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termen; then a straight line, breaking up into dots towards the dorsum,
followed by a conspicuous cream-coloured blotch near the costa; this
again is followed by a fine jagged cream-coloured line_; there is a
terminal series of black dots. The hind-wings are cream-coloured, tinged
with steely blue or green towards the termen; there are a few obscure
transverse lines and a short series of dots from the dorsum. The apex of
the fore-wing is very blunt, and the termen is slightly hollowed out
towards the tornus; _the termen of the hind-wings is deeply scalloped_.

This species is extremely variable. In addition to the variations above
indicated, the markings of many specimens differ considerably in intensity,
and there are frequently several large cream-coloured blotches towards the
base or middle of the forewings.

The perfect insect appears from September till March, but is not a common
species. It frequents forest districts, and may sometimes be found at rest
on tree-trunks, where the beautiful colouring of its fore-wings closely
imitates that of certain lichens, and renders its detection in such
situations extremely difficult. Unlike the insects included in the two
preceding genera, this species closes its wings when at rest, the anterior
pair alone being visible. These wings are not held flat, but are curiously
folded longitudinally, and the end of the abdomen is also curled upwards.
By slightly raising the insect above the level of the surrounding surface,
this peculiar attitude considerably increases its resemblance to a lichen
growing on the stem or branch of a tree. It will also be observed that in
this species, which when at rest exposes only its fore-wings, these alone
are protectively coloured; whilst in the genera _Chloroclystis_ and
_Phrissogonus_, where both pairs of wings are displayed, both pairs are
protectively coloured.


Genus 6. - HYDRIOMENA, Hb.

"Face with somewhat projecting or loose scales, or with conical tuft.
Palpi rough-scaled. Antennæ in male ciliated, rarely dentate or naked.
Abdomen not crested, or with crests on two basal segments only.
Fore-wings with areole double. Hind-wings with 8 anastomosing with cell
from near base to beyond middle. (See Plate II., fig. 32 head, figs. 33
and 34 neuration of _Hydriomena deltoidata_.)

"A very large genus, principally characteristic of temperate regions in
both hemispheres. - (Meyrick.)

There are twelve New Zealand species.


{47}HYDRIOMENA GOBIATA, Feld.

(_Cidaria gobiata_, Feld. cxxxi. 2. _Phibalapteryx simulans_, Butl.,
Cist. Ent. ii. 506. _Phibalapteryx undulifera_, Butl., Cist. Ent. ii.
506. _Phibalapteryx anguligera_, Butl., Cist. Ent. ii. 507.
_Phibalapteryx rivularis_, Butl., Cist. Ent. ii. 507. _Scotosia gobiata_,
Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 70. _Cephalissa gobiata_, ib. xviii. 184.)

(Plate VI., fig. 43 [M], 44 [F].)

This insect has occurred plentifully at Wanganui and Wellington in the
North Island, and is generally distributed throughout the South Island.

The expansion of the wings is from 1 to 1¼ inches. _All the wings vary
from pale ochreous to rather dull yellowish brown, sometimes very
slightly tinged with green. There is usually a large number of fine,
slightly waved, oblique lines arranged on both pairs of wings, very like
the markings in Venusia verriculata_ (see page 53), both insects
evidently having acquired this style of colouring for similar protective
purposes. In many specimens the whole of the anterior portion of the
fore-wings, a small area at the base of the hind-wings, and a band near
the termen are much paler in colour than the rest. There is usually a
very oblique elongate pale area near the apex, and an irregular dark spot
considerably below the apex. The outline of all the wings is more or less
distinctly scalloped.

The larva (according to Mr. Purdie[27]) is about 1 inch in length,
greyish-brown, with a rough prominent dorsal tubercle about the ninth
segment. There are sometimes other smaller tubercles. It feeds on various
species of _Coprosoma_ in January, March, and May.

