Julius Caesar.

C. Iulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum. Caesar's Commentaries: the Gallic war, books I-Iv, with selections from books V-VII and from the civil war; online

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alias sides \ remotas a Germanls, petant } fortunamque, quae-
55 cumque accidat, experiantur.

Haec si enuntiata Ariovisto sint, non dub i tare, quin de
omnibus obsidibus, qui apud eum sint, gravissimum suppli-
cium sumat. Caesarem, vel auctoritate sua atque exercitus,
vel recenti victoria, vel nomine popull Romdnl, deterrere
6o posse, ne maior multitudo Germanorum Rhenum traducatur,
Galliamque omnem ab Ariovisti iniuria posse defendere.



49. ad nutum : < at his beck,' at the slightest intimation of his desires.

50. iracundum: 'quick-tempered.' temerarium: < reckless. 1

52. quid — auxilii: 'some help.' 97, b. Gallis, etc.: 'all
the Celts would have to do the same thing. 1 110, and 229, c. B. 189,
1; A. 374; H. 431. idem: subject of faciendum esse, explained
by the appositive clause ut . . . experiantur. 203, (4).

53. domo: 130, b. emigrent : 'migrate. 1

54. quaecumque : indefinite relative ; trans. ' endure whatever
fortune might befall them. 1 50, a.

56-61. Direct form: Haec si enuntiata Ariovist5 erunt, non dubito, quin
de omnibus obsidibus, qui apud eum sint, gravissimum supplicium sumat.
Til, vel auct5ritate tud atque exercitus, vel recenti victoria, vel nomine popull
Roman!, deterrere potes, ne maior multitudo Germanorum Rhenum traduca-
tur, Galliamque omnem ab Ariovisti iniuria potes defendere.

56. Haec: the utterances at the conference, and appeal to Cais.u.
non dubitare : sc. se, 'he (Diviciacus) had no doubt. 1 quin . . .
sumat: l that he (Ariovistus) would inflict. 1 201, c. B. 298; A. 558,
a\ H. 595, 1. d6: 'upon. 1

58. exercitus : ' (that) of his army.' 157, d.

59. dSterrgre nS, etc. : 'prevent^a larger host of Germans from
being brought across the Rhine. 1 How lit.? 201, a.

60. Rhenum: why accusative? 114, b. B. 179,3; A. 395, n. 2;

H. 4 i3-

61. Galliam: as in 1. 10. Ariovisti: 95.



1, 32] The Campaign against Ariovistus 79

TJie lot of the Sequanians, showing what might happen to all.

32. Hac dratione ab Dlviciaco habita, omnes, qui ade-
rant, magno fletu auxilium a Caesare petere coeperunt.
Animadvertit Caesar, unos ex omnibus Sequanos nihil
earum rerum facere, quas ceteri facerent, sed tristes, capite
demisso, terram intueri. Eius rei quae causa esset, miratus, 5
ex ipsls quaesiit. Nihil Sequani respondere, sed in eadem
tristitia taciti permanere.

Cum ab his saepius quaereret, neque ullam omnino vocem
exprimere posset, Idem Diviciacus Aeduus respondit :

Hoc esse miseriorem et graviorem fortunarn Sequanorum io

32. 2. fletu: 'weeping.' Shedding of tears by men was much
more common among the Gauls and Romans than among us.

3. unos: 'alone. 1 28, a. nihil: 'none. 1 How lit.?

4. ceteri: 171, a. facerent: 214, a, and 213, a. tristes:
'disconsolately. 1 151. capite demisso: 'with bowed heads. 1
How lit.? 144, b, (7).

5. intueri: 'looked upon. 1 quae: 4<5, b. esset: 204, (2).
miratus: 226, c.

6. quaesiit : 116, c. respondere, permanere : * answered,'
'remained. 1 182.

7. tristitia: ' state of dejection. 1 taciti: 'silent. 1 148, c.

8. saepius: 'again and again. 1 How lit. ? 153, ai quaereret:
185, c, and 116, c. neque : = et non. 233, a. vocem : ' utter-
ance. 1 10, c.

9. exprimere : ' to force out.' Aeduus : an Aeduan is now
speaking for the Sequanians, who were formerly bitter enemies of the
Aeduans.

