon form.

The first of whom we have found authentic record in the Netherlands
was Capt. Ernst Millinga who, according to a bill of sale found in the
Groningen Provincial archives, of date 15th November, 1603, buys a house
situated in the Poelestraat in the town of Groningen, He also came in
possession of a landed estate at Faan in the same province, known in the
documents of the 17th century as the " Millinga-head." At the same time
he took possession of a neighboring house, Byma at Faan. In the year
1 61 3, he had the church built at Faan and a sculptured stone fixed in the
eastern corner of the building is a memorial of the event.

NiCLAES Van Millinga, son of the preceding, married in 162 1, Gelwer
Hillebrandes, and was acknowledged in the registers of the Reformed
church of Groningen in 1622, as the proprietor of Byma at Faan. He was
also mentioned in the chronicles of Vander Houwe in 1636, as proprietor
and tenant of that house.

Sir Niclaes Van Millinga, was Deputy of the town and country in
1628, 1629, 1630, 1641, 1646. He must have died between 1648 and 1651,
because his widow purchased a tomb in Martin's church, Groningen, 19th










July 1651. He had two sons born in 1632 and 1633; and they were re-
corded as students in the University of droningen iSth Oct. 1650, as follows:
"Ernkstus a Mii.linca, Omlandus, Aetatis iS. phil.
"Jacohus a Millinga, Omlandus, Aetatis 17. phil."

Ernestus Van Millinga married first, Anna Grays Lellens, and sec-
ond, October 1666, Lucretia Farges who was born in 1618, and his brother,
Jacobus \'an Millinga was a witness. He, Ernestus, was Deputy of town
and country in 1668, and in 167 i he was member of the Court of Finance.
He died between 167 1 and 1675. In 167S, a certain Sir Hugo Unico
Enens, whose mother was probably a sister of Ernest and Jacob, inherited
the castle of Byma.

The beforementioned families were probably related to one Claes Mil-
linga who was the Burgomaster of Dalen in the province of Henthe. There
was also in the province of Friesland a branch of this Millinga family bear-
ing the same coat-of-arms, but their name appears but once in the heraldic
records there. See Arms of Millinga in this volume.

Burgomaster's Letter. The following reply to the author's inquiry is
of interest: "I report that there died hefe Oct. 7, 1895, Gerret Milmgen,
77 years of age. District School Inspector, Pensioned Director of the Royal
Normal School, and Knight of the Order of Orange-Nassau, Husband of
Engelina Theodora Van Exter, son of SnitJN Van Milligex, who died at
Hoorn, and Maritje Zeeman, who died at Amsterdam. I inform you further
that there are still resident in this city, two children of this person named,
Maria Van Milligen and Elizabeth Van Milligen.* Other persons of
this name do not appear in the registers of this city.

The Burgomaster of Groningen,

E. J. Van Starkexborgh."

Note — The Milliken family at large will ever be indebted to the late Hon. James Mil-
liken of New York — formerly known as of Bellefout, Pennsylvania — who at much pains
and considerable expense procured much of the information now incorporated in the in-
troductory section of this volume which relates to the origin and early generations of the
family. For many years he had been a diligent searcher for everything that would throw
light upon the history of the European branches of the clan ; had visited the localities in
Scotland and Ireland where his ancestors had lived and had assembled copious notes re-
lating to the subject which, in 1S95, he placed in the author's hands. As soon as he was
advised of an attempt to compile and publish a genealogy of the numerous American
branches of the family, he instituted a thorough search, conducted by an experienced ar-
chivest and copyist, in the great liljraries of Paris, Bordeux and Ronen, in France, which
resulted in the discovery of documents from which many interesting historical and bio-
graphical particulars relating to the families in that country were extracted. Mr. Milliken
employed every available means to guard against errors and verify these statements and
pronounced them " perfectly reliable." He also called the search " exhaustive," but much
additional data has since been discovered, both on the Continent and in Great Britain, by
the author.

