Julius Caesar.

C. Iulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum. Caesar's Commentaries: the Gallic war, books I-Iv, with selections from books V-VII and from the civil war; online

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aut, si id minus veils, e tuts legatis aliquem ad me mittds.

2. Velle, etc. : 212, c, (4), and 213, b. coeptae [essent] : 72, b, c.

3. uti, etc. : i.e. se rogdre, uti {Caesar) . . . constitueret ; the idea
of asking is implied in Velle, etc. 199, a.

4. minus : trans, as if non. 6 lggatis : 97, d. suls : Cae~
saris. aliquem : Jfl, a. Ariovistus wanted Caesar to send not a
messenger but one of his highest officers, probably in order to hold
him as a hostage.

6. causa visa n6n est : ' there did not seem (to be any) reason/
90, b. et e6 magis : < especially ' ; lit. i and on this account the
more,' ed being explained by the following qtwd-clause. 135, a.

7. di6I: 94, c. B. 201, 3, a\ A. 359, b, N. 2 ; H. 446, 5. quin
. . . conicerent: 'from hurling. 1 201, a. B. 295, 3; A. 558; H.
595, 2.

8. L6gatum 6 suls: 'an envoy from his stafT , ; one of his officers.
s6b6 . . . missurum [esse] : ' that it would be exceedingly hazardous
for him to send to Ariovistus'; how lit.? magno cum perlculo:
136, a.

10. visum est, etc : visum est mittere (1. 16) G&ium Valerium
Procillum, etc. 222, a.



I, 47] The Campaign against Ariovistus 117

Valerium Procillum, C. Valerii Caburi f ilium, summa vir-
tute et humanitate adulescentem, cuius pater a C. Valerio
Flacco civitate donatus erat, et propter fidem et prcpter
linguae Gallicae scientiam, qua multa iam Ariivistus
longinqua consuetudine utebatur, et quod in e5 peccandl i 5
Germanis causa non esset, ad eum mittere, et una M.
Metium, qui hospitio Ariovisti utebatur. His mandavit,
ut, quae diceret Ariovistus, cognoscerent et ad se referrent.
Quos cum apud se in castris Ariovistus conspexisset,
exercitu suo praesente conclamavit : Quid ad se venirent ? 2c
an speculandi causa? Conantes dlcere prohibuit et in
catenas coniecit.

11. C — Gal. 19, a. Valerii: 8, a. virtute : lJf3, a.

12. humanitate: 'refinement.' adulescentem: 'a young man. 1
C. Valerio Flacco : governor of the Province of Gaul in 83 B.C.

13. civitate: Roman 'citizenship' was often conferred upon for-
eigners who had rendered some service. In this case the Gaul Cabiirus
took the First Name and Clan Name of C. Valerius Flaccus, to whom he
was indebted for the distinction, and was known as C. Valerius Ca-
burus. 19, a, and b. donatus erat : ' had been presented.'

14. qua multa Ariovistus utebatur: 'which Ariovistus spoke
fluently ' ; how lit. ?

15. consuetudine: 'practice.' 135, a. in eo: 'in his case.'
peccandl causa: '(any) reason for offering violence,' lit. 'of doing
wrong ' ; for Procillus was a Gaul.

16. non esset: 'because (as he thought) there was not.' 183, a.

17. utebatur: 'enjoyed.' Metius may have been received and
entertained by Ariovistus in the course of the negotiations which in
59 B.C. culminated in the recognition of the German ruler by the Roman
Senate (chap. 35, 11. 3-4).

20. conclamavit :< he called out loudly.' Quid: 'why.' 118, e.
venirent : 217, a.

21. an speculandi causa: '(was it) in order to act as spies.'
179, a, (2). How lit.? Conantes [eos], etc : 'when they tried to
speak he stopped them,' preventing explanation because he wished his
army to believe that they were spies. 227, a, (5).

22. catenas: 'chains.'



118 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 58

Ariovistus moves camp so as to cut off Caesar's supplies.