10-16. Direct form: H5c est miser -ior et gravior fortuna Sequanorum
quam reliquorum, quod soli ne in occultd quidem querl neque auxilium im-
plorare audent, absentisque Ariovisti crudelitatem, velut si coram adsit, horrent,
propterea quod reliquis tamen fugae facultas datur, Sequanls vero, qui
Intra fines suos Ariovistum receperunt, qu5rum oppida omnia in potestate eius
sunt, omnes cruciatus sunt perferendl.

10. Hoc : ' On this account,' explained by the following ^^-clause.
135, a. miseriorem : ' more wretched. 1 22, d.



80 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 58

quam reliquorum, quod soil ne in occulto quidem qucri nequc
auxilium implordre auderent, absentisque Ariovisti crudeli-
tdtem, velut si coram adesset, korrirent, proptered quod
reliquis tamen fugae facultds daretur, Sequanls vero, qui
:s intra fines suds Ariovistum recepissent, quorum oppida omnia
in po testate eius essent, omnes cruciatus essent p erf ercndl.

Caesar, for reasons of state, promises his help against Ariovistus.

33. His rebus cognitls, Caesar Gallorum animos verbis

conflrmavit pollicitusque est, sibi earn rem curae f uturam ;

magnam se habere spent, et beneficid suo et auctoritdtc adduc-

tum Ariovistum flnem iniurils facturum. Hac oratione

5 habita, concilium dimlsit.

Et secundum ea multae res eum hortabantur, quare sibi

11. ng . . . quidem: 237, c. B. 347 ; H. 656, 2.

12. audgrent: 62. absentia: 'in. his absence.' How lit.?
crudglitatem : * cruelty.'

13. velut: * just as.' coram: < in person.' adesset : sub-
junctive also in the direct form. 210. B. 307, 1 ; A. 524; H. 584.
horrgrent : i they shuddered at.'

14. reliquis: 'to the rest ' of the Celts. 171, a. tamen: 'at
any rate,' as a last resource. Sgquanis . . . essent perferendi :
'the Sequanians . . . had to endure.' How lit.? 229, c, and 110. B.
189, 1; A. 374; H. 431.

15. oppida omnia: exaggeration; for the Sequanians still held
Vesontio {Besanqoti), which was their strongest fortified place (chap. 38).

16. omngs : as we say, 'all possible.'

33. 2. sibi . . . f uturam [esse] : 'that this matter should have
his attention.' How lit. ? 112, b.

3. magnam, etc. : 213, b. beneficio suo : Caesar's kindness
when he was consul (59 B.C.), in helping secure a recognition of
Ariovistus by the Roman senate (255) ; Caesar reminds Ariovistus of
this later (chap. 35, 11. 3-8 ; chap. 43, 11. 9-15).

4. iniurils : 104, <*• facturum [esse] : after habere spew, used
in place of sperare. 213, a.

6. secundum : preposition ; ' besides those considerations. 1 122, a,
and 160, c. qu5rg : trans, as if propter quas. sibi : 110.



1,33] The Campaign against Ariovistus 81

earn rem cogitandam et suscipiendam putaret ; in primis,
quod Aeduos, fratres consanguineosque saepe numero a
senatu appellatos, in servitute atque dicione videbat Ger-
manorum teneri, eorumque obsides esse apud Ariovistum 10
ac Sequan5s intellegebat ; quod in tanto imperio popull
R5mani turpissimum sibi et rel publicae esse arbitrabatur.
Paulatim autem Germanos consuescere Rhenum transire,
et in Galliam magnam eorum multitudinem venire, populo
Romano periculosum videbat ; neque sibi homines feros ac is
barbaros temperaturos existimabat, quin, cum omnem Gal-
liam occupavissent, ut ante CimbrI Teutonique fecissent, in

7. cogitandam [esse] : * ought to be taken into consideration. 1
putaret: 194, a. in primis : 'first of all.' How lit. ?