The perfect insect appears from October till March, and generally frequents
rather open country where Manuka and Cabbage Tree Palms are abundant.


HYDRIOMENA PRIONOTA, Meyr.

(_Arsinoe prionata_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 73. _Anachloris
prionata_, Meyr., ib. xviii. 184.)

(Plate VI., fig. 47.)

This species has been taken in the South Island at Mount Arthur, Castle
Hill and Dunedin.

The expansion of the wings is rather under 1½ inches. The fore-wings are
dull yellowish-brown, with many obscure, wavy, transverse, brown lines,
which tend to form two ill-defined bands, one rather narrow near the base
and the other much broader near the middle of the wing. _The hind-wings
are very pale yellowish-brown_; there are a few obscure dark lines near
the dorsum. _The veins are distinctly dotted in black, and the outline of
all the wings is deeply scalloped._

The perfect insect appears in January, but is not common.


HYDRIOMENA DELTOIDATA, Walk.

(_Coremia deltoidata_, Walk. 1321. _Cidaria inclarata_, Walk. 1411.
_Cidaria perductata_, Walk. 1412. _Cidaria congressata_, Walk. 1412.
_Cidaria conversata_, Walk. 1413. _Cidaria descriptata_, Walk. 1414.
_Cidaria bisignata_, Walk. 1415. _Cidaria aggregata_, Walk. 1415.
_Cidaria congregata_, Walk. 1415. _Cidaria plagifurcata_, Walk. 1416.
_Coremia pastinaria_, Gn., E. M. M. v. 64. _Cidaria inopiata_, Feld.
cxxxii. 3. _Cidaria monoliata_, Feld. cxxxii. 8. _Cidaria perversata_,
Feld. cxxxii. 14, 24. _Scotosia deltoidata_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst.
xvi. 70. _Cephalissa deltoidata_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xviii. 184.)

(Plate VII., figs. 1 to 9 varieties.)

This pretty insect is extremely abundant throughout the country.

The expansion of the wings varies from 1-1/8 to 1-3/8 inches. The
fore-wings vary from brownish-black to dull orange-brown; there is a
small darker area near the base, then two pale whitish wavy transverse
lines, then a broad darker central band, often containing within it a
still darker central band, bounded by two wavy black transverse lines;
beyond the central band there are nearly always two or three pale brown
or whitish, wavy, transverse lines, then an interrupted line just before
the termen, and a short oblique whitish line below the apex; there is a
black dot a little above the centre of the wing, and _a white dot on the
termen near the middle_. The hind-wings are yellowish-brown, with several
wavy, transverse lines near the dorsum; there is a series of fine
crescentic black lines on the termen of both fore- and hind-wings.

{48}This species is extremely variable, but may generally be recognised by
a careful scrutiny of the above-named characters. One very striking variety
occasionally met with has the central band of the fore-wing completely
divided in the middle, which thus forms two dark patches, one on the costa,
and one on the dorsum. (See Plate VII., figs. 7 and 8.) A further
development of this variety, of which I have only seen one example, taken
by Mr. Hawthorne at Springfield, Canterbury, and now in his collection, has
only the costal patch present, the whole of the lower portions of the band
being completely obliterated.[28] (See Plate VII., fig. 9.) The minor
varieties are too numerous to specify.

The larva feeds on grasses. When full-grown its length is about 1 inch. The
colour is dark brown, with the skin very much wrinkled. It is sluggish in
its habits, and lives through the winter, becoming full-grown about the end
of September. During severe weather it generally seeks refuge from the
elements amongst the stalks and roots of the rank herbage often surrounding
stones or fallen logs.

The pupa is concealed in the earth.

The perfect insect appears early in January, and continues in the utmost
profusion until the middle or end of March. It may often be seen resting
with the wings folded backwards and forming together a triangle, whence the
moth has probably derived its name of _deltoidata_. In the neighbourhood of
Wellington I have observed that this insect has very much decreased in
numbers during the last ten or fifteen years.


