Julius Caesar.

C. Iulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum. Caesar's Commentaries: the Gallic war, books I-Iv, with selections from books V-VII and from the civil war; online

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6. ad: 'for. 1 usui: 'useful. 1 How lit.? 112, a.



i, 38] The Campaign against Ariovistus



91



summa erat in e5 oppidd facultas, idque natura loci sic
muniebatur, ut magnam ad ducendum bellum daret facul-
tatem, propterea quod flumen Dubis, ut circino circumduc-
tum, paene totum oppidum cingit ; reliquum spatium, quod 10
est non amplius pedum sescentorum, qua flumen intermittit,
mons continet magna altttudine, ita, ut radices montis ex



facultas: 'abundance.'
2, 1. 7, and N.



id : oppidu?n. natura loci : cf.



The Dubis (modern Doubs,
only one



7-

chap.

8. ad ducendum bellum : ' for prolonging the war,' at any rate
till Ariovistus could bring the new Swabian hordes (chap. 37, 11. 6-8) to
his assistance.

9. ut circino circumductum : 'as though drawn around by a
pair of compasses.'

10. paene cingit: 'almost encircles.
'Black River') here bends into the form of a loop, leavin
side of the town {reliquum spathmi)
not surrounded by it ; and this
space is taken up by a high hill,
the top of which forms an irregular
plateau (Fig. 60).

11. pedum sexcentorum :
' than six hundred feet ' in breadth ;
a genitive of measure is here used
instead of a comparative ablative,
quam being omitted after amplius.
100, a, and 129, b. sexcen-
torum : the distance across the
neck of the loop from the river
to the river again is about 1600
Roman feet ; but the distance which

needed to be fortified, measured

.. . c .1 , . Figure 60. — The loop of the Dubis

across the top of the plateau, was s ^ " „*

only 600 feet. intermittit




' leaves a neck ' of land. How lit. ?
12. mons: n. to chap. 2, 1. 10



(Doubs) at Vesontio.
The high hill is at the neck.



above the river.
ut : 197, b.
'base.'



altitudine : about 400 feet
US, a. B. 224; A. 415; H. 473, 2. ita,

radices : object of contingant ; we should say



92 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 58

utraque parte rlpae fluminis contingant. Hunc murus cir-
cumdatus arcem efficit et cum oppido coniungit.
is Hue Caesar magnis nocturnls diurnisque itineribus con-
tendit, occupatoque oppido ibi praesidium collocat.

Panic seizes Caesar's army on account of fear of the Germans.

39. Dum paucos dies ad Vesontionem rel frumentariae

commeatusque causa moratur, ex percontatione nostrorum

vocibusque Gallorum ac mercatorum, qui ingenti magnitu-

dine corporum Germanos, incredibill virtute atque exercita-

stione in armis esse praedicabant (saepe numero sese cum



13. contingant: ' touch.' Hunc: i.e. hunc montem ; object of
efficit. circumdatus : ' extended around (it), 1 at the edge of the
small plateau. murus : indicated by a black line in Fig. 60.

14. arcem efficit: 'converts (into) a citadel. 1 115, a. Vesontio
was an important city in Roman times, and afterwards ; and Besancon
is now a fortress of the first class.

15. nocturnls diurnisque : * by night and by day. 1 76, b. Caesar
probably arrived at Vesontio soon after the middle of August.

39. 1. ad: 120, a. Only a 'garrison 1 (praesidiu?n) was stationed
in the citadel; the rest of the army were encamped 'near 1 the town.
rel . . . causa: 'in order to secure grain and (other) supplies. 1 How
lit.? 135, b.

2. moratur: '(Caesar) was delaying. 1 190, a. ex perconta-
tione : 'in consequence of the questioning. 1

3. vocibus : here 'stories. 1 10, c. mercatorum: many traders
accompanied the army, to trade with friendly natives as well as to pur-
chase loot from the soldiers and supply them with extras not provided
in the army rations. ingenti magnitudine : ' of huge size. 1 143,
b. B. 224, 1; A. 415; H. 473, 2.