48. Eodem die castra pr5m5vit et milibus passuum sex
a Caesaris castris sub monte consedit. Postridie eius diei
praeter castra Caesaris suas copias traduxit et milibus
passuum duobus ultra eum castra fecit eo consilio, uti fru-
5 mento commeatuque, qui ex Sequanis et Aeduis supporta-
retur, Caesarem intercluderet.

Ex eo die dies continu5s quinque Caesar pro castris suas

copias produxit et aciem instructam habuit, ut, si vellet

Ariovistus proelio contendere, ei potestas non deesset.

ioAriovistus his omnibus diebus exercitum castris continuit,

equestrl proelio cotidie contendit.

48. i . promovit : '(Ariovistus) moved forward. 1 milibus

147, c. How far by our measurement ? 243, a, b.

2. Caesaris castris : Caesar's camp is located by Colonel Stoffcl
between Gemar and Ostheim, about 35 miles southwest of Strassburg.
See Map 4, Large Camp. diSI. 94, c.

3. praeter . . . traduxit: Ariovistus's line of march, as suggested on
Map 4, probably skirted or traversed the foothills of the Vosges in such
away that Caesar could not attack him while executing this movement.

4. castra : the camp of Ariovistus, probably at the place so marked
on Map 4, was favorably located for defense. uti . . . intercluderet :
explains consilio. /.%', a. frumento : 127, a. B. 214, 2; A. 401 :
H . 464. Ariovistus thought that by cutting off Caesar's supplies he could
force Caesar to retire, or else to fight on ground of his own choosing.

5. qui: 163, c. supportargtur : subjunctive by attraction.
220. B. 324,1; A. 593; H.652.

8. aciem instructam: 'his army drawn up' in triple line, as indi-
cated on Map 4, Caesar's First Position. 337, a. ut: 'so that.'
vellet: 220.

9. el . . . deesset: 'he did not lack opportunity.' How lit.?
197, a, and 239, g.

10. di6bus : 147, c. exercitum : the German infantry, as we
see from the next line. castris: 'within the camp.' Lit. </. B.
218; A. 409; H. 476.

11. equestrl proeliS : 'with cavalry skirmishing.' contendit:
238, a.



I, 4a] The Campaign against Ariovistus 119

Genus hoc erat pugnae, quo se GermanI exercuerant.
Equitum mllia erant sex, totidem numero pedites velocissimi
ac fortissimi, quos ex omnI copia singuli singulos suae
salutis causa delegerant; cum his in proeliis versabantur. *s
Ad eos se equites recipiebant ; hi, si quid erat durius, con-
currebant, si qui, graviore vulnere acceptd, equo deciderat,
circumsistebant; si quo erat longius prodeundum aut cele-
rius recipiendum, tanta erat horum exercitatione celeritas,
ut iubis equorum sublevati cursum adaequarent. 2C

Caesar fortifies a camp beyond Ariovistus, reopening the road.

49. Ubi eum castris se tenere Caesar intellexit, ne diu-
tius commeatu prohiberetur, ultra eum locum, quo in loco

12. Genus pugnae: l The method of fighting.' hoc: 161, a.

13. erant: 90, a. numero : 1J$, a, and 85. pedites: sc.
erant. 10, d. velocissimi: < the fastest. 1

14. quos, etc. : 'whom they 1 (the horsemen) < had chosen from the
entire force, each one (selecting) a foot-soldier. 1 How lit. ? singu-
los : agrees with quos. 36.

15. versabantur: ' (the horsemen) associated themselves.'

16. e5s, hi: the foot-soldiers. si . . . erat, concurrebant :
general condition of fact. 205, (2) . quid durius : * unusually
serious difficulty. 1 153, a. How lit.? concurrebant: < they would
rush to the rescue. 1

17. qui: 'any one. 1 49, a and b. vulnere: 13, e. equo:
127, a. deciderat : < had fallen.' 205, (4).

