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number of women, Dupanloup knew exactly what a void
an incomplete education of the mind and heart leaves in the
soul. He is indeed willing to acknowledge that piety is not
enough, and with a certain breadth of spirit which drew upon
him the censure of the ultramontane press, he recommends
the serious studies to women. His counsels, however, are
addressed only to women of the middle classes, to those who,
he says, " occupy the third story of houses in Paris." His
book is rather a reminiscence of the seventeenth century, of
its manners and its habits of thinking, than a living work of
to-day, adapted to the needs of modern society.

[596. Analytical Summary. — 1. The formal discussion
of woman's education b} T women marks an important epoch
in the history of education. Had the education of men been
wholly, or even chiefly, discussed by women, it cannot be
doubted that it would have been more or less partial and

2. The formal discussion of infant education by women is
scarcely less important ; for nothing less than maternal in-
stinct and affection can divine the nature and the needs of
the child.

3. This study calls attention to the need of making the
education of women serious instead of ornamental. Plato
based his recommendation of the equal education of men and
women on equality of civil functions. In modern thought
it is the conception of equal rights and of equal abilities
that tends to prescribe the same course of intellectual train-
ing for both sexes.

4. The educational work of the two Englishwomen, Miss
Edge worth and Miss Hamilton, can be studied with great prof-


it. The first excels in practical wisdom, and the second in
philosophic insight.

5. The Progressive Education of Madame Necker is a
classic which fairly ranks with the Emile of Rousseau, and
the Education of Herbert Spencer. "5



TION neglected; origin of mutual instruction; bell and
lancaster ; success of mutual instruction in france j moral
advantages; economical advantages; organization of


597. The Pedagogy of the Nineteenth Century. — An
effort more and more marked to organize education in accord-
ance with the data of psychology and on a scientific basis,
and to co-ordinate pedagogical methods in accordance with a
rational plan ; a manifest tendency to take the control of
education from the hands of the Church in order to restore it
to the State and to lay society ; a larger part accorded the
family in the management of children ; a faith more and more


sanguine in the efficacy of instruction, and an ever-growing
purpose to have ever} 7 member of the human family partici-
pate in its benefits, — such are some of the characteristics of
the pedagogy of the nineteenth century. Education tends
more and more to become a social problem ; it is to be an
affair of universal interest. It is no longer to be merely a
question of regulating select studies for the use of a few who
are the favorites of birth and fortune ; but science must be
placed within the reach of all, and through the simplification
of methods and the universal distribution of knowledge, it
must be adapted to the democratic spirit of the new society.
We have no intention to follow in this place, in all its
details, and in the diversity of its currents, this educational
movement of a century which has not yet said its last word ;
but we must limit ourselves to calling attention to the points
which seem to us essential.

598. Laws of the Councils-General op 1801. — Not-
withstanding the efforts of the Revolution, public instruction
in France, during the first part of the nineteenth century,
was far from being flourishing. There was urgent need of
introducing reforms. The Councils-General were summoned
in 1801 to give their advice on the organization of studies.
That which is very noticeable in the Stale papers of the
Councils-General of 1801, is that the departmental assem-
blies agree in demanding the establishment of a National
University. The Councils-General complain that the pro-
fessors, being no longer united by the ties of solidarity, as
were the members of the religious teaching congregations of
the old regime, march at random, without unity, without
concerted direction. They solicit, then, a uniform organi-
zation of instruction. They even conceive the idea of an
official instruction administered exclusively by the State.


599. Fourcroy 1 and the Law of 1802. — We have not
the space to dwell long on the bill of Fourcroy, which became
the law of 1802, although this measure, it has been said, was
amended twenty-three times before being submitted to the
Corps Legislatif and to the Tribunate.

Fourcroy did not sufficiently recognize the rights of the
State. Doubtless he did not go so far as to assert, with
Adam Smith, that education should be abandoned entirely
to private enterprise ; but he thinks that the task of organ-
izing the primary schools must be left to the communes.
In his opinion, that which prevented the success of -these
schools was the attempt to impose too great a uniformity
on them. He demands that the teachers be chosen by the
mayors, or by the municipal councillors, who alone are cog-
nizant of the local interests. The primary school is the need
of all. Then let it be the affair of all. Fourcroy was mis-
taken. Primary instruction became a reality in France only
on the day when the State vigorously put its hand on it.

On certain points, however, the law of 1802 prepared the
way for the approaching creation of Napoleon ; for example,
in giving to the First Consul the appointment of the pro-
fessors of the colleges, and in placing the primary schools
under the supervision of the prefects.

600. Foundation of the University (1806). — The law
of May 11, 1806, completed by the decrees of March 17,
1808, and of 1811, established the University, that is, a
teaching corporation, unique and entirely dependent on the
State : —

"There shall be constituted a body charged exclusively

1 Fourcroy (1755-1809), a celebrated chemist, was director-general of
public instruction in 1801. He prepared, in the following years, the decrees
relative to the establishment of the University.


with instruction and public education throughout the whole
extent of the Empire."