8. quod . . . videbat : 198, b. fratres : predicate accusative
after appellatos. 88, b. consanguineos : ' kin, 1 implying blood-
relationship, while fratres, like our " brethren, 11 might be used as a title
implying intimacy of relations without kinship. The use of the title here
may imply that the Aeduans claimed descent from the Trojans,, as did the
Romans, and Caesar himself. 244> and Fig. 153. numero: with
saepe, l repeatedly. 1 1^2, a, and 85.

11. quod : ' (a state of affairs) which 1 ; the antecedent of quod is
the thought expressed by the infinitive clauses depending on videbat
and intellegebat . in . . . R6ma.nl : 'in view of the greatness of the
power of the Roman people. 1 How lit.?

12. turpissimum : 'exceedingly disgraceful. 1 148, c, and 153, a.
sibi : 108, a.

13. Paulatim, etc. : 'for the Germans gradually to become accus-
tomed ' ; Germanos consuescere and multitiidinem venire are the sub-
ject of esse, ' was, 1 understood after videbat. 213, a. autem : ' more-
over. 1 236, a.

15. periculosum: 'full of danger. 1 148, d ; 75, f, and 84. sibi
. . . temperaturos [esse] : ' would hold back, 1 lit. ' restrain them-
selves. 1 105.

16. quin . . . exirent : 'from passing over. 1 201, a.

17. ut : ' as. 1 188, b, and 214, <*• ut . . . fecissent : related in
thought with exirent and contenderent. CimbrI Teutonique : the
terrible hordes of the Cimbrians and Teutons in the closing years of
the second century B.C. swept over Celtic Gaul and passed into the



82 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 58

provinciam exlrent atque inde in Italiam contenderent, prae-

sertim cum Sequanos a provincia nostra Rhodanus divi-

aoderet ; quibus rebus quam maturrime occurrendum putabat.

Ipse autem Ariovistus tantos sibi splritus, tantam ar-

rogantiam sumpserat, ut ferendus non videretur.

Caesar invites Ariovistus to a conference ; he is rebuffed.

34. Quam ob rem placuit el, ut ad Ariovistum legatos
mitteret, qui ab eo postularent, uti aliquem locum, medium
utriusque, colloquio deligeret : Velle sese de re publica et
summis utriusque rebus cum eo agere.
s Ei legation! Ariovistus respondit :

Province, whence the Cimbrians made their way into Cisalpine Gaul.
Finally the Teutons were annihilated in a fierce battle at Aquae Sextiae
(now Aix), about 20 miles north of Massilia, by Gaius Marius in
102 b.c. ; and a year later the Cimbrians met a similar fate at Vercellae,
in Cisalpine Gaul, northeast of Turin. See Map Gallia.

18. Italiam: here including Cisalpine Gaul. 283, b. praeser-
tim cum : 184, b.

19. Sequanos : 282. Rhodanus : ' (only) the Rhone, 1 a slight
protection against an invading host.

20. quibus rebus: 'and these conditions.' 107, a. quam
maturrime: 'at the earliest possible moment. ' 84, a, and 153, c.
occurrendum [esse] : sc. sibi, 'that he ought to meet.' How lit.?

21. tantos spiritus : < such insolent airs.' 20, b.

22. arrogantiam : 'arrogance.' ferendus non: 'unbearable.'
How lit.?

34. 1. placuit el: 'he (Caesar) resolved.' How lit.? ut . . .

mitteret: with placuit ; 'to send.' t99 9 a, (7).

2. postularent: 193, a. aliquem: 49, a. medium utriusque :
'midway between them.' How lit.? 61, and 102.

3. colloquio: ' for a conference.' 112, a. Velle s6s§ : '(stat-
ing) that he wished.' 213, b.

4. summis utriusque rebus : 'affairs of the utmost importance to
both.' How lit.?

6-13. Direct form : ST quid miki a Caesare opus esset, ad eum venissem ;
si quid ille m? vult, ilium ad m? venire oportet.



I, 34] The Campaign against Ariovistus 83

Si quid ipsl a Caesare opus esset, sese ad eum venturum
fuisse ; si quid Me se velit, ilium ad se venire oportere.

Praeterea^ se neque sine exercitit in eds partes Galliae
venire audere, quds Caesar possideret, neque exercitum sine
magno commeatu atque mdllmento in unum locum contrahere 10
posse.