*The author of this volume opened correspondence with Elizabeth Van Milligen of
Groningen, and requested more particulars concerning her ancestors and present family
connections, I)ut this request was not granted. He also solicited the loan of her late
father's photograph for reproduction in this book, but she had some scruples against its
appearance in an American publication, believing her family not to be in any way related
to those of the same name in England, and feeling quite sure of its being named for a
village in the Netherlands. This theory is not supported by the early documents, and the
village probably derived its name from the family ; a not uncommon event. She intro-
duced the name of a distinguished physician now in the service of the Sultan of Turkey,
resident in Constantinople, named Alillingen.


In passing from Saxony to France the name Millinga and Millingas was
produced as Millanges, but the history of that country affords no evidence
that families bearing this or cognate titles were ever prolific during their
early or later residence there ; and but few persons figured in the annals now
extant. If descendents of the Saxon-Norman families of Millingas or Mil-
langes exist in France at the present time, they reside in some agricultural
or obscure province. The following interesting items were procured by an
exhaustive and expensive search in the Department of Manuscripts of the
National Library of France.

Simon Millanges, a distinguished citizen and eminent scholar, de-
scended from an ancient Saxon ancestry, was b. at Vert, in the Province of
Limousin, France, about the year 1540, and died at Bordeux in 1623 at
the venerable age of 83 years. He was a professor of belle-lettres in the
college of Guyenne, an expert among the grammarians of the realm in the
Latin language, and was thoroughly versed in Greek. In 1572, he founded
in the city of Bordeux a printing establishment of the first order and soon
obtained great celebrity. The jurists of the realm assisted him financially ;
he had bestowed upon him "lettres de Bourjoisee," and he and his descen-
dents were exempted from all duties of imposition which burdened the
people of Bordeux at that period. He was named printer to the Kingdom
in 1620, and his name was given to a street in the city. He had two sons,
. James Millanges and William Millanges, who continued the printing
business in Bordeux long after the death of their father.

The Saxon name Millingas, produced as Millanges in Normandy was
the cause of much misunderstanding and humor, for in consequence of a
similar pronunciation it was supposed to be synonymous with Mille-anges, a
thousand angels, and the distinguished citizen of Bordeux had produced for
him coats-of-arms abounding in angels bearing palms as emblems of victory,
with absurd mottos to heighten the humor.

The following found in the archives of the National Library of France,
proves the existence of the family as known by a name almost identical with
the ancient Saxon orthography : Mr. Christophe Milingas and Peter
MiLiNGAS, court lawyers, and Master John Milingas, were plaintiffs in
two suits of law for the recovery of a portion of their mother's estate ; one
suit being of date 13th Apr., 1669, and the other of date 27th Jan., 1672.
Their sisters Frances Milingas and Anabel Milingas, were associated
with them in subsequent proceedings, both suits being based on transaction
in 1643.

In the same great repository of valuable documents was discovered the
reference to a coat-of-arms assigned to John de Milligen and Caesar de
Milligen who lived in the time of William the Conqueror, but from a district
of a foreign country, the name in the record being quite allegible, and a
clause in the reference seems to have been in ridicule of the pretentious
title of Caesar.

At the time of the Norman Conquest, members of the Millanges and
Milligen families crossed the sea and established themselves on the English
and Scottish Border — in Cumberland, Northumberland, Ayrshire, Dumfrie-
shire, and Gallowshire, where they have ever since lived and multiplied.