Instruction thus became a function of the State, on the
same basis as the administration of justice or the organiza-
tion of the army.

At the same time that it lost all autonomy, all indepen-
dence, the University gained the formidable privilege of
being alone charged with the national instruction.

"No one can open a school or teach publicly, without
being a member of the Imperial University and without hav-
ing been graduated from one of its Faculties." " No school
can be established outside of the University, and without the
authorization of its head."

We know what protestations were excited, even on the
start, by the establishment of this University monopoly.
"It was not enough to enchain parents ; it was still neces-
sary to dispose of the children. Mothers have been seen
hastening from the extremities of the Empire, coming to re-
claim, in an agony of tears, the sons whom the government
had carried off from them." Thus spoke Chateaubriand,
before lavishing his adulations on the restorer of altars, and
he added, with an extravagance of imagination which recoils
on itself, "Children were placed in schools where they were
taught at the sound of the drum, Lrreligion, debauchery, and
contempt for the domestic virtues!" Joseph de Maistre
was more just: "Fontanes," 1 he said, "has large views
and excellent intentions. The plan of his University is
grand and comprehensive. It is a noble body. The soul
will come to it when it can. Celibacy, subordination, devo-
tion of the whole life without religious motive, are required.
Will they be obtained?" 2

i Fontanes (1757-1821), first Grand Master of the University.
2 Memoire politique of Joseph de Maistre, Paris, 1858, p. 30.


601. Organization of the Imperial University. — The
Imperial University comprised, like the present University,
Colleges, Lycees, and Faculties. The Colleges furnished
secondary instruction, like the Lycees, but less complete.
There were a Faculty of Letters and a Faculty of Sciences
for each academic centre ; but these Faculties were very
poorly equipped, with their endowment of from five to ten
thousand francs at most, and with their few professors. The
professors of the neighboring Lycee (professors of rhetoric
and mathematics) formed a part of the establishment, and
.aach Faculty included at most but two or three other chairs.

Latin and mathematics formed the basis of the instruction
in the Lycees. The Revolution had not come in vain, since
that which it had vigorously demanded was now realized ;
the sciences and the classical languages were put on a foot-
ing of equality.

602. Dynastic Prepossessions. — That which absorbed
the attention of the founder of the Imperial University was
less the schemes of study than the general principles on
which the rising generations were to be nourished. In this
respect the thought of the Emperor is not obscure. He does
not dissemble it. God and the Emperor are the two words
which must be graven into the depths of the soul.

"All the schools of the Imperial University will make as
the basis of their instruction : 1 . the precepts of the Catholic
religion ; 2. fidelity to the Emperor, to the imperial mon-
archy, the depository of the happiness of the people, and to
the Napoleonic dynasty, the conservator of the unity of
France, and of all the ideas proclaimed by the Constitution."

" Napoleon," as Guizot says, " attempted to convert into
an instrument of despotism an institution which tended to
be only a centre of light."


603. Primary Instruction neglected. — Primary instruc-
tion never occupied the attention of Napoleon I. The decree
of 1805 contented itself with promising measures intended to
assure the recruitment of teachers, especially the creation of
one or more normal classes within the colleges and lyc£es.
Moreover, the Grand Master was to encourage and to license
the Brethren of the Christian Schools, while supervising their
establishments. Finally, the right to establish schools was
left to families or to religious corporations, the budget of the
Empire containing no item of appropriation for the cause of
popular instruction.

The Restoration was scarcely more generous towards the
instruction of the people. By the ordinance of February 29,
1815, it granted fifty thousand francs as encouragement to the
primary schools. Was this derisive liberality any better than
complete silence and neglect? A more important measure
was the establishment of cantonal committees charged with
the supervision of primary schools. These committees were
placed, sometimes under the direction of the rector, and at
others under the authority of the bishop, at the pleasure of
the vicissitudes of politics. Certificates of qualification were
delivered to the members of the authorized conoreaations, on
the simple presentation of their letters of permission. We
can imagine what a body of teachers could be assured by such
a mode of recruitment.

In anticipation of the monarchy of July, which in its liberal
dispositions was to appear more regardful of popular educa-
tion, private initiative signalized itself under the Restoration
by the foundation of the Society for Elementary Instruction,
and also by the encouragement it gave to the first attempts at
mutual instruction.