18. circumsistebant: ' they would gather round him.' si quo,
etc. : ' if it was necessary to advance in any direction unusually far, or
to retreat with special swiftness.' 73, e, and 153, a.

19. celeritas: 'swiftness.'

20. iubis: 'by the manes.' sublevati: ' supporting themselves.'
174- cursum: 'they kept up with the running' of the horses.
Caesar afterwards employed German horsemen as mercenaries, and they
rendered him very effective service, as at the siege of Alesia (VII. 80).

49. 1. eum: Ariovistus. se : object of tenere. ne . . . pro-
hiberetur: see chap. 48, 11. 4-6, and Notes. 196, a.

2. eum locum : Map 4, Camp of Ariovistus. loco : 165, a.



120 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C.M

German! consederant, circiter passus sexcentos ab his, cas-
tris idoneum locum delegit acieque triplici Instructa ad eum

s locum venit. Primam et secundam aciem in armls esse,
tertiam castra munire iussit. Hie locus ab hoste circiter
passus sexcentos, utl dictum est, aberat.

Eo circiter hominum numero sedecim milia expedita cum
omni equitatu Ariovistus mlsit, quae copiae nostros ter-

iorerent et munitione prohiberent. Nihilo setius Caesar, ut
ante constituerat, duas acies hostem propulsare, tertiam
opus perficere iussit. Munltis castris, duas ibi legiones
reliquit et partem auxiliorum ; quattuor reliquas in castra
maiora reduxit.

Tlie Germans, Caesar hears, dare not fight before the new moon.

50. Proximo die, instituto suo, Caesar e castris utrisque

copias suas eduxit, paulumque a maioribus castris pro-

gressus aciem Tnstruxit, hostibus pugnandi potestatem

fecit.

4. castris : 108, a. idoneum :< suitable.' aci§ triplici : 337, a.

6. castra : 332. This camp on Map 4 is called the ' Small Camp, 1
castra minora, in order to distinguish it from the < Large Camp, 1 castra
maiora. The two camps were not far from two miles apart ; both were
on somewhat higher ground. Caesar's object in establishing the
smaller camp, which was a little more than half a mile from the Ger-
mans, was to keep open the road to Vesontio, and so maintain com-
munication with his base of supplies. munire : ' fortify.' 333.

8. hominum . . . expedita : trans, as if sedecim milia hominum
expedltorum . expedita: 'light-armed.'

9. quae c6piae : < in order that these forces.' 193, a.

10. NihilS sfitius : < Nevertheless,' lit. < by nothing the less.' 140.

1 1 . duas : i.e. primam et secundam. propulsare : * to ward off.'
13. reliquas: sc. legiones. How many men, probably, in the six

legions ? 307, b and e.

50. i, Instituto suo : ' in accordance with his usual practice' (chap.
48,11.7-8). 136, c. utrisque: 51.

3. aciem: Map 4, Caesar's Second Position. potestatem
fficit : * gave an opportunity.'



MAP 4
The Battle with Ariovistus



Book I, 49-53



To face page 120




SCALE OF ENGLISH MILES



SCALE OF ROMAN MILES



EXPLANATION

Caesar, marching from the south, encamped north of Modern Ostheim (chap.
48, 1. 2). Ariovistus, marching from the north, encamped on Zellenberg.



I, 50] The Campaign against Ariovistus 121

Ubi ne turn quidem eos pr5dire intellexit, circiter meri-5
diem exercitum in castra reduxit. Turn demum Ariovistus
partem suarum copiarum, quae castra minora oppugnaret,
misit. Acriter utrimque usque ad vesperum pugnatum est.
Solis occasu suas copias Ariovistus, multis et illatls et
acceptis vulneribus, in castra reduxit. i<

Cum ex captivis quaereret Caesar, quam ob rem Ario-
vistus proelid non decertaret, hanc reperiebat causam, quod
apud Germanos ea consuetudo esset, ut matres familiae
eorum sortibus et vaticinationibus declararent, utrum proe-
lium committi ex usu esset necne ; eas ita dicer e, *

Non esse fas Germanos superare, si ante novarn lunam
proelid contendissent.

