G. T. (Gideon Tibbetts) Ridlon.

History of the families Millingas and Millanges of Saxony and Normandy, comprising genealogies and biographies of their posterity surnamed Milliken, Millikin, Millikan, Millican, Milligan, Mulliken and Mullikin, A. D. 800-A. D. 1907; containing names of thirty thousand persons, with copious notes on online

. (page 4 of 109)
Online LibraryG. T. (Gideon Tibbetts) RidlonHistory of the families Millingas and Millanges of Saxony and Normandy, comprising genealogies and biographies of their posterity surnamed Milliken, Millikin, Millikan, Millican, Milligan, Mulliken and Mullikin, A. D. 800-A. D. 1907; containing names of thirty thousand persons, with copious notes on → online text (page 4 of 109)
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was eaten as a dainty. The males were of low stature, but bold and strong ;
the females were fair and "given to the pleasures of love." Their horses
were small, ambling nags, ungroomed, and driven without bridle-reins. The
cattle were small, of black color and hornless. The sheep, pasturing on
the hills, were dwarfed but hardy. All were shepherds or herdsmen.

The scene within the house was rude and semi-civilized. A long, high-
backed seat near the fire accomodated the family. A small table of deals

* Religious services held by the Nonconformists' or Covenanters.

COMPENDIUM OF FA Mil. ) ' /IISTOR 3 '. X \ \ I

stood against the wall. Culinary utensils were few. The spinning wheel
and loom were in every house. Savage sheep-dogs were alhnved nearly as
much liberty within doors as members of the family. Caddy lambs had
pens in the house-corners, and domestic fowls roosted in the roof. Strings
of dried hsh were suspended from rafters; shepherds plaids hung on lines
at the wallside.

Such were the material conditions of the shepherd farmers four cen-
turies after the ancestors of the family left Saxony; but two centuries later,
during the days of the Covenanting troubles, they had advanced from this
semi-civilized state to a more comfortable condition of rural existence.
They were then dwelling in low-walled houses built of stone and lime, laid
by masonry. As was the general custom at that time, even in the towns,
and continued in many parts of Scotland, the roofs were thatched with
straw. Strong doors and small glass windows were afforded. The Hoors
were earthern. Fires were still built upon broad, flat hearthstones. Heavy
plank seats were placed at the wallside. The beds were built in form like
a ship's berth, and permanently fixed. The food was prepared in the most
simple manner and was coarse but wholesome. Clothing for male and
female was of linen and wool, homespun and homewoven. Washing was done
at the burnsides, and heavy fabrics were beaten with paddles.

When the inhuman persecution of the non-conformists was ended by
the bold stroke of William the prince of Orange, a few Millikens who
had survived their wanderings and sufferings emerged from their hiding-
places among the mountains of Galloway and came back to their homes ;
and a writer who was conversant with the facts informs us that these re-
turning exiles were almost naked ; that the hair and beard of the men remain-
ing unshorn was long, unkempt and matted ; that the women, prematurely
old from exposure and hardships, were clad in hlthy rags and in no condi-
tion for public appearance. Tangled masses of hair fell heavily upon their
shoulders. Children born in the wilderness were unclothed and famished.

Around their humble hearthstones these old Christian heroes, when
snowy locks adorned their temples and fell upon their bending shoulders,
related again and again to their grandchildren their experiences of suffering.
They had listened to the preaching of Knox and Melville ? and to the trum-
pet voice of Richard Cameron as he stood upon the hillsides of Galloway
proclaiming the gospel of the Covenant ; and these descendents were taught
to regard the characters of those who followed this Christian martyr with
unbounded veneration. Inspired by the same spirit and following the same
faith, the duties of family worship and religious instruction were regularly
attended to, and the Bible was regarded as the most important volume in
the family library. Their favorite literature consisted of such works as
Woodrows "Cloud of Witnesses," and Howies "Scotch Worthies."

The Millikens in Ireland. As a majority of the families named
Milliken, Milligan and Mulliken in Canada, Australia and the l- nited States
are descended from a. Scotch-Irish ancestry we cannot do justice to our
treatment of their history without giving a comprehensive account of those
who early established homes in Ireland.

In the year 1603, King James commenced the undertaking of planting
six counties in the Province of Ulster, Ireland, with his Scottish subjects.