4. corporum: !)2, a, and 13,f. Caesar elsewhere (IV, 1) speaks of
the 'huge size 1 of the Germans, who, by contrast in stature, seemed
larger to the Romans than they would have seemed to us. exer-
citatiSne : 'practiced skill. 1

5. praedicabant: l were declaring. 1 84> numerS : 1^2, a.
cum his congressos : ' meeting Germans. 1 57, c. How lit. ?



I, 39] The Campaign against Ariovistus 93

his congressos ne vultum quidem atque aciem oculorum
dicebant ferre potuisse), tantus subito timor omnem exer-
citum occupavit, ut non mediocriter omnium mentes ani-
mosque perturbaret.

Hie prlmum ortus est a tribunis militum, praefectis, 10
reliquisque, qui, ex urbe amicitiae causa Caesarem secuti,
non magnum in re militari usum habebant ; quorum alius
alia causa illata, quam sibi ad proficlscendum necessariam
esse diceret, petebat, ut eius voluntate discedere liceret;



6. vultum — ferre: 'to endure the sight of their faces. 1 How
lit. ? Our corresponding phrase is, " to look them in the face.' 1 aciem :
' fierce look. 1

7. tantus . . .ut: 197, b. subito: 'suddenly. 1 timor: 'panic 1 ;
used of a groundless, cowardly fear.

8. non mediocriter : ' in no slight degree ? ; litotes. 239, g.
mentes animosque : as we say, ' minds and hearts. 1

9. perturbaret : ' disturbed. 1

10. ortus est a: 'started with. 1 61, b. tribunis militum:
' military tribunes. 1 314- praefectis : not the ' cavalry prefects '
(309, c), but 'subsidiary officials 1 in various positions of slight respon-
sibility, chiefly, we may assume, in connection with the light-armed
troops. Caesars financial and political relations (251) made it expedient
for him to furnish military appointments for a number of aristocratic
young mollycoddles, who had had no military experience, but wanted a
taste of it because that was considered the proper thing. These were
in a different class from Publius Crassus, for example, and other young
Romans of high social position with Caesar, who attacked their work
seriously and became excellent officers.

11. urbe: Rome. 17, b. amicitiae causa: 135, b. Caesar is
politic as well as polite in ascribing to personal attachment to himself
the presence of these milksops in his army.

12. non magnum: 239, g. re militari: 'warfare. 1 alius
alia causa illata : '(each) one offering a different excuse. 1 171, c.

13. causa: 144, b, (2). quam . . . diceret: 'which, as he
said, made it imperative for him to leave. 1 How lit. ? 214, b.

14. petebat, ut ... liceret: 'begged permission. 1 199, a. volun-
tate; 138,



94



Caesar's Gallic War



[B.C. 68



i 5 n6n null! pudorc adducti, ut timoris suspicionem vitarent,
remanebant. Hi neque vultum fingere neque interdum
lacrimas tenere poterant ; abditi in tabernaculis, aut suum
fatum querebantur aut cum familiaribus suls commune
perlculum miserabantur. Vulgo totis castris testamenta

2oobsignabantur.




Figure 61. — The Doubs River above Besancon (Vesontio).



15. pudore: * by a sense of shame.'

16. remanebant: 'remained 1 in camp, after the .exodus of the
others. vultum fingere : « to look unconcerned. 1 How lit. ?



7. abditi: 'shutting themselves up. 1 1 74, and 67,



taberna-



culis : ' their tents ' 355, a.

18. fatum quergbantur: 'they were bewailing their fate. 1 fa-
miliaribus: * intimate friends.'

19. miserabantur: 'were despairingly discussing. 1 Vulgo:
adverb, 'generally. 1 t6tls castris: 'throughout the camp. 1 146, c.
testamenta: 'wills.'

20. obsignabantur : 'wen- being made, 1 as we say; lit. 'were
being sealed, 1 referring to the process by which wax tablets (Fig. 53),
on which wills were ordinarily written, were sealed up (Fig. 203).