HYDRIOMENA HEMIZONA, Meyr.

(_Hydriomena hemizona_, Meyr., Trans. Ent. Soc. Lond. 1897, 385.)

(Plate VII., fig. 10.)

This insect has occurred at Terawhiti in the North Island, and at Mount
Arthur in the South Island.

The expansion of the wings is about 1-3/8 inches. The fore-wings are
blackish-brown, darker towards the apex and termen; _there is an obscure
rust-red wavy band near the base, and another at three-fourths,
considerably bowed towards the termen at the middle_; there are also
numerous wavy darker lines. The hind-wings are dull grey, and the termen
is slightly scalloped.

This species may be distinguished from any of the varieties of _H.
deltoidata_ by its _narrower wings, and the absence of any distinct central
band on the fore-wings_.

The perfect insect appears in January. It is a scarce species.


HYDRIOMENA SUBOCHRARIA, Dbld.

(_Aspilates (?) subochraria_, Dbld., Dieff. N. Z. ii. 285. _Camptogramma
subochraria_, Butl., Cat., pl. iii. 16. _Camptogramma strangulata_, Gn.
x. 423. _Camptogramma fuscinata_, Gn., E. M. M. v. 92. _Arsinoe
subochraria_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 73. Anachloris subochraria,
Meyr., ib. xviii. 184.)

(Plate VI., figs. 45 and 46 varieties.)

This species is fairly common and generally distributed throughout the
country.

The expansion of the wings is about 1¼ inches. _The fore-wings are bright
ochreous-yellow_; there is a brown dot a little above the middle, _and a
dark brown transverse band at about three-fourths; the termen is shaded
with dark brown_. The hind-wings are ochreous, with an obscure central
transverse line.

A variety (_Hydriomena fuscinata_, Gn.) often occurs in which the whole
of the wings are more or less tinged with purplish-brown (Plate VI., fig.
46).

The perfect insect appears from November till April. It chiefly frequents
tussock country and swampy situations. In the Wellington district it is
extremely abundant in {49}the clearings at the foot of the Tararua Range.
According to Mr. Meyrick the typical form is common in Tasmania and
Victoria.


HYDRIOMENA TRIPHRAGMA, Meyr.

(_Cidaria triphragma_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 74.)

"_Male._ - 26-27 mm. (about 1 inch). Fore-wings moderate, termen strongly
sinuate; pale dull greyish-purple; a very small darker basal patch, outer
edge strongly convex, margined by a dark fuscous fascia, posteriorly
whitish-edged; a dark fuscous fascia before one-third, irregularly
outwards-curved, posteriorly suffused, anteriorly sharply defined and
whitish-edged; a minute blackish discal dot; a dark fuscous fascia beyond
middle, forming a strong angle in middle, upper and lower halves both
inwards-curved, anteriorly suffused, posteriorly sharply defined and
whitish-edged. Hind-wings moderate, termen somewhat irregular, projecting
in middle; whitish-ochreous mixed with pale purplish; an angulated darker
band before middle.

"A very distinct species, probably not variable.

"Blenheim; two specimens received by Mr. Fereday from Mr.
Skellon." - (Meyrick).

I am unacquainted with this species, which Mr. Fereday stated he was unable
to identify. I have therefore inserted Mr. Meyrick's description without
alteration.


HYDRIOMENA RIXATA, Feld.

(_Cidaria rixata_, Feld. cxxxii. 1; Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 75.
_Coremia squalida_, Butl., Cist. Ent. ii. 505.)

(Plate VII., fig. 11.)

This pretty insect is very common, and generally distributed throughout the
country.