He had been successful in crushing the Irish rebellion, had confiscated ris-
ing two million acres of land in Ulster, and conceived the idea of sending
his own countrymen to occupy the acquired territory. The Scotch did not
view the project favorably, however, and for some time the arrangement
was not successful. Finally the King issued a proclamation announcing his
"unspeakable love and tender affection" for his Scottish subjects and offered
such strong inducements that a few families from the Western Highlands
removed to Ulster in 1612. The King said of the original lands: "They
have been disburdynt of the former rebellion and disobedient inhabitants
thereof who in the justice of God, to their schame and confusion, are

The settlers who removed from the Highland shires on the west coast
of Scotland "were as restless as the waves of the seas" and did not prove
acceptable, and a new list of names of applicants was procurred ; and the
commissioner's agent writing the King assures him that these "Inland Scots"
(since known as Lowland Scotch) were much superior to the first consign-
ment ; that they were of "better stuff" and came with "better port."

The conditions of settlement in Ulster were arbitrary. Each undertaker
of 2,000 acres was bound by the covenants of his patent to allow timber to
his tenants for building purposes for the space of three years, provided it
grew on his allotment of lands, and was not found on those adjoining. His
fee-farmers were to build vicinitim. He was to have ready in his house or
castle, muskets, calivers, and hand-weapons sufficient to arm twenty-four
men ; was to hold 660 acres in demesne, alienating all the remainder ; was
to pay for his 2,000 acres the annual rent of ten pounds, thirteen shillings
and fourpence ; was not to alienate or demise any lands to i7jere Irish, or to
others who would not take the oath of supremacy. Each undertaker of
2,000 acres was required to give a bond of four hundred pounds binding
him or his heirs to build one dwelling house of brick or stone, surrounded
by a strong court or bawn within three years, reckoning from Easter 16 10.
He must plant on his land eight able men of eighteen years or upwards,
born m the inward part of Scotland* The undertaker was to be present in
person, or by such other person as may be permitted to act as his represen-
tative, during the space of five years after the feast of St. Michael the arch-
angel, 1 6 10; and he was not to alienate any of his lands during the said
five years save to his undertakers whom he was to settle there. They were
not to grant any leases for less than twenty-one years, and were required
to prevent the Scotch tenants from marrying and fostering with the Irish.

It will be seen from the above that the King was careful to introduce
the old feudal system into the Plantation of Ulster. The undertakers or
landlords, must have been persons possessed of considerable means to as-
sume the responsibilities of settlement. They were selected with much care
by the commissioners appointed by the King, who, says Hill, appear to
have known something of the applicants for lands before the Scottish Secre-
tary had forwarded his roll of names. Hay wrote that he had received a
list of new undertakers for Ireland, being men of greater stuff and ability
than the first consignment. Many who desired to hold a portion of the

*Many of the Highland Scotch families were of Roman Catholic faith, and as this
was to be a Protestant settlement they were prohibited.


Ulster land were doomed to disappointment, for in the summer of 1609,
only twenty-eight applicants out of one hundred and sixteen were success-
ful. Of the seventy-four applicants whose names were on the second rf)ll,
only thirteen obtained " proportions " of the Ulster lands. As a precaution,
men were delegated by the commissioners to visit the Lowlands of Scotland
where the applicants lived that they might ascertain whether thev possessed
sufficient substantial means to entitle them to settle in. Ireland.

Among the numerous tenants induced by the undertakers to remove
from Scotland to Ulster were many families named Milliken and Milligan
who had been sheep farmers in Ciallowayshire, Ayrshire, and Dumfresshire,*
and these Protestants became the progenitors of a mighty host who have
since borne the surnames in Canada, Australia and the United States.

We wish the readers of this sketch, whether of Milliken blood or gentiles,
to distinctly understand that those who were born on the Ulster land and
called " Scotch-Irish " did not have a drop of Irish blood in their veins ;
they were not the children of a Scotch father and an Irish mother.

Macaulay the distinguished historian, says: "They sprang from differ-
ent stocks. They spoke a different language. They had different national
characters as strongly opposed as any two races in Europe. Thev were in
widely different stages of civilization. Between two such populations there
was little sympathy, and centuries of calamity and wrong had engendered a
strong prejudice and antipathy. The Ueltic race were called Irish and ad-
hered to the church of Rome. On Ireland's soil resided two hundred thous-
and Colonists proud of their Saxon blood and Protestant faith, * * *

There could not be equality between men who lived in comfortable houses
and men who lived in filthv sties ; between men who subsisted on bread and
those who fed on potatoes ; between men who spoke the language employed
by philosophers, orators and poets, and men who communicated with each
other in a chattering jargon with a brogue at each end of every word.