I, 40] The Campaign against Ariovistus 95

Horum vocibus ac timore paulatim etiam el, qui magnum
in castrls usum habebant, milites centurionesque, quique
equitatui praeerant, perturbabantur. Qui se ex his minus
timidos exlstimarl volebant; non se hostem vererl, sed
angustias itineris et magnitudinem silvarum, quae inter- 25
cederent inter ipsos atque Ariovistum, aut rem frumenta-
riam, ut satis commode supportari posset, timere dicebant.

Non null! etiam Caesari nuntiabant, cum castra mover! ac
signa ferri iussisset, non fore dicto audientes milites neque
propter timorem signa laturos. 30

Caesar deals with the situation in a persuasive address.

40. Haec cum animadvertisset, convocato consilio, omni-
umque ordinum ad id consilium adhibitls centurionibus,

22. in castrls : ' in the army ' is our corresponding phrase. cen-
turiones: i the centurions.' 315, a. quique: et (ei) qui ; cavalry
prefects and decurions are meant. 309, c.

23. Qui ex his: (el) ex his, qui. 97, d. se . . . exlstimarl:
223, a.

24. timidos : ' cowardly. 1 non se vererl : ' that they were not
afraid of/

25. angustias: the gorges in the valley of the Dubis (Doubs),
through which the most direct route led northeast to the region where
Ariovistus was (Fig. 61). silvarum : there are still extensive forests
on both sides of the upper Doubs.

26. rem : object of timere, where a nominative, subject of posset,
might have been expected ; prolepsis. 238, g. B. 374, 5.

27. ut: < that not/ 202. supportari: ' be brought up/

29. signa ferri: i go forward/ How lit.? 324,325. iussisset:
< should give the order'; future perfect indicative in the direct form.
214, a. non fore dicto audientes : i would not obey the com-
mand ; ' like the Scriptural, " Ye will not hearken unto me/' How lit. ?
dicto: 105.

40. 2. ordinum: 'companies/ 12, d. How many in the six
legions which Caesar now had? 307, c. centurionibus: ordina-
rily only the centurions of first rank, the six centurions of the first cohort



96



Caesar's Gallic War



[B.C. 58



vehementer eos incusavit; prlmum, quod, aut.quam in
partem, aut quo consilio ducerentur, sibi quaerendum aut
5 cogitandum putarent :

Ariovistinn, se consule, cupidissime popull Romdni amici-






of each legion, were invited to a war-council. On this occasion all the
centurions of the six legions (360 in number) were brought together,

doubtless with the lieutenants
and other higher officers, not
for deliberation, but for an
address by the commander in
chief (Fig. 62).

3. vehementer eos in-
cusavit: 'he severely repri-
manded them. 1 quod . . .
putarent: 'because (as he
told them) they thought.'
214, b. quam, quo : 204,
(2), and 48, b.

4. consilio : 'plan. 1
quaerendum [esse] aut co-
gitandum [esse] : the sub-
ject is the preceding indirect
question ; ' that it was their
business to inquire or con-
sider. 1 How lit. ? 73, e.




Figure 62. — Centurion.
With a staff, symbol of authority; unhelmeted,
but with ornamented greaves and with military
decorations attached to the cuirass.



6. Ariovistum, etc. : 280.
255, and 144, b, (2).



6-10. Direct form: Ariovis-
tus, me consule, cupidissime
popull Roman! amlcitiam appe-
tiit ; cur hunc tarn tenure
quisquam ab officio discessurum
(esse) iudicet? Mihi qoidetn
persnadetiir, cognitis meis pos-
tulates atque aequitate condki-
5num perspecta, eum neque
meant neque popull Roman!
gratiam repudiiturum (esse).

sS consule : only a year previously.