The expansion of the wings is about 1 inch. The fore-wings have a dull
green patch near the base, with numerous dull brown and dull white wavy
transverse lines; _there is a very broad blackish-brown central band
paler in the middle, but almost black at the edges; this band has a large
rounded projection on its outer edge near the middle, and below this
projection it is deeply indented_; the remainder of the wing is dull
yellowish-green, with several brown and white transverse lines; one of
the white lines is more conspicuous than the rest and very wavy; there is
a shaded oblique black mark from the apex. The hind-wings are very pale
yellowish-brown; there are a few obscure brownish transverse lines near
the dorsum, and a faint series of crescentic marks near the termen.

The perfect insect appears in December and January, and frequents the
overhanging banks of streams in densely wooded ravines, where it often
occurs in the utmost profusion.


HYDRIOMENA PURPURIFERA, Fereday.

(_Cidaria purpurifera_, Fereday, Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 119; Meyr., ib.
75.)

(Plate VII., fig. 12.)

This extremely pretty insect has been taken in the South Island at Mount
Arthur, Mount Hutt, Castle Hill, Dunedin, and Lake Wakatipu.

The expansion of the wings is about 1 inch. The fore-wings are rather
bright green; there is a darker area near the base, _a very broad
purplish-brown central band, with a large square projection on the middle
of its outer edge; above this projection there is a very conspicuous
white mark, bordering the central band_; the remainder of the wing is
green; there is a wavy white line near the termen, and an oblique
bluish-black mark near the apex. The hind-wings are pale brownish-yellow.

This species is closely allied to _Hydriomena rixata_, but easily
distinguished by its brighter green colouring, purplish central band with
square projection, and broad white marking beyond the central band.

The perfect insect appears in December and January, and frequents forest at
elevations of from 1,000 to 3,000 feet. It is found in drier situations
than the {50}preceding species, and is not confined to forest streams. It
is common in certain localities, but is not nearly so generally distributed
as _Hydriomena rixata_.


HYDRIOMENA SIMILATA, Walk.

(_Cidaria similata_, Walk. 1413. _Cidaria timarata_, Feld. cxxxii. 19.
_Cidaria similata_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 76.)

(Plate VII., fig. 14.)

This beautiful species has occurred at Napier and Wellington in the North
Island, and at Christchurch, Dunedin, Lake Wakatipu, and Invercargill in
the South Island.

The expansion of the wings is 1¼ inches. _The fore-wings are dark brown,
with the veins and margins broadly shaded with bright green; there are
numerous irregular wavy blackish streaks forming three ill-defined darker
transverse bands_; the first at the base; the second from one-fourth to
about two-thirds, partially divided into two from the costa downwards;
and the third near the termen outwardly edged with white. The termen
itself is bordered first with green, and then with a series of fine black
marks; the cilia are dark brown. The hind-wings are very pale
reddish-brown, darker towards the dorsum, with numerous pale brown wavy
transverse lines. There is a series of black crescentic marks on the
termen, and the cilia are pale reddish-brown.

This species is rather variable. The spaces between the darker bands on
the fore-wings are usually green, but in some specimens this is partially
or wholly replaced by pale yellowish-brown. The dark bands also vary
considerably in width and distinctness, and in many specimens the central
band is entirely divided by a conspicuous pale brown or green transverse
space.

The larva, according to Mr. Purdie, is about 1 inch long, cylindrical.
Back a dull deep green; lateral stripe reddish-white, edged below with a
darker colour; ventral side lighter green, with four parallel white or
yellow lines close together, extending from the forelegs to the prolegs.
Outer side of prolegs white. There are traces of a median dorsal stripe
of brownish-red on the anal segments. Beaten from _Coprosma_. Found in
January. Mr. Purdie states that he is not quite certain as to the
identification of the species, as the median belt of the fore-wings is
much more distinctly defined, and the colour is a duller green than is
usual in _H. similata_.

The perfect insect appears from November till March. It is generally found
resting on moss-covered tree-trunks, where its colouring affords it a most
efficient protection from enemies.


HYDRIOMENA CALLICHLORA, Butl.