The blood of the Scot and Celt did not comingle, the red current was
not tributary from one to the other. They were as rigid in their distinction
as were the Hebrews and inhabitants of Canaan, and would not intermarry.
In crossing to Ireland the Scottish emigrants carried their broad Scotch
dialect with them and held on to it, transmitting it to their children una-
dulterated and unimpaired. They sang Scotland's sacred hymns as sang
their Covenanting ancestors amid Scotland's glens, and the songs of Low-
land poets awakened echoes on Ireland's moors."

Tliis broad Scotch dialect that had survived unalloyed in IHster for a
century was brought to the American Colonies and continued to be the
dialect spoken in the Scotch-Irish families from Maine to Georgia until the
last of the original emigrants had passed away ; then it was heard in a mod-
ified form by their descendents. James Milliken of Ohio writing of his

* The residence of many of the Millikens who fled from Scotland to Ireland to escape
from the bloody Claverhouse was only temporary, and when by a change of government
or policy persecution subsided they returned to their native land where in the border
counties they established permanent homes as farmers and herdsmen, and some de-
scendents a few generations down the line went into England and became wealthy mer-
chants and manufacturers ; while others held civil commissions under the King. .Some
have distinguished themselves in the British army ; some are men of letters and pro-


grandfather who came from Dromore, Ireland, to Pennsylvania about 1760,
says : "He disliked to be called an Irishman and insisted that he was of
pure Scottish blood. He used the broad language spoken by the Lowland
Scotch peasantry and sang Scotch songs as he sat on his loom." And this
statement is significant of all the Millikens who settled in America. An
old lady of this name, the granddaughter of Alexander Milliken who came
from Castledawson, .Ireland, remembered many of the Scotch hymns and
songs heard in her childhood among New Hampshire's hills ; and her father's
common speech was in the broad Scotch dialect. The early families of
Milliken in Scarborough, Maine, though born in America, used the same
language brought from Scotland by their parents, and the late Jacob Mil-
liken, the centenarian, was often heard to use language and phrases peculiar
to the Lowlands of Scotland.

In his address at the Scotch-Irish Congress, Rev. John S. Macintosh
said of this people : — " Peculiar and royal race ; yes, that indeed is our race !
I shrink not from magnifying my house and blood with a deep thanksgiving
to God who made us to differ, and sent His great messenger to fit us for our
great earth-task — task as peculiar and royal as the race itself. I shame me
not because of the Lowland thistle and the Ulster gorse, of the Covenanter's
banner or the Ulsterman's pike. We Scotch-Irish are a peculiar people who
have left our own broad, distinct mark wherever we have come. Today we
stand out sharply distinguished in a score of points from all other races.
These marks, like ourselves, are strong and stubborn. Years do not change
them. The passing decades leave them unmodified. Contact with other
people and new fashions have never rubbed down the angles nor eliminated
any of the elements. Crossing channels or seas ; residence in new countries,
have left our people as distinct as before. The same methods, tough faiths,
unyielding grit, granite hardness, closemouthed self repression, clear-cut
speech, blunt truthfulness, God fearing honesty, loyal friendship, defiance of
death — these are some of the traits of the Scotch-Irish. These are birth-
marks and indelible. They are great soul-features. They are principles —
of four classes: religious, moral, intellectual and political."

In both Lowlander and Ulsterman the same traits are conspicuious ;
the strong racial pride, the same hauteur and self-assertion, the same close
mouth, the same firm will. "The stiff heart for the steek brae," They still
insist that "\^'e are no Eerish, but Scoatch." All of their old tales, tradi-
tions, songs, poetry, heroes and home-speech are of Lowland types. The
clannish spirit was very marked in the Colonists of Ulster. They protested
against a settlement of a promiscious character, they called for an allotment
and assignment of lands where kinsfolk, neighbors, and countrymen might
live in communities ; where there could be harmonious faiths, forms of wor-
ship, customs, friendships, and family ties. They carried with them the
spirit of their old homes, and guarded that with sacred care.