I, 40] The Campaign against Ariovistus 97

Ham appetlsse ; cur hum tarn temere quisquam ab officio
discessurum iudicdret? Sibi quidem persudderi, cognitls
suis postulates atque aequitdte condicionum perspecta, eum
neque suam neque popull Romani grdtiam repudidturum. 10

Quod si, furore atque amentia impulsus, helium intulisset,
quid tandem vererenturf aut cur de sua virtute aut de
ipslus diligentia dcsperdrent ? Factum eius hostis pericu-
lum patrum nostrorum memoria, cum, Cimbrls et Teutonis
a Gdio Mario puis is, non minorem laudem exercitus, quam 15

7. app^+isse : ' strove to secure'; a rhetorical exaggeration. See
chap. 33, 1. 3, and chap. 35, 1. 4, and Notes. temere : 'recklessly.'
quisquam : 168, and 49, a. ab officio : ' from his obligation ' of
allegiance.

8. iudicaret : 179, b, (2). Sibi quidem persuaderl: ' he at least
was persuaded.' How lit. ? 106, b. cognitls . . . perspecta :
trans, by a clause commencing with i after.' 239, c. Why ablative?

9. postulatis :< demands. 1 aequitate : 'fairness.' perspecta:
1 should have been clearly understood.' How lit. ? eum : trans, as
if Ariovistum.

10. suam: 157, d. repudiaturum [esse]: i would reject.'

1 1-2 1. Direct form : Quod si {Ariovistus), furore atque amentia impulsus,
bellum intulerit, quid tandem veredmini {179, b, 2) ? aut cur de vestrd virtute
aut de meti diligentia desperetis {179, b, 2) ? Factum {est) eius hostis perlcu-
lum patrum nostrorum memoria, cum, Cimbrls et Teutonis a Gaio Marid pulsis,
non minSrem laudem exercitus, quam ipse imperator, meritus videbatur; fac-
tum {est perlcuhim) etiam nuper in Italia, servili tumultu, quos tamen aliquid
usus ac discipllna, quae a n5bis acceperant, sublevabant. Ex qu5 iudicarl
potest, quantum habeat {204, 3) in s ^ boni constantia, propterea quod, quos
aliquamdiu inermos sine causa timuistis, h5s postea armatos ac victores
superdvistis.

1 1 . Quod : ' But.' 118, d. furore . . . impulsus : ' carried
away by rage and madness.'

12. quid tandem: < what, pray. 1 vererentur : 61, a, {2).

13. diligentia; 'careful leadership.' Factum [esse] . . . peri-
culum : ' trial had been made of that enemy,' i.e. of the Germans.

14. memoria: 147,b. Cimbrls, Teutonis: n. to chap. 33, 1. 17.

15. laudem: 'praise.' 17, c.



98 Caesars Gallic War [B.C. 58

ipse imperdtor, meritus videbdtur ; factum etiam nuper in

Italia, sennit tumultu, quos tamen aliquid usus ac disciplina,
* quae a nobis accepissent, ublevdrent. Ex quo iudicdri

posse, quantum habere t in se boni constantia, propterea
20 quod, quos aliquamdiu inermos sine causa timuissent, /ids

posted armdtos ac victores uperdssent.

Denique /ids esse eosd m Germanos, quibuscum saepe

16. meritus: for meritus esse; with videbdtur, ' clearly earned. 1
How lit.? 148, e. vidgbfttur: indicative retained from the direct
form. 18'), b. nuper: fourteen years previously; among the centu-
rions present there were probably a number who had served as soldiers
in the war with Spartacus, the term of military service being twenty
years. 807, a.

17. servlli tumultu : = tumultu servorum, ' at the time of the upris-
ing of the slaves/ 73-71 B.C. ; referring to the insurrection led by Spar-
tacus, the gladiator, who had a succession of victories for two years, but
in 71 B.C. was completely crushed. Caesar implies that among the glad-
iators and other slaves serving under Spartacus there were many of
Germanic origin. tumultu : used for bellum in case of a sudden war
in Italy. Why ablative? 147, b. quos: 164, b. B. 251, 2; A.
306, b; H. 399,4. quos tamen, etc: ' notwithstanding the fact
that the experience and training, which they had gained from us, to
some extent aided them,' lit. 'whom nevertheless,' etc. aliquid:
118, b.