5. ne . . . quidem: 237, c. prodire : 68, b. meridiem:

' midday.'

7. quae : trans, as if ut ea. 193, a,

8. Acriter — pugnatum est: 'Fiercely the battle raged.' 73, d.
utrimque: 'on both sides.'

9. Solis occasu: 'At sunset.' 147, a.

11. ex: 116, c. quam ob rem: 'for what reason.' 204, (2).
How lit. ?

12. proelio non decertaret: 'would not fight a decisive battle.'
131, a. How lit. ? Ariovistus had used only a part of his forces (1. 7).
causam : explained by the following appositional ^z^-clause. 198, b.

13. esset: 214, b. matres familiae: 'matrons,' married women
who were believed to have prophetic powers.

14. sortibus : ' by means of lots,' consisting of bits of wood from a
branch of a fruit-bearing tree, which were scattered at random over a
white cloth and then picked up. 17, c. vaticinationibus : ' prophetic
utterances,' inspired by " eddies of rivers and whirlings and noises of
currents." declararent: 203, (2). utrum . . . necne: 'whether
. . . or not.' 204, (1). B. 300,4,0; A. 335, n; H. 650, 1.

15. ex usu: 'expedient.' How lit.? eas, etc. : 213, b.

16. Non, etc.: indirect discourse, depending on dfcere. fas:
'predestined.' superare : 'should be victorious.' novam lunam:
' the new moon' of September 18, 58 B.C., according to modern compu-
tations The ancient German superstition about the influence ot the



122 Caesar's Gallic War ib.c.58

Takiwj inlctnitmjp. of their superstition, Caesar forces an
engagement.

51. Postrldic cius diei Caesar praesidio utrisque castris,
quod satis esse visum est, rellquit ; omnes alarios in con-
spectu hostium pro castris minoribus constituit, quod
minus multitudine militum legionariorum pro hostium
snumero valebat, ut ad speciem alariis uteretur ; ipse, tri-
plici Instructs acie, usque ad castra hostium accessit.

Turn demum necessario German! suas copias castris

eduxerunt generatimque constituerunt paribus intervallls,

Harudes, Marcomanos, Tribocos, Vangiones, Nemetes,

ioSedusios, Sueb5s, omnemque aciem suam raedis et carris

circumdederunt, ne qua spes in fuga relinqueretur. E5

moon still lingers in many places, particularly in respect to commencing
certain farming operations " in the old of the moon."

51. i. di6i : 04, c. The date was about September 14. praesidio
utrisque castris : a dative of purpose and a dative of indirect object ;
'as a garrison for each camp,' we should say. How lit.? 112, a, and
104, a.

2. quod : as antecedent sc. id, object of rellquit. alSrios :

* auxiliaries 1 ; the light-armed troops, called alaril because usually
stationed on the wings (alae) of an army. 308.

4. minus multitudine valebat : ' was weaker in respect to his
force.' How lit. ? pro : ' in comparison with.'

5. ad speciem: 'for show,' in order to hide from the enemy his
weakness in heavy infantry ; Ariovistus would take the alarios for
legidnarios.

6. triplicl aci6 : the front formed by the legions must have been
at least a mile long. The probable arrangement of the legions in
order of battle is indicated in Map 4; in the rear line only two cohorts
to each legion are shown, for the reason that one cohort was probably
drawn off for the guard duty indicated in 1. 1, praesidio castris. 337, a.

7. necessSriO :< of necessity/ castris : 127. a.

8. generatim: <by tribes,' the soldiers of each tribe being formed
into a body by themselves. intervallls : 138.

10. raedis : < with wagons, 1 probably covered, like gypsy wagons.

11. oiroumdedSrunt : ' hemmed in,' on the rear and wings, as indi*



f, 52] The Campaign against Ariovistus 123

mulieres imposuerunt, quae in proelium proficiscentes
passls manibus flentes implorabant, ne se in servitutem
Romanls traderent.