Figure 57. — Pottery found at Bibracte ; Museum of St. Germain.

Praeterea, neque sine exercitu in eas partes Galliae, quas Caesar possidet,
venire auded, neque exercitum sine magno commeatu atque mollmento in
unum locum contrahere possum.

Mihi autem mlrum videtur, quid in rued Gallia, quam bello via, aut
Caesarl aut omnino populo Romand negotil sit.

6. Si . . . fuisse : 208, c. quid, etc. : ' he himself had wanted
anything.' How lit.? 132, b. ipsi:46\

7. quid se : ' anything of himself,' Ariovistus. 116, d.

8. Praeterea: 'furthermore.' Ariovistus was seemingly over
near the Rhine, a long distance from Caesar, who was probably in the
vicinity of Bibracte.

9. possideret: 'was occupying.'

10. commeatu: ' store of supplies. 1 mollmento: 'trouble 'in



84 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 68

Sibi autem mirum videri, quid in sua Gallia, quam bellb
vlcisset, aut Caesarl aut omnlno populo Romano negotii esset.



Caesar through envoys makes demands of Ariovistus, and
threatens.

35. His responsis ad Caesarem relatis, iterum ad eum
Caesar legatos cum his mandatis mittit :

Quoniam, tanto suo popullque Romani beneficio affectus,
cum in consulatu suo rex at que amicus a senatu appellatus

accumulating supplies as well as in mobilizing his forces ; for the army
of Ariovistus, so long as it was scattered in small detachments, could
live off the country. contrahere : ' bring together. 1

12. mirum: 'a cause for wonder. 1 148, d. bello : 131, a.
quid . . . esset : subject of videri, ' what business either Caesar or, 1
etc. 204, (2).

13. aut . . . aut: 235, a. Caesarl, populo: 111. negotii:
97, b.

35. 2. his mandatis: 'this message, 1 lit. 'these instructions 1
to the envoys, which were to be presented orally, and are here sum-
marized. 212, c, (4).

3-8. Direct form: Quoniam, tanto mid popullque Roman! beneficio
affectus, cum in consulatu meo rex atque amicus a senatu appellatus est,
(Ariovistus) hanc mihi populoque Romano gratiam refert, ut, in colloquium
venire invitatus, gravetur, neque de communl re dlcendum sibi et cognos-
cendum putet, haec sunt, quae ab eo postulo.

3. Quoniam: 'Since. 1 tantS. etc. : 'although treated with so
great kindness by himself and the Roman people. 1 How lit. ? 157, d.

4. cdnsulatii su6 : in the previous year ; see N. to chap. 33, 1. 3.
r6x . . . senatu: cf. chap. 3, 11. 12-13, and Notes. The truth seems
to be that in the strifes between the Aeduans and Ariovistus the Roman
Senate thought it the best policy to stand in well with both sides. The
Senate therefore continued to profess friendship for the Aeduans, but
after they sustained a crushing defeat at Admaggtos's stronghold (chap.
31, 11. 19-28 and 46) it courted Ariovistus. To what extent Caesar was
responsible for the conferring of the titles on Ariovistus in 59 B.C., we
do not know.



I, 35] The Campaign against Ariovistus 85

esset, hanc sibi populoque Romano gratiarn referret, ut, in $
colloquium ventre invltdtus, gravdretur, neque de communi
re dlcendum sibi et cognosce nditm putdret, haec esse, quae
ab ed postuldret ;

Prlmum, ne quam multitudinem hominum amplius trans
Rhenum in Galliam trdduceret ; I0

Deinde, ob sides, quos habere tab Aeduis, redderet, Sequanls-
que permitteret, ut, quos illi haberent, voluntdte eius reddere
illls liceret ; neve Aeduos iniurid lacesseret, neve his socils-
que eorum be Hum Inferret.

Si id ita fecisset, sibi populoque Romano perpetuam grd- 15

5. referret : 183, a, and 21 4, a. ut . . . gravargtur : 'that he . . .
raised objections 1 ; explaining gratiarn. 203,(4). ia: ' t0 -'

6. invitatus : « when he had been invited. 1 227, a. neque . . .
putaret : ' and did not consider himself under obligation to discuss,
and take under advisement, a matter of mutual interest.' How lit. ?