604. Origin of Mutual Instruction. — Two Englishmen,
Bell and Lancaster, have claimed the honor of having in-


vented mutual instruction. The fact is, neither of them
invented it ; they simply gave it currency. It is in France,
if not in India, that we must look for the real origin of
mutual instruction. We have seen that Madame de Mainte-
non, Rollin, La Salle, and Pestalozzi, practised it, and to a
certain extent gave it currency. Iu the eighteenth century
Herbault had employed it in the hospital of La Pitie" (1747),
the Chevalier Paulet at Vincennes (1774), and, finally, the
Abbe Gaultier, 1 also a Frenchman, had introduced the use of
it into London, in 1792, some years before Bell brought it
from India.

605. Bell (1753-1832) and Lancaster (1778-1838).—
Bell and Lancaster are none the less the first authorized
propagators of the mutual method, or, as the English say, of
the monitorial system. Bell had used it at Madras, in imita-
tion of the Hindoo teachers, and in 1798 he introduced it into
England. But at the same period, a young English teacher,
Lancaster, applied the same methods with success, and, so
far as it appears, through a suggestion absolutely personal
and original. Lancaster was a Quaker, and Bell a Church-
man, so that public opinion in England was divided between
the two rivals. The truth is that they had applied at the
same time a system which was known before their day, and
which must naturally have been suggested to all teachers who
have too large a number of children to instruct, as a result
of the inadequacy of their resources and the lack of a teaching
force sufficiently large.

606. Success of Mutual Instruction in France. — Mu-
tual instruction, which was maintained in certain schools of

1 The Abbe Gaultier (1746-1818), author of a large number of works on
elementary instruction, and almost a reformer in his way. He employed
teaehiny by sight, and recommended varied exercises, such as games where
he introduced counters, tickets, interrogations in the form of lotteries.


Paris till 1867, for a long time enjoyed an extraordinary
credit in France. Under the Restoration, its success was so
great that it became the fashion, and even a craze. Patron-
ized by the most eminent men of that clay, by Royer-Collard,
by Laisne\ by the Duke Decazes, by the Duke Pasquier,
mutual instruction became the flag of the liberal party in the
matter of instruction. Political passions became involved in
it. The new system came into competition with the tradi-
tional instruction of the Brethren of the Christian Schools,
and was fought and denounced as immoral by all the partisans
of routine. " Mutual instruction was charged with destroy-
ing the foundation of social order by delegating to children
a power which ought to belong only to men. . . . Men held
for or against simultaneous instruction, its rival, as if it were
a question of an article of the Charter." *

607. Moral Advantages. — The friends of mutual instruc-
tion, in order to justify their enthusiasm, made the most of
moral reasons. What can be more touching, they said, than
to see children communicating to one another the little that
they know? What an excellent lesson of charity and of
mutual aid ! The Gospel has said, Love one another. AVas
it not giving to the divine precept a happy translation to add,
Instruct one another! An attempt was made, moreover, to
introduce mutuality into discipline and into the repression
of school faults. The school, on certain solemn occasions,
was converted into a court for trying criminals. "All this
was done veiy seriously, and it was also very seriously felt
that these practices, passing from a class of children to a
class of adults, would contribute to introduce into society the
habits of a true and useful fraternity."

1 SeeGrc'anl. /.'< ns( igra ment primaire ii Parisdi 1867a 1S77. A memoir
published in 1ST", pp. 75-'.K). See also an interesting study full of personal
recollections of E. Deschamps, L'< nseignement Mutual. Toulouse, 1883.

516 "the history op pedagogy.

608. Economical Advantages. — To tell the truth, mu-
tual instruction was above all else "a useful expedient,"
according to Rollin's expression. At a period when teachers
were scarce, when the budget of public instruction did not
exist, it was natural that an economic system which dispensed
with teachers, and which reduced to almost nothing the cost
of instruction, should be hailed with enthusiasm. Let us add
that there was also an economy in books, since " there was
need of only one book, which pupils never used, and which
would thus last for several years."

Jomard calculated that there were 3,000,000 children to
instruct, and that, according to the ordinary system, this
would require the expenditure of more than 45,000,000
francs. 1

Now, according to the calculations of the Comte de La-
borde, 2 1000 pupils being able to be educated by one single
teacher, by the system of mutual instruction, more easily
than 30 could have been by the old system, a sum of 10,000
francs granted annually by the State would suffice to educate
in twelve years the entire generation of poor children. 3

t509. Organization of Schools on the Mutual Plan. —
Bell defined mutual instruction as "the method by means
of which a whole school may instruct itself, under the super-
vision of one single master."