Desperate fighting, ha?id-to-hand ; the Roman left, wavering,
is reenforced.

52. Caesar singulis legionibus singulos legat5s et quaes-
torem praefecit, uti eos testes suae quisque virtutis habe-
ret ; ipse a dextro cornu, quod earn partem minime firmam
hostium esse animadverterat, proelium commisit.

Ita nostri acriter in hostes, signo dato, impetum fecerunt, s
itaque hostes repente celeriterque procurrerunt, ut spatium
plla in hostes coniciendl non daretur. Reiectls pills, corn-
minus gladils pugnatum est. At German!, celeriter ex
consuetudine sua phalange facta, impetus gladiorum

cated in Map 4. qua : 168. Bo : i thereon,' upon the wagons and
carts.

12. mulieres : 11, c. proficiscentes: sc. eos. 227, a, (4).

13. passis manibus: 'with outstretched hands. 1 144, b, (2).
flentes : 227, b.

52. 1. singulis, etc. : Caesar had six legions (307, e). Over each of
five legions he put a lieutenant, and over the sixth he placed the quaestor.
What were the quaestor's ordinary duties ? 313, b, and 251, b.

2. testes : ' as witnesses.' 115, a. quisque : 170, b.

3. a dextro cornu : 'on the right wing.' 126, c. earn partem
hostium : the German left wing, opposite the Roman right. minime
firmam : ' the weakest.'

5. Ita: modifies acriter. 34, a. signo: given on the trumpet.
326, a, (1).

6. itaque : — et ita. repente: 'suddenly.' procurrerunt:
'ran forward. 1 spatium: trans, as if tempus.

7. plla: object of coniciendi. 322, d, and 230, (1). Reiectls
pHis — pugnatum est: 'they threw aside their pikes and fought.'
How lit? 144, b, (2) and 73, d. comminus : 'at close quarters.'

8. gladils: 322, e. ex: ' in accordance with.'

9. phalange: 'a compact mass, 1 like the formation adopted by the
Helvetians ; see chap. 24, 1. 13, and N.



124



Caesar's Gallic War



[B.C. 58



10 exceperunt. Reperti sunt complures nostrl, qui in pha-

langa insilirent et scuta manibus revellerent et desuper

vulnerarent.

Cum hostium acies a sinistro cornu pulsa atque in f ugam

conversa esset, a dextro cornu vehementer multitudine
15 suorum nostram aciem premebant. Id cum animadvertisset

P. Crassus adulescens, qui equitatul praeerat, quod expedl-



io. exc6p§runt : the Germans apparently did not hurl their javelins
(361) but relied upon their shields and swords; the German sword

was longer than the Roman, and single-
edged (Fig. 67). complures nos-
trl: ' many men on our side. 1 How
lit.? 97, c. B. 201, 1, b; A. 346, e;
H. 442, 2.

11. phalanga : 18,/. insilirent:
'leaped (upon).' 194, a. revel-

lerent: « pulled back.' desuper:

'from above.' In hand-to-hand fight-
ing the Roman soldier, parrying blows
with his own shield, generally tried to
strike with his sword under or around
the shield of the enemy. In this case
the shields of the Germans were inter-
locked m the close formation, and
Caesar's men in their eagerness, as
they rushed on the foe, sprang up,
pulled back the enemy's shields from
the top, and stabbed with their short
swords from above.

13. a sinistro cornu: 'on their
left wing,' facing the Roman right,
where Caesar was. 126, c.

14. conversa esset : why subjunc-
tive ? fi dextro cornu: opposite
the Roman left.

16. P. Crassus: See Vocab. under Crassus, (2). adulgscSns :
' young, 1 so called to distinguish him from his father and from his older
brother, who was afterwards with Caesar in Gaul: see Vocab. under




Figure 67. — Ancient German
sword with its wooden scabbard.



1,53] The Campaign against Ariovistus 125

tior erat quam el, qui inter aciem versabantur, tertiam aciem
laborantibus nostris subsidid misit.