18. quae : neuter. 163, c. B. 250, 2 ; A. 305, a ; H. 398, 1.

19. quantum, etc. : 'how great an advantage there is in steadfast-
ness, 1 lit. 'how much of good steadfastness has in itself. 1 boni :
.97, b.

20. aliquamdiu: 'for a long time. 1 inermos: 'without arms. '
referring to the slaves in the earlier stages of the insurrection, before
they were able to supply themselves with weapons. hos : antecedent
of quds.

21. arm at 6s : ' equipped with arms. 1

22-25. Direct form : Denique hi sunt idem Germdnt, quibuscum saepe
numero Helvetil congress!, non solum in suis, sed etiam in illorum finibus,
plerumque superav'erunt : qui tamen pares esse nostro exercitul non potuerunt.

22. Dfinique: 'Finally, 1 closing the argument about the Germans,
quibuscum, etc : cf. chap. I, ll. 12-15. l% 5 y *•



I, 40] The Campaign against Ariovistus 99

numero Helvetil congress!, non solum in suls, sed etiam in
illorumflnibus, plerumque superdrint ; qui tamen pares esse
nostro exercitni non potuerint. 25

Si quos adversum p roe Hum et fuga Gallorum commove-
ret, hos, si quaererent, reperlre posse, diuturnitate belli defatl-
gdtls Gallls, Ariovistum, cum multos menses castrls se ac
paludibus tenuis set neque sul potestdtem fecisset, desperantes
iam de pugna et dispersos sub i to adortum, magis ratione et so
consilio quam virtute vlcisse. Cui rationl contra homines
barbaros atque imperltds locus f ids set, hdc ne ipsum quidem
sperdre nostros exercitus capl posse.

23. congress!: 228, a.

24. illorum : trans, as if Germanorum. plerumque superarint :
super av erint -, 'generally defeated (them).' qui tamen : i and they
(the Helvetians) nevertheless.' 236, a.

26-33. Direct form: Si quos adversum proelium et fuga Galldrum com-
movet, hi, si quaerent (206), reperire poterunt, diuturnitate belli defatigatls
Gallls, Ariovistum, cum multos menses (118, a) castrls (131, a) se ac paludi-
bus tenuisset neque sul potestatem fecisset* (eos, = Guilds) desperantes iam
de pugna et dispersos subitS adortum (226, c), magis ratione et consilio quam
virtute vlcisse. Cui rationl contra homines barbarSs atque imperltos locus
fuit, hac ne ipse quidem sperat nostros exercitus capl posse.

26. quos : 168, and 4-9, a. adversum proelium : < defeat ' at
Admagetos's stronghold ; seechap. 31, 11. 45-46. commoveret : 172, b.

27. diuturnitate, etc : i when the Gauls had become exhausted by
the length of the war.' 1U, b, (2).

29. paludibus : < marshes,' added to explain how the encampments
were shut off from approach. 131, a. se tenuisset: 'had kept
himself secluded.' neque sui, etc.: 'and had given (them) no
chance to attack him,' lit. *no power of himself.' sul: 102.
desperantes . . . vlcisse : i.e. Ariovistum . . . subito adortum
{eos = Gallos) desperantes iam de pugna ('giving up hope of battle')
et dispersos (' scattered '), vlcisse (eos) ratione et consilio (' by cunning
and strategy ') magis guam virtute.

31. Cui rationi — hac: i.e. hac ratione, cui, 'by such cunning' —
'for which.' 165, c.

32. imperitos: 'unskilled.' ipsum: Ariovistus.

33. capl: 'be caught.' 56.