(_Cidaria callichlora_, Butl., Cist. Ent. ii. 509; Meyr., Trans. N. Z.
Inst. xvi. 76.)

(Plate VII., fig. 13.)

This beautiful insect has occurred at Wellington in the North Island, and
at Christchurch and Invercargill in the South Island.

The expansion of the wings is about 1 inch. _The fore-wings are bright
green, with three very distinct wavy black transverse lines_; the first
near the base, the second a little before the middle, and the third
considerably beyond the middle; between these there is a number of
fainter fine wavy lines. The hind-wings are whitish with several very
faint wavy transverse lines; the cilia of all the wings are dull
yellowish-brown.

The perfect insect appears in January, February, and March. Described and
figured from a specimen in Mr. Fereday's collection.


HYDRIOMENA ARIDA, Butl.

(_Melanthia arida_, Butl., Cist. Ent. ii. 505. _Cidaria chaotica_, Meyr.,
Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 76. _Cidaria arida_, Meyr., ib. xvii. 64.)

(Plate VII., fig. 15.)

This species has occurred in the South Island at Akaroa, Mount Hutt,
Arthur's Pass, and Dunedin.

The expansion of the wings is 1 inch. The fore-wings are dull grey; there
is a fine yellowish {51}transverse line near the base, _and a very broad
central band with a prominent projection somewhat below the middle,
almost touching the termen_; there is a brown dot above the middle of the
wing and numerous fine brown wavy lines in the central band; the veins
are marked in white near the termen. The hind-wings are pale ochreous,
with a few very faint transverse marks near the dorsum. The termen of the
fore-wings is slightly bowed in the middle.

The perfect insect appears in January and February, and frequents forest,
sometimes being found as high as 2,600 feet above the sea-level. Described
and figured from a specimen in Mr. Fereday's collection.


HYDRIOMENA SIRIA, Meyr.

(_Cephalissa siria_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 93.)

(Plate VI., fig. 48.)

This odd little species was discovered by Professor Hutton at Dunedin.

The expansion of the wings is 5/8 inch. _The fore-wings are rich brown
with two transverse bands of darker brown_; the first near the base,
rather narrow; the second near the middle, considerably broader,
especially on the costa. _The hind-wings are bright orange._ The termen
of the fore-wings is slightly excavated below the apex, and considerably
bowed a little below the middle.

Described and figured from a specimen in Mr. Fereday's collection.


Genus 7. - EUCHOECA, Hb.

"Face smooth, flat. Antennæ in [M] shortly ciliated. Palpi short,
slender, loosely scaled. Fore-wings with areole simple. Hind-wings with
vein 8 anastomosing with cell to beyond middle.

"A small genus containing a few species distributed throughout the northern
hemisphere and one Australian." - (Meyrick.)

We have one species.


EUCHOECA RUBROPUNCTARIA, Dbld.

(_Ptychopoda rubropunctaria_, Dbld., Dieff. N. Z. li. 287. _Asthena
visata_, Gn. ix. 438. _Asthena_, Gn., E. M. M. v. 42. _Asthena
pulchraria_, Butl., Cat. pl. iii. 18. _Hippolyte rubropunctaria_, Meyr.,
Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 60. _Epicyme rubropunctaria_, Meyr., ib. xviii.
184.)

(Plate VI., fig. 35.)

This little species is common and generally distributed throughout both the
North and South Islands, and has also occurred at Stewart Island.

The expansion of the wings is about 7/8 inch. _All the wings are pale
ochreous, with numerous obscure reddish transverse lines._ On the
fore-wings there are four transverse series of black dots; the first near
the base, the second a little before the middle, the third a little
beyond the middle, and the fourth on the termen; between the second and
third series of dots there is very frequently _an elongate blackish
patch, especially towards the dorsum_. The hind-wings have three series
of black dots; the first near the base, the second near the middle, and
the third on the termen. The termen of both fore- and hind-wings slightly
projects near the middle.