In writing the history of this family after their settlement in Great
Britain, we are confronted by a problem difficult to solve, and the result of


COMPENDIUM OF FA Mil. ) ' ///.V TORY. \\\ \\

an extended investif};ation has diffused no additional li^ht upon the sub-
ject. We have stated that the family was represented in the liorder Shires
of England and Scotland soon after the Conquest; this fact is abundantly
proven by the frequent occurrence of the name in the early land rej^isters.
But we have found record in the documents deposited at the I^yon Othce in
Kdinburg, of a Jamks Milkykkn, designated a Florentine, who was appointed
by King David II. in 1360, Alonetaviotis (coin maker and royal lianker)
for life; and in 1364, one Donaiius Mulkkvn was paid for making orna-
ments for the same King. We know that the Florentines, being expert
workmen in the precious metals and stones, were at that period in great de-
mand at the courts of Europe, but we naturally wisii to 'i\v\(X out how these
Mileykens under the royal patronage of Scotland were related to the Mil-
ligans and Millikens settled on the Border; yes, and we look still farther
backward and inquire about the origin of those F'lorentine families. Were
they derived from the same old Saxon stock ? And we now call the reader's
attention to an earlier record which produces the name of a'joFiN Mirr.KVV
in the county of Suffolk, England, 1273. Bardsley says this is an isolated
name and probably came from the "Low Countries."

If these Florentine and Low Country representatives of the race left de-
scendents we may plausibly assume that the Milligans, Millikens, Millicans
and ^lullikens of England and Sco^tland had a double origin. At any rate
the old form of spelling the surname and the orthography in the record of
an early grant of arms in Scotland (no date) furnishes a hint that the F'lor-
entine Milekyns were subjects of royal favor and received heraldic honors
for their services..

We must now pause in our treatment of the more remote ancestral his-
tory of the family and turn our attention to the condition of those who es-
tablished homes in Scotland. Here we may stand on solid historical
ground and present an account of domestic life and incidents of great in-
terest. They appear on record first in Gallowayshire which early comprised
parts of Ayrshire and Dumfrieshire, where, after the change of boundaries,
the families of Milliken appear. Galloway in the southwestern corner of
Scotland, is rich in romantic scenery and historical association ; possessing
a remarkable combination of sterile grandeur and Arcadian beauty, and is
favored with a climate of mildness.

Here the Milligans and Millikens were shepherds and small farmers. A
family of the name comprising many generations and from which many
branches and sub-branches have sprung, was settled for more than two
hundred years, from 1490, at the farm of Blackmyre, and the names of
successive proprietors of this old agricultural and pastoral estate are of fre-
quent occurrence in the early local land records. Their herds and Hocks
were scattered over the green hills and their sons were trained to handle
sheep and cattle. Surrounded by the wild grandeur environing their homes,
those Milligans listened to the lowing of kine, the bleating of lambs and
the tinkle of sheep-bells for many generations. They were in constant
touch with nature and studied her in all her moods. >Ioreover, those were
godly men. They read God's law in creation and in His written word.
They carried their bibles to the hills, and seated upon high shelving rock,
under the shelter of' some ancient tree, wrapped in their coarse shepherd's
plaids, they perused the inspired volumes until they were familiar with its


contents. What wonder that such men were devout worshippers of the
Infinite ? The}' were priests in their own families, laid down holy precepts
for the government of their children, and their own godly lives were silent
exponents of the gospel. Twenty generations reared in such homes and
educated under such influences had stamped upon them the indelible seal
of faith ; a faith that stood them in good stead amid the experiences of
suffering for righteousness' sake, through which many of them were called
to pass in the days that tried men's souls.

The families of Milliken and Milligan were among the most strenuous
adherents of the Covenant ; they were of the extreme branch of Presby-
terians and the faithful followers of Richard Cameron. When driven from
the churches by the preaching of the papists they resorted to the fields and
mountains to listen to their own chosen preachers. Around many a fireside
in the Millikens humble homes, families of neighbors assembled to study
God's word and sing the psalms of the Shepherd King of Israel. These
persons were af length driven from their homes and wandered with their
wives and children amid storm and floods over mountains and mosshaggs ;
they suffered from hunger, cold, nakedness and wounds ; they slept in dens
and ca,ves and were hunted down like wild beasts. Their zeal made them
the objects of intense hatred by Claverhouse and he watched with vigilance
for every opportunity to wreak vengeance upon them.

The Register of the Privy Council of Scotland contains the names of
seven Milligans who, in 1637, signed the petition against the service-book
of the prelates ; they were as follows :

JAMES Milligan in Arndaroche.