And this same arrangement was largely carried out when the Ulsterman
and their families came to the American Colonies ; they came in commu-
nities, by churches and families who were related by blood or marriage ;
and there is scarcely an instance where, among the early emigrants from
Ulster, a Scotch-Irish family became isolated. Wherever they sat down
after their settlement in America, they exhibited the same clannish spirit
and fashion.


The removal of the Millikens and Milligans from the Lowlands of Scot-
land to the Ulster counties was, in many respects, a misfortune; to use an
old New England figure, it was like "jumping from the frying-pan into the
fire." They tied from the land of their nativity to escape from religious
persecution and oppression only to encounter almost equal sulTerings in
their adopted homes. Those whose lands had been confiscated not only
hated the King but all of his Scottish subjects. If it was known that any
of the new occupants of the land had been in the army and were engaged
in any of the battles, such were the objects of the most malevolent hatred.
It has been related that Emanuel Millikin who fought at the 15oyne in 1690,
along with his sons who stood by his side in the ranks, were persecuted vin-
dictively by the Irish Catholics, and some of them left their lands in Sligo
and fled to other counties. The knowledge of the service of these Milli-
kins in the war was handed down from father to son in the families of their
Irish neighbors, and so long as one of the name descended from the old
soldier remained on his land grant, they were in constant danger.

The same description of suffering will pertinently apply to Alexander
Milliken and his sons and descendents who lived near Castledawson in the
county of Londonderry. A vivid tradition embalming the particulars of
persecutions from the Catholic Irish was often told at the firesides of his
posterity in Massachusetts and New Hampshire for two or three gener-
ations, and faint echoes of the story may still be heard from the lips of
some venerable member of the family.

The same relations of sufferings were heard in the homes of the Milli-
ken emigrants wherever they sat down in the American or British colonies,
and the same spirit of hatred still exists in Ireland ; ready, like slumbering
embers, to burst into devouring flame at the least provocation when there
is any hope of escaping punishment.

The sons of the dispossessed Irish land-owners deprived of their antici-
pated inheritance resorted to the vast areas of woodland then existing in
Ulster and became woodkenie, or robbers, who subsisted by blackmail, or
ransoms paid for the liberty of such of the Scotch emigrants as they had
carried away to their wilderness hiding places. These woodkerne were so
numerous that they infested every settlement where Protestants had estab-
lished themselves. They drove away their horses and cows, burned thejr
harvests and buildings, and treated their wives and daughters with shameful
indignity. This persecution was unrelentingly continued for years and
many instances can be mentioned where the Catholic Irish who were per-
mitted to remain in Ulster have harassed their Protestant neighbors during
the century just gone. As will be found by reading the biographical notices
in this volume many of the families of Milliken and Millikin who came to
America abandoned lands granted to their Scottish ancestors for services
in the army in consequence of the constant molestation of their Irish neigh-

Note — At the time of the plantation of Ulster the Commissioners who had charge of
the movement were careful to make such arrangements that families of kinsman and old
neighbors born in Scotland might live together, and in the allotment of land we learn that
in the county of .Armagh the barony of Fewes fell to the Scotch. In Tyrone the two
baronies of Mountjoy and Strabane fell to the Scotch. In county Donegal the baronies
of Portlough and Koylagh fell to the Scotch. In county Kermanaugh the baronies Knock-
ninnie and Magheraboy fell to the Scotch.


They raised a conspiracy in 1640 which aimed at the complete exter-
mination of the Protestants in Ireland ; and were so far successful that
for/y t/ioiisa/i(l were, suddenly massacred in different sections of the country.
A contemporary writing of what had transpired, said : " No condition, no
age, no sex was spared ; and death was the slightest infliction by the rebels.
All the tortures which wanton cruelty could devise, all the lingering pains
of body, the anguish of mind, and the agonies of despair could not satiate
the revenge of the Irish. At length Cromwell avenged the blood of the
slaughtered saints and crushed the insurrection.