7. dicendum [esse] sibi : 73, e, and 110. haec : 161, a, and 160, c.

9-14. Direct form: Prlmum, (postulo) ne (Ariovistus) quam multitudi-
nem hominum amplius trans Rhenum in Galliam trddiicat ;

Deinde, obsides, quos habet ab Aeduis, reddat, Sequanlsque permittat, ut
(obsides), quos hi habent, voluntate eius reddere illls liceat ; neve Aedu5s
iniuria lacessat, neve his sociisque eorum bellum inferat.

9. Prlmum : 237, b. quam : 49, a, and 168. hominum :
98, a. amplius : 'in addition.' How lit.?

10. traduceret, lacesseret (1. 13), inferret (1. 14) : 199, a.

1 1 . redderet, permitteret : sc. ut. 200, a.

12. ut . . . liceret: 'to have his (Ariovistus's) approval in return-
ing (to the Aeduans the hostages) which,' etc. How lit. ? 199, a, and
73, a, b. voluntate : 138. reddere : 67, c, and 222, a.

15-21. Direct form: Si id ita fecerit (future perfect), mihi (111) popu-
lSque Romano perpetua gratia atque amlcitia cum eo erit; si n5n impetrabo,
quoniam, M. Messala, M. PIs5ne consulibus, senatus censuit, uti, quicumque
Galliam pr5vinciam obtineret, quod commodo rei publicae facere posset,
Aeduos ceterSsque amicos populi R5ma.nl defenderet, Aeduorum iniurias non
neglegam.

15. fecisset, futuram [esse] : 218, (1), b. perpetuam :

1 lasting.'



86 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 58

tiam atque amicitiam 'cum ed futuram ; si non impetrdret,
sese, qtioniam, M. Messdld, M. Pisone consulibus, sendtus
censuisset, uti, quicumque Galliam provinciam obtineret,
quod commodo rei publicae facere posset, Aeduos ceterosque
20 amicos populi Rotndni defenderet, se Aeduorum iniurids non
neglecturum.

Ariovistus replies, claiming prior rights in Gaul ((u<l defying

Caesar.

36. Ad haec Ariovistus respondit :

Ius esse belli, ut, qui vicisscnt, eis, quos vicisscnt, quem
ad modum vcllent, impcrdrent ; item populum Romduum

17. M. ... consulibus : 61 B.C. 240, a, and 238, a.

18. censuisset: 'decreed. 1 183, a, and 214, a. uti . . . dgfen-

deret : 199, a, and 177, b. qui-
cumque : 50, a. provinciam :
* as a province.' 115, a.

19. quod: 4 so far as.' 194, /■
B. 283, 5 ; A. 535, d\ H. 591. 3.
commodo rei publicae : * con-
Figure 58,-Aeduan coin. sistent, y with the P ublic Uteres!/

n*A /m. a „ o tr, 138, and 102. Aeduos : Fig. 58.

Gold. Obverse, Apollo. Reverse, Vic- .

tory driving a chariot. Copied from a Greek 20. s6 : repeated from sese m

coin of Macedonia; the Greek name, 'Of 1. 17.

Philip.' is retained on the reverse. „ neg lecturum [esse] : « he

would not leave unnoticed,' a threat sufficiently forceful, although
veiled.

36. 2-7. Direct form: Iiis est belli, ut, qui vtcerini {220), els, quos
vicerint {!!<>), quem ad modum velint, imperent {203, 4); item populus
Romdnus victis non ad alterius praescriptum, sed ad suum arbitrium, imperare
consuevit. Si ego populo Romano ndn praescrlbo, quem ad modum suo iure
utiitur {204, 3), non oportet (7.1, <i) mi a populo Romano in meo iure ini-
pedlrl.

2. qui: the antecedent is the implied subject of imperarent ; * that
those who had conquered should rule over,' etc. els : after impe-
r Brent, 105. quem ad modum: 'in whatever way,' lit. 'according
to which manner': in full, ad (pun) modum ad qucm.