John Milligan in Cairnmono.

John Milligan in Crossmichael.

Richard Milligan in Crossmichael.

Robert Milligan in Broigmarke.

Robert Milligan in Holms of Dalquharne.

Roger Milligan in Arndaroche.

These men and many others were signers of the Covenant* the follow-
ing year (1638) and tradition says some of them as old men, made the
journey on foot to Edinburgh and inscribed their names with their own

* The National Covenant was signed on the 28th of February, 1638, in the Greyfrairs
churchyard, Edinburgh, and continued until 8 o'clock in the evening. This " fair parch-
ment above an ell square," was laid upon the broad horizontal gravestones in the burying-
ground and signed by as many as could approach. Hundreds added to their names the
words, " till death," and some opened veins in their arms and wrote their names with their
own blood. Some wept and many shouted for joy.

Note — It was once the melancholy privilege of the compiler of this volume to make a
pilgrimage to the localities mentioned in this historical sketch. He stood upon the green
hills of Galloway where, more than four centuries before, the Milligans lived and pastured
their flocks ; he gazed downward upon the dreary moors and moss-haggs where they fol-
lowed Cameron and where they were hunted like wild beasts by the relentless Claver-
house; he visited Airdmoss and Bothwell bridge, where so many of God's saints were
slaughtered ; he wandered sadly amid the ancient graves of the (ireyfriars churchyard
where the immortal Covenant was signed and where, afterwards, so many were imprisoned
to suffer and die ; he crossed the turbulent waters of the North Sea and beheld the lonely
graves of the shipwrecked Covenanters upon the Orcadian coast ; and in every place once
marked by the feet of those godly men and women, his fancy, supplementing the verbal
history of their sufferings, vividly portrayed in realistic mental pictures the awful scenes.


blood upon the Covenant in the (Jreylriars churchyard, and their names, or
the names of C'ovenantinj:; descendents, apjiear in the lists of those who
subsequently sutVered under C'laverhouse.

Some of the family were with Cameron at Airdsmoss* and 15othwell
bridge, and among the 1,200 who were made prisoners and confined in
Grevfriars churchyard for five months with no cQvering but the canojn- of
heaven, and no place of rest but the damp ground between the graves, the
Millikens suffered. Of these, some died and a few escaped, but 250 were,
on the 15th of November, put on board a ship at Leith Roads to be ban-
ished to Barbadoes and New Jersey. They were in charge of a monster
in human form named Patterson. The space alloted them was so small that
only those dangerously ill were permitted to recline. None were permitted
to see their friends, and but scanty food was given them. A sum of money
collected for them was not given them, and they were treated with cruelty
beyond description.

After a stormy passage the vessel reached the Orkney Isles on the loth
of December and was driven by the fury of the tempest upon the coast.
The prisoners entreated to be landed and confined in jail, but the hatches
were battered down to make their escape impossible. The vessel parted
amidships and the mast fell upon the rocks. \\'hen some of the prisoners
would have escaped they were pushed otif by the sailors, and only forty
reached the land. The bodies that were washed ashore were carried by '
the Orcadian fishermen to a piece of ground called Scarvating, and there
buried. Only a few rough stones taken from the sea-beach, marked their

Three persons named Alilligan under sentence of banishment are known
to have been among those wrecked on the coast of Orkney at Deerness.
These were kinsmen.

Robert Milligan of the parish of Glencairn in Dumfrieshire, perished,
and was buried at Deerness, Orkney.

Thomas Milligan of the parish of Closeburn, in Nithsdale, Dumfrie-
shire, perished, and was buried at Deerness, Orkney.

John Milligan of the parish of Glencairn, in Nithsdale, in Dumfrie-
shire, escaped, and is supposed to have been banished to Barbadoes.