This species varies considerably in the extent of the blackish marking near
the middle of the fore-wings, as well as in the colour and intensity of the
reddish transverse lines.

The larva is thus described by Mr. Fereday:[29] "The caterpillar has ten
legs, is cylindrical, rather stout, with the segmental divisions incised;
its colour is pale dull green, sometimes suffused with pink, brown,
purple, or dark green; the dorsal line is purplish-brown, suffused, the
central line whitish; the spiracular line is whitish, broadly margined
with purplish-brown; the segmental divisions are pale yellowish-brown."

The food is _Haloragis alata_, a common herbaceous plant growing in swampy
situations. The pupa is enclosed in a slight earth-covered cocoon.

{52}The perfect insect appears from September till March, and is sometimes
common. It is generally found in wooded districts, but prefers rather open
situations in the vicinity of streams, where its food-plant may often be
seen. According to Mr. Meyrick,[30] this insect is common in New South
Wales, Victoria, and Tasmania, and the Australian and New Zealand specimens
are similar in appearance.


Genus 8. - ASTHENA.

"Face smooth, flat. Antennæ in [M] shortly ciliated. Palpi short,
slender, loosely scaled. Fore-wings with areole double. Hind-wings with
vein 8 anastomosing with cell to beyond middle.

(Plate II., figs. 30 and 31.)

"A genus of a few widely scattered species most numerous in the Australian
Region." - (Meyrick.)

We have two species.


ASTHENA PULCHRARIA, Dbld.

(_Acidalia pulchraria_, Dbld., Dieff. N. Z. ii. 286. _Chlorochroma
plurilineata_, Walk. 563, 676. _Asthena ondinata_, Gn. ix. 438, pl. xix.
4; Butl., Cat. pl. iii. 20. _Cidaria ondinata_, Feld. cxxviii. 17.
_Asthena pulchraria_, Meyr., Trans. N. Z. Inst. xvi. 69.)

(Plate VI., fig. 37 [M], 38 [F].)

This beautiful little insect has occurred at many localities throughout
both the North and South Islands. It is probably a common species in most
wooded districts.

The expansion of the wings is almost an inch. _All the wings are very
pale greenish-white with numerous faint green, wavy, transverse lines._
The fore-wings have a more or less distinct brown band on the costal
edge, and a conspicuous greenish central dot. The hind-wings often have a
slight projection on the termen near the middle.

The perfect insect appears from October till May, and frequents dense
forest undergrowth. It is chiefly attached to the Kawakawa (_Piper
excelsum_), and may often be found resting with outspread wings on the
under-surfaces of the leaves of this plant, where it is very inconspicuous.
There are probably two or more broods during the summer.

On the 11th of May, 1892, I observed large numbers of this species flying
over the Manuka bushes in the Wellington Botanical Gardens in brilliant
moonlight. The night was very cold, but notwithstanding this the moths were
most numerous and active. The appearance of this insect under such unusual
conditions may have been quite accidental, as I have never seen a
recurrence; but one is often somewhat unobservant in the winter, hence the
record of this observation may be of use in directing the attention of
others to the subject.

According to Mr. Meyrick this species is also found in Tasmania, and
South-east Australia.


ASTHENA SCHISTARIA, Walk.

(_Acidalia schistaria_, Walk. 782. _Asthena subpurpureata_, Walk. 1588.
_Acidalia tuhuata_, Feld. cxxviii. 5. _Asthena schistaria_, Meyr., Trans.
N. Z. Inst. xvi. 69.)

(Plate VI., figs. 39, 40 [M], 41, 42 [F] varieties.)

This pretty species is common, and generally distributed throughout the
country.

The expansion of the wings is nearly an inch. _All the wings vary from
very pale brown to rather dull purplish-brown; there are numerous jagged,
darker, transverse lines forming several more or less distinct bands._
The first of these bands extends from the base to about one-eighth; the



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