1, 36] The Campaign against Ariovistus 87

victls non ad alterius praescriptum, sed ad suum arbitrium,
imperare consuesse. Si ipse populo Romano non praescrl- s
beret, quern ad modum sud iure uteretur, non oportere se a
populo Romano in sud iure impedlri.

A e duos sibi, quoniam belli fort unam temptassent et arm'is
congress i ac superati essent, stipendiarios esse factos. Mag-
nam Caesarem iniuriam facere t qui sud adventu vectlgalia ic
sibi deteriora faceret. Aeduis se obsides redditurum non
esse ; neque Jils neque eorum socils iniuria be Hum illaturum,
si in eo manerent, quod eouvenisset, stipendiumque quotan-

4. victls: 227, a, (4). ad alterius praescriptum : 'according
to the dictates of another/ How lit.? 28, b. arbitrium : ' judg-
ment. 1

5. non praescrlberet : ' should not dictate. 1

6. quem ad modum: 'in what way'; quern is here interrogative.
48, b. suo : ' its own. 1 uteretur : ' should exercise. 1

7. suo : ' his own. 1

8-15. Direct form: AeduT mihi, quoniam belli fortunam temptdverunt
et armls congressl ac superati sunt, stlpendiaril factT stint. Magnam Caesar
iniuriam facit, qui suo adventu vectlgalia mihi deteriora faciat. Aeduis
obsides non reddam ; neque his neque e5rum socils iniuria bellum inferam,
si in eo manebunt, quod conv'nit, stipendiumque quotannls pendent; si
id n5n fecerint (future perfect), longe els fraternum nomen popull RomanI
aberit.

9. congressl [essent] : ' had contended. 1 57, c. stipendiaries:
'subject to the payment of tribute. 1 148,c. Magnam: emphatic
position. 358, d.

10. qui: ' since he. 1 194, c. suo: refers to Caesar. vectl-
galia: see n. to chap. 18, 1. 10.

ii. sibi: refers to Ariovistus. deteriora: 'less profitable 1 ;

with Caesar's backing the Aeduans would refuse to pay tribute to
Ariovistus.

12. iniuria: 'wrongfully. 1 136, b. B. 220, 2; A. 412, <£; H.

474- i-

13. in . . . convenisset : 'they should abide by 1 (lit. 'in 1 ) 'that
which had been agreed upon. 1 stipendium : ' tribute. 1 quotannls :
79, b.



88 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 58

nls penderent ; si id non fecissent, longe els frdternum
is n&men popull Romanl afuturum.

Quod sibi Caesar denuntiaret, se Aeduorum iniurias non

neglecturum, neminem secum sine sua pernicie contendisse.

Cum vellet, congrederetur ; intcllecturum, quid invicti Ger-

manl, exercitatissimi in armls, qui inter ant ids xuu tectum
20 n on sublssent, virtute possent.

Caesar hears further complaints, marches toward Ariovistus.

37. Haec eodem tempore Caesarl mandata referebantur,
et legati ab Aeduis et a Treveris veniebant : Aedui ques-
tum, quod Harudes, qui nuper in Galliam transportati



14. penderent: 'should pay 1 ; originally 'weigh out, 1 a meaning
appropriate to the early time when payments were made in uncoined
metal. There is a similar development of meaning in the English
"pound sterling." longe els . . . afuturum [esse]: ' would be far
from benefiting them.' els: dative. 109,6. fraternum . . .

Romanl : ' the title of " Brethren of the Roman people/ 1 '

16-20. Direct form: Quod mihi Caesar dinuntiat, se Aedufirum iniurias
non neglecturum, nimd mecum sine sua pernicie (oiitendit. Cum volel, con-
grediatur! Intelleget, quid invicti German!, exercitatissimi in armls, qui
inter annos xim tectum non su/u'Prunl, virtute possint.

16. Quod . . . dgnuntiaret: 'As for Caesar's warning to him,' i.e.
to Ariovistus. How lit. ? 198, c. s6 : Caesar.

17. sua: ' his own, 1 referring to neminem.

|8. congredergtur: 'let him come on I 1 216. B. 316; A. 588;
H. 642. intellgcturum : cum (= Caesar em) intellect it rum esse.