Here is the picture of a mutual school, as described by
Greard : —

" That was a striking spectacle at the first glance, — those

1 Jomard (1777-1862) , member of the Society for Elementary Instruc-
tion, author of Tableaux des ecoles e~Umentaires.

2 The Comte de Laborde (1771-1842), author of a plan a" education pour
les cnfants.

3 Among the other propagators of mutual instruction, mention should be
made of the Abbe' Gaultier, Larochefoucauld-Liancourt, De Lasteyrie, etc.


long and vast structures which contained a whole school,
such us the older generations of our teachers recollect still to
have seen at the Halle aux Draps. In the middle of the
room, throughout its entire length, were rows of tables hav-
ing from five to twenty places each, having at one end, at
the right, the desk of the monitor, and the board having
models of writing, itself surmounted by a standard or tele-
graph which served to secure, by means of directions easy to
read, regularity of movements ; at the side of the room, and
all along the walls, there were rows of semi-circles, about
which were arranged groups of children ; on the walls, on a
line with the eye, there was a blackboard on which were
performed the exercises in computation, and from which
were suspended the charts for reading and grammar ; right
at his side, within reach of his hand, was the stick with
which the teacher was provided for conducting the lesson ;
finally, at the lower part of the room, on a wide and high
platform, accessible by steps and surrounded by a balus-
trade, was the chair of the master, who, employing in suc-
cession, according to fixed rules, voice, bdton, or whistle,
surveyed the tables and groups, distributing commendation or
reproof, and directing, in a word, like a captain on the deck
of his vessel, the whole machinery of instruction."

In respect of systematic movements and exterior order,
nothing is more charming than the appearance of a school
conducted on the mutual plan. It remains to inquire what
were the educational results of the system, and whether the
fashion which brought it into favor was justified by real

G10. Vices op Mutual Instruction. — The monitor was
the mainspring of the mutual method. But what was the
monitor? A child, more intelligent, doubtless, than his com-


rades, but too little instructed to be equal to his task. The
mutual school did not open till ten o'clock. From eight to
ten there was a class for the monitors. There they learned
in haste what they were, for the rest of the day, to teach to
the other children. The purpose of the master being to form
good instruments as quickly as possible, the}' were fitted up
for their trade by the most expeditious methods.

" What sort of teachers could such a preparation produce?
To teach is to learn twice, it has been truly said ; but on
the condition of having reflected on that which has been
learned and upon that which is to be taught. To convey light
into the intelligence of another, it is first necessary to have
produced the light within one's self, a thing which supposes
the enlightened, penetrating, and persevering action of a
mind relatively mature and trained. From the class where
they have just been sitting as pupils, the monitors — mas-
ters improvised as by the wave of a wand, — passed to
the classes of children whom they were to indoctrinate "
(Greard) .

The instruction, consequently, became purely mechanical.
The monitor faithfully repeated what he had been taught.
Everything was reduced to mechanical processes.

Let us observe, besides, that from the moral point of
view, the mutual system left much to be desired. The mon-
itors, we are told, did not escape the intoxications of
pride. Even in the family they became petty tyrants.
Parents complained of their dictatorial habits and their tone
of authority.

However it may be, mutual instruction has rendered
undeniable services, thanks to the zeal of such teachers as
Mademoiselle Sauvan and Monsieur Sarazin ; but its repu-
tation went on diminishing in proportion as the State became


more and more disposed to make sacrifices, and as it was
possible to multiply the services of teachers. 1

611. The State of Primary Instruction. — Under the
title, Exhibit of Primary Instruction in France, a member of
the University, P. Lorain, published in 1837 a resume of the
inquiry, which, by the orders of Guizot, had been made in
1833 throughout the whole extent of France, by the labors
of more than 400 inspectors. Here are some of the sad
results of this inquiry : all the teachers did not know how to
write ; a large number employed the mechanism of the three
fundamental rules without being able to give an}* theoretical
reason for these operations. " The ignorance was general."

As under the old regime, the teacher practiced all the
trades ; he was day-laborer, shoemaker, innkeeper.

" He had his wife supply his place while he went hunting
in the fields."

The functions of the teacher, poorly rewarded, exposed to
the risk of a very slender tuition, enjoyed no consideration.

"The teacher was often regarded in the community on
the same footing as a mendicant, and between the herdsman
and himself, the preference was for the herdsman."

Consequently, the situation of school-master was the most
often sought after by men who were infirm, crippled, unfit
for any other kind of work.

"From the teacher without arms, to the epileptic, how
many infirmities to pass through ! "

612. Guizot and the Law of June 28, 1833. — Primary
instruction, so often decreed by the Revolution, was not

1 Two noted attempts to extend and popularize the monitorial system
are exhibited in the following works: Pillans, The Rationale of Discipline
(Edinburgh, 1852); Beutham, Chrestomalhia (London, 1816).


really organized in France till by the law of June 28, 1833,
the honor of which is due in particular to Guizot, then minis-
ter of public instruction. 1

Primary instruction was divided into two grades, — elemen-
tary and higher. Henceforth there was to be a school for
each commune, or at least for each group of two or three
communes. The State reserved the right of appointing
teachers, and of determining their salar}-, which, it is true,
in certain places, did not exceed two hundred francs. Poor
children were to be received without pay.

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