One of the " Martvrs of the ocean wave," was the widow of a lohn Mil-
ligan, a zealous champion of the Covenant. She was a woman of remark-
able faith and fortitude as the following account will show :

"Margaret MacLaughlan, widow of John Milligan, aged sixty-three
years, a pattern of piety and virtue, was a zealous Christian who, having

*AiRD.Muss is a morass in Ayrshire where on July 20th, 16S0, there was a sharp bat-
tle between sixty Coventers under Richard Cameron and a detachment of dragoons, and
where this good man fell, At the spot where the strife was the most deadly, a monument
consisting of a large, flat stone, marked with the names ot the Coventers who fell, and
with figures of an open Bible and a hand grasping a sword, was laid down about fifty
years after the event. A modern monument has superseded this. The following lines
are familiar to readers of Scottish poetry :

" In a dream of the night I was wafted away,
To the moorland of mist where the martyrs lay ;
Where Cameron's sword and his Bible are seen,
Engraved on the stone where the heather grows green."


refused to take the oath of abjuration was taken by the soldiers while de-
voutly worshipping God in her own house, and being indicted of being at
Bothwell Bridge and Airmoss (with Cameron) and twenty field conven-
ticles,* and as many house conventicles, after a long and distressing impris-
onment 'without refreshment or fire, bed and diet,' was sentenced to death
by drowning." The follqwing account from Wodrow's Cloud of Witnesses
may be of interest :

"Upon the nth day of May 1684, Margaret Laughlan in the parish of
Kirkinner ( Wigtonshire), and Margaret Wilson in Glenvarnock in the shire
of Galloway, being sentenced to death for their non-compliance with pre-
lacy, and refusing to swear the oath of abjuration, by the laird of Lagg,
Captain Strachan, Col. David Graham and Provost Cultroon, who com-
manded them to receive their sentence upon their knees which they re-
fusing, were pressed down by force till they had received it ; and so were
by their order tied to a stake within the seamark, in the water of Blednock,
near Wigton, where, after they had made them wrestle hard with the waves ;
which flowing, swelled on them by degrees ; and has sometimes thrust them
under water and pulled them out again to see if they would resent ; they
enduring death with undaunted courage, yielded up their spirits to God."

Note — During the persecution of the Covenanters eighteen thousand persons suffered
death or some form of penal affliction on account of their faith. Nearly two thousand
were banished to the various plantations, of whom several hundred perished by ship-
wreck or cruel treatment. About three thousand suffered all the horrors of imprison-
ment in the most loathsome dungeons, and many were subjected to tortures shocking to
humanity. Seven thousand went into voluntary exile. Six hundred and eighty were
killed in encounters with soldiers. Five hundred were put to death in cold blood, and
four hundred murdered under forms of law. Multitudes were reduced to circumstances
of abject misery; and multitudes perished through cold, hunger, and fatigue while wan-
dering on the mountains and moors, or hiding in dens and caves of the earth.

Early Scotch Homes. At the period when the Millikens first sat down
in the Border shires of Scotland they were uneducated and lived in a very
primitive and rude condition. From a monk who visited the locality in
the fourteenth century we learn that their houses were built of rough stones
without lime, the roofs thatched with straw held down by ropes and stones,
or covered with turf. There were no glass windows, the light being ad-
mitted through neats bladder which was stretched over a small frame.
Galloway cowskins were used as a substitute for doors. There were no
lums (chimneys) and fires were kindled on flat stones laid upon the earth.
The peat-reek accumulated on the thatch in the roof, and during rainfall
dissolved and ran clown in inky streams upon the occupants. The clothing
was of the coarsest homespun wool. Leather aprons were worn by the
men. Food consisted principally of meat and wind-dried fish, but bread

Online LibraryG. T. (Gideon Tibbetts) RidlonHistory of the families Millingas and Millanges of Saxony and Normandy, comprising genealogies and biographies of their posterity surnamed Milliken, Millikin, Millikan, Millican, Milligan, Mulliken and Mullikin, A. D. 800-A. D. 1907; containing names of thirty thousand persons, with copious notes on → online text (page 3 of 109)