100 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 58

Qui swim timorem in rei frumentdriae simuldtionem
ssangustidsque itineris confcrrent,facere arroganter, cum aut
de officio itnpe rat oris desperdre aut praescrlbere vidercntur.
Haec sibi esse curae ; frumentum Sequanos, Leucos, Lin-
gones sumministrdre, iamque esse in agris frrimenta mdtura ;
de itinere ipsos brevl tempore iudicdturQS.
43 Quod non fore dicto audientes neqne signa laturi dl-
cantur, nihil se ed re commoveri ; scire enim, quibuscumque

34-39. Direct form : Qui suum timSrem in rel frumentariae simulationem
angustiasque itineris conferunt, faciunt arroganter, cum aut de offici5 impera-
toris desperare aut praescrlbere videantur {184, &)• Haec mihi sunt curae;
frumentum SequanT, Leud, Lingones sumministrant, iamque sunt in agrls
frumenta matura; de itinere ipsl brevl tempore iiidicdbitis.

34. Qui : i.e. «", qui; see chap. 39,
11. 23-27. suum, etc. : ' assigned their
fear to a pretended anxiety about supplies.'
How lit.?

35. arroganter: 'presumptuously.'
Figure 63. -Coin attrib- 37- sibi curae: 112, b. B. 191, 2, a;

uted to the Leuci. A - 382, I ; H. 433. Leucos : Fig. 63.

_ , . _ , , 38. sumministrare : « were supplying. 1

Gold. Reverse, a winged genius rr j a

riding on an arrow. frumenta: how different from frumentum/

Cf. chap. 16, 1. 3 and n.

40-45. Direct form: Quod (mllites) non fore dict5 audientes neque signa
laturl dicuntur, nihil ea re commoveor; scio enim, quibuscumque exercitus dicto
audiens non fuerit, aut, male re gesta, fortunam defuisse, aut, aliqu5 facinore
CompertO, avaritiam esse convictam: mea innocentia perpetua vita, felicitds
Helvetiorum bello est perspecta.

40. Quod . . . dlcantur: sc. mllites; cf. chap. 39, 1. 29. 198, c.
B. 299, 2. signa: 325. 15turl [esse] dlcantur: trans, 'it was
said that the soldiers would,' etc. 148, e; 172, d, and 224, a.

41. nihil: 'not at all.' 118,c. scire : sc. se. 215. quibuscum-
que : after dicto audiens ; these two words express a single concept,
'obedient,' and hence are followed by the dative. 50, a, and 108, a.
For an antecedent supply els after defuisse; trans, 'that in the case of
any (commanders) whatever who had found their armies mutinous,
either their luck had failed them in consequence of the bad handling of
some enterprise, or,' etc. How lit. ?




1,40] The Campaign against iVriovistus .< 101 ,

exercitus dicto audiens non fuerit, aitt, male re gestd, for-
tunam defuisse, aut, aliqud facinore comperto, avdritiam
esse convictam ; suam innocentiam perpetud vita, felicita-
tetn Helvetiorum bello esse perspectam y 45

Itaque se, quod in longiorem diem collaturus fuisset,
repraesentdturum et proximd nocte de quarta vigilid castra
moturum, ut quam primum intellegere posset, utrum apud
eos pudor atque officium, an timor, plus valeret. Quod si
praetered nemo sequdtur, tamen se cum sold decimd legione 50
iturum, de qua non dubitdret, sibique earn praetoriam co-
hortem futuram.

42. re gesta : 144i &, (3)- f ortunam : the Romans were supersti-
tious in avoiding anything that seemed unlucky.

43. defuisse : 66, a. aliquo : from aliqul. 49, a. facinore :
' crime.' 13, f* and 144, b, (3). avaritiam ; 'greed,' the underlying
cause of the crimes comm'itted by generals, according to Caesar.

44. esse convictam: 'had been clearly proved' against them.
suam : emphatic position. 157, b. innocentiam: 'integrity,'
freedom from the corruption implied in avdritiam. perpetua
vita: 'during his entire life.' 147, c. B. 231, 1 ; A. 424,^; H. 417,2.
felicitatem ; 'good fortune. 1

45. Helvetiorum bello : we say ' war with the Helvetians,' or
' Helvetian campaign.' 147, b.

46-52. Direct form: Itaque, quod in longiorem diem collaturus fuT,
repraesentdbo ; et hdc nocte de quarta vigilia castra movebo, ut quam primum
intellegere possim {196, a), utrum apud milites pudor atque officium, an timor,
plus valeat (204) • Quod si praeterea nemo sequetur (218, I, a), tamen ego cum
s5la decima legione ibo, de qua non dubito, mihique ea praetor ia cohors erit.