215. quid German! — virtute possent: 'what valor the Gcr-
mans had. 1 How lit.? 11S,1>. invict! : « unconquered. 1

19. exercitatissimi: 'most thoroughly trained.' inter: 'dur-
ing 1 ; with anno.w stronger than the simple accusative of time, xim :
• >>/. aiul ./,s'. b. tectum: 'roof.'

20. sublssent: //./,/,. virtute: 142, a.

37. 2. Aedui: SC. veniebant. questum : £31, 4, and 01, a, (3),
3. HarudCs: chap. 31, II. 39-40. transportat! essent 1 'had
been brought over 1 by Ariovistus.



I, 37] The Campaign against Ariovistus 89

essent, fines eorum popularentur, sese, ne obsidibus quidem
datls, pdcem Ariovistl redimere potiiisse ; Treverl autem, 5
pdgos centum Sueborum ad rlpds Rhenl consedisse, qui
Rhenum transire condrentur ; his prae esse Nasuam et Cim-
berium frdtres.

Quibus rebus Caesar vehementer commotus maturandum
sibi existimavit, ne, si nova manus Sueborum cum veteribus ro




Figure 59. — The Doubs (Dubis) below Besancon (Vesontio).

4. popularentur : ' were (as they said) laying waste.' 214, b.
sgse : '(reporting) that they. 1 213, b. ne obsidibus quidem
datis : ' not even by the giving of hostages. 1 144, b, (6).

5. Treverl: i.e. Treverl dicebant.

6. SuebSrum : an account of the ancient Swabians is given in
Book IV, chap. I.

7. his : 107, a. praeesse : 66, a. Nasuam : 19, d.

9. vehementer commotus: i greatly disturbed, 1 a strong ex-
pression. Caesar does not often give us an insight into his feelings,
but the situation now was critical. Why ? maturandum [esse]
sibi : • that he ought to make haste. 1 73, e.

10. ne, etc. : 'that it might not be more difficult to cope with him, 1
How lit.? 73, c, and 196, a.



90 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 58

copiis Ariovisti sesc coniunxisset, minus facile rcsisti pos-
set. Itaque re frumentaria, quam celerrime potuit, com-
parata, magnis itineribus ad Ariovistum contendit.



Hearing thai Ariovistus has designs an Vesantio t Caesar hastens

thither.

38. Cum tridui viam processisset, nuntiatum est ei, Ario-
vistum cum suis omnibus copiis ad occupandum Vesontio-
nem, quod est oppidum maximum Sequanorum, contendere,
tridulque viam a suis ffnibus pr5cessisse. Id ne accideret,
5 magnopere sibi praecavendum Caesar existimabat.

Namque omnium rerum, quae ad bellum usui erant,



11. sgsg coniunxisset: ' should have united. 1 218, (i), b.

12. quam celerrime" potuit: 'as quickly as possible.' 153, c.
comparatS: 11^, b, (2).

13. magnis itineribus: 'by forced marches. 1 329, and 18, c.
Where Caesar was when the negotiations with Ariovistus were begun,
and whence he started to meet Ariovistus, cannot be determined. It
seems probable that he overtook the survivors of the Helvetians near
the site of Dijon (Map 1) ; that thence he came back to Bibracte for
the Gallic Council ; and that from some point near Bibracte ' the forced
marches 1 eastward began, as indicated on Map 1.

38. 1. tridui: trans, as if trium dierum. Cf. 100, a. viam:
tl8,a,

2. occupandum: gerundive; the gerund in the accusative would
not have a direct object. 230, (3).

3. quod : why not qui, to agree in gender with Vesontionem ? 16^,
c. B. 250,3; A. 306; H. 396,2.

4. suis flnibus : in the country taken from the Sequanians, in
Upper Alsace. But the report was unfounded ; for if Ariovistus had
marched as the report indicated he must have reached Vesontio before
Caesar. Id : the seizure of Vesontio by Ariovistus.

5. sibi praecavendum [esse]: 'that he ought to take every pre-
caution. 1 ttOy and 73, e.



Online LibraryJulius CaesarC. Iulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum. Caesar's Commentaries: the Gallic war, books I-Iv, with selections from books V-VII and from the civil war; → online text (page 10 of 73)