After the Restoration in the year 1660, James, a brother of King Charles,
was appointed Viceroy of Scotland, and being a bigoted Catholic, the
Presbyterians were the objects of his hatred and persecution. An early
writer has said : " He let loose upon them the dogs of war and drove hun-
dreds of them into exile. Large numbers escaped through Ireland and
joined the remnant of their brethren who had preceded them." Still there
was no peace or safety for these Protestants so long as the laws and
inhabitants around them were hostile to the principles which they held so

Such constancy, steadfastness, and perseverance, as was exhibited by
these Scotch-Irish people in the endeavor to maintain a footing upon the
soil of their adopted country, has seldom, if ever been witnessed, but their
sufferings and sacrifices did not avail. They held the troops in check while
they defended the last stronghold of William of Orange in Ireland. At
Londonderry and at Boyne-water, in the Logan Forces and at Enniskillen,
they poured out their blood most freely, and suffered every hardship for
their faith and the protection of their homes, only to meet disappointment
under the bloody policy of their enemies. One writing in 1727, says:
"Londonderry was besieged nearly half a year (1689) by the army of
King James, when he had all Ireland subdued but Derry and a little place
hard by. The besieged Presbyterians defended themselves, till they were
so pinched with hunger that a dog's head was sold cheap enough at half a
crown ; and yet God sustained them until King William sent them relief by
two ships with men and provisions from England, at which sight, before
the ships had reached the city and landed their men, the besiegers moved
their camp and fled to the west of Ireland, where, after two hard fought
battles the Papists were subdued."

To the plantation of Ulster may be traced the awful scenes and events
of the ten years civil war commencing in 1641, the horrors of the revolu-
tionary struggle in 1690, and the reawakening of those horrors in 1798 — not
to mention many less notable phases of the contest during the intervals
between these disastrous eras.

When every hope of enjoying religious liberty and the unmolested pos-
session of their homes had perished, these devoted Christian heroes turned
their faces toward the American Colonies where they might find an asylum
for the peaceful worship of God. They left their homes and kindred and
the lands granted to their fathers for services in the army, to brave the
dangers of the ocean during a long and stormy voyage, and the wilderness
of a foreign land in search of a spot where they could act according to the
dictates of conscience and secure a living for their families.


I'Vom 1680 the Protestants commenced to sell or forsake their lands and
take ship for America, and as their oppressions became more intolerable the
ratio of emigration increased until thousands of Scotch-Irisii families were
scattered from Pennsylvania and Maryland to Virginia and the Carolinas.
As soon as these emigrants had landed and found places of settlement they
forwarded letters to their kindred in which were described in such glowing
colors the American lands, forests, rivers and lakes, that in the early part
of the nineteenth century several shiploads of the Presbyterian population
of Ulster were brought over to our shores. Among these emigrants were
many families named Milliken of whom some sat down in New England,
and others entering the Delaware, settled in Pennsylvania. They did not
all come to America, however ; many still clinging to their lands and homes
remained in Ireland and became the progenitors of those sturdy families of
Milliken and Milligan who now inhabit the green hills and broad farms of
Antrim, Armagh, Down and Londonderry.

Modern Ulster Homes. More entrancing rural scenery than exists in
Ulster could scarcely be found in the British Isles. The broad undulating
farms are bordered by neat walls or green hedges, and dotted with noble
trees. The brilliant green of the hillsides is relieved and beautified by acres
of flax "in the bloe," and to give a pleasing variety to the landscape, the
moorlands are adorned with purple heather and golden broom. Extensive
bleach-lields covered with long webs of snow white linen atld novelty and
attractiveness to the rural scene. Here and there as the traveler passes
along, his thoughts will be diverted from the predominating agricultural
scene to the days of antiquity by the crumbling ivy-grown ruins of some old
castle that rises to view beside his way.

In visiting the well cultivated farms in Ulster he will lind the same ar-
rangement of modern building as prevail across the channel in the Scottish
Lowlands. The low-browed, white-walled cottages fiecking the hills and fac-
ing outward, forms one side of a quadrangular enclosure or small courtyard,
while the byres, (barns) cart-houses, tool-sheds and broad arched gateway
for entrance will form the other sides. A row of neatly thatched straw-
stacks, resembling giant bee-skelps, will stand beside the sheltering wall
without. Within this hollow square a wide-spreading tree affords abundant
shade over the pavement of whinstones. Here may be found the farmer's
wife, daughters and dairy-maids with bare feet and high-tucked skirts, rosy

Online LibraryG. T. (Gideon Tibbetts) RidlonHistory of the families Millingas and Millanges of Saxony and Normandy, comprising genealogies and biographies of their posterity surnamed Milliken, Millikin, Millikan, Millican, Milligan, Mulliken and Mullikin, A. D. 800-A. D. 1907; containing names of thirty thousand persons, with copious notes on → online text (page 4 of 109)