46. longiorem : ' more distant.' collaturus fuisset : ' he had
intended to put off.' 63, and 69, b.

47. repraesentaturum [esse] : sc. id, antecedent of quod] ' he would
at once do (that) .' de quarta vigilia : 242, d.

48. quam primum: 153, c. utrum ... an : 204, (i)« B. 300,
l; A. 335; H. 380.

49. plus valeret: 'should have the stronger influence' with them.
118, b. Quod : 118, d.

51. non dubitaret : 'he entertained no doubts.' praetoriam



• ; ; 19?: ••••;: : : .". Caesar's Gallic War



[B.C. 58



Huic legion! Caesar et indulserat praecipue et propter
virtutem confldebat maxime.

Fear and mutiny give place to enthusiasm. Caesar advances.

41. Hac oratione habita, mlrum in modum conversae
sunt omnium mentes, summaque alacritas et cupiditas belli
gerendi innata est ; prlncepsque decima legio per tribunos
militum el gratias egit, quod de se optimum iudicium fecis-

5 set, seque esse ad bellum gerendum paratissimam confir-
mavit. Deinde reliquae legiones cum tribunis militum
et primorum ordinum centurionibus egerunt, uti Caesari
satisfacerent ; Se ncque umquam dnbitdsse nequc timuissc,
neque de summa belli suiim indicium, sed imperdtoris esse

xocxistimdvissc.

cohortem : ' bodyguard. 1 to which a general (originally called praetor,
see Vocab.) was entitled.

53. legion! : 105, and 307, e. indulserat: 'had favored.'
praecipug : 'especially 1 ; emphatic position. 352, a.

54. confidgbat maxime : ' had the fullest confidence.'

41. 1. Hac 6r5tione habita : 'After this address.' How lit.?
144, b, (2). mlrum in modum : ' in a wonderful way.'

2. omnium: including not only the officers but also the soldiers,
to whom the speech was promptly reported by the centurions.
summa alacritas: 'the utmost enthusiasm.'

3. innata est: 'arose.' princeps : adj., 'taking the lead.' How
lit.? 152, b. per: 123, a. tribunos militum : 314.

4. el gratias 6git: 'conveyed thanks to him.' fgcisset : 'had
passed. 1 Why subjunctive? 183, a.

7. primSrum ordinum centurionibus: 'the centurions of first
rank, 1 apparently the six centurions of the first cohort in each legion.
6g6runt : 'arranged.' uti — satisfacerent: 'to apologize.'
199, a.

8. 86: '(declaring) that they.' 213, b. dubitasse : 64, a, (1).

9. neque: trans, as if et ndn. d6 summa belli iudicium:
'the determination of the general plan of campaign.' How lit.?
suum, imperatSris : in predicate after esse-, 'was not their (business),
but the commander's.' 94, d, and 157, d.



I, 4i] The Campaign against Ariovistus 103

Eorum satisfactione accepta, et itinere exquisito per
Diviciacum, quod ex Gallis el maximam fidem habebat, ut
milium amplius quinquaginta circuitu locis apertis exer-
citum duceret, de quarta vigilia, ut dixerat, profectus est.
Septim5 die, cum iter non inter mitteret, ab exploratoribus is




Figure 64 — Modern canal in the plain of Alsace near Strassburg.

11. satisfactione: 'apology. 1 exquisito: 'sought out.' per:
'with the help of.'

12. el: 'in him.' 109, a. maximam fidem: 'the fullest con-



Online LibraryJulius CaesarC. Iulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum. Caesar's Commentaries: the Gallic war, books I-Iv, with selections from books V-VII and from the civil war; → online text (page 11 of 73)