Caesar is victorious. The captive envoys are rescued.

53. Ita proelium restitutum est, atque omnes hostes
terga verterunt neque prius fugere destiterunt, quam ad
flumen Rhenum, mllia passuum ex eo loc5 circiter quin-
quaginta, pervenerunt. Ibi perpauci aut, viribus conflsi,
tranare contenderunt aut, lintribus inventis, sibi salutem s
reppererunt. In his fuit Ariovistus, qui, naviculam deli-
gatam ad ripam nactus, ea profugit ; reliquos omnes c5n-
secuti equites nostrl interfecerunt.

Crassus, (3). equitatui : 107. expedition ' more disengaged,'
so that he had an opportunity to look about and see where help was
most needed ; the cavalry, which Crassus commanded, was not
fighting.

17. el, etc.: the officers of the legions. inter aciem : 'inaction.'
How lit.? tertiam aciem: the i third line 'was usually kept as a
reserve force till needed. 337, b.

18. laborantibus : 'who were hard pressed.' 227, a, (4). nos-
tris, subsidid : 112, b.

53. 1 . restitutum est : the language implies that the Roman left
wing was ceasing to fight when the reserves were sent to its aid.

2. prius quam: 189, a. ad flumen Rhenum: possibly the
fleeing Germans followed the valley of the river 111 and came to the
Rhine about ' 50 miles ' northeast of the scene of battle. On the other
hand a flight and pursuit of 50 miles seem improbable, and it has been
suggested that Caesar wrote qiiindecim, < fifteen,' instead o>{qulnquaginta;
for the Rhine is about 15 miles east of the supposed battlefield.

4. viribus: 135, a. B. 219, 1 ; A. 431 ; H. 476, 3. conflsi: 62.

5. tranare: 'to swim across. 1 lintribus: 15, a.

6. naviculam: 'a small boat.' deligatam : 'tied.'

7. nactus: 'coming upon.' 61, a, (3), and 226, c. e& : 'in it.'
131, a. Ariovistus seems to have died not long afterwards (V. 29).

8. equites: what were the uses of the cavalry? 339. interfecg-
rimt : the slain numbered 80,000, according to Plutarch.



126 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 58

Duae fuerunt Ariovistl uxores, una Sueba natione, quam

iodomo secum eduxerat, altera Norica, regis Voccionis soror,

quam in Gallia duxerat, a fratre missam ; utraeque in ea

f uga perierunt. Duae filiae ; harum altera occisa, altera

capta est.

C. Valerius Procillus, cum a custodibus in fuga, trinis
is catenis vinctus, traheretur, in ipsum Caesarem hostes equi-
tatu insequentem incidit. Quae quidem res Caesarl non
minorem quam ipsa victoria voluptatem attulit, quod homi-
nem honestissimum provinciae Galliae, suum familiarem
et hospitem, ereptum e manibus hostium, sibi restitutum
20 videbat, neque eius calamitate de tanta voluptate et gratu-
latione quicquam fortuna deminuerat. Is, se praesente, de
se ter sortibus consultum dicebat, utrum ignl statim neca-

9. Duae uxorSs : the Germans ordinarily had but one wife. una
[uxor], altera: ,9/, c. natione : 'by birth.' How lit.? 142, a.

ii. duxerat: i.e. in matrimonium duxerat, 'had married. 1 utrae-
que: 61.

12. filiae: so., fuerunt. 89, a. altera, altera : 171, b. oc-
cisa : sc. est. 89, b.

14. Procillus : see chap. 47, 11. 10-22, and Notes. trims : dis-
tributive ; 'with three chains.' 37, e.

15. vinctus : ' bound.' Principal parts of vincio, vinco, and vivo?
trahergtur: 'was being dragged along.' in . . . incidit: 'fell in
the way of.' hostgs : object of insequentem.

16. Quae rSs: 'And this circumstance.' 167.

17. voluptatem: 'pleasure/ attulit: 69, b.

18. honestissimum: 'Very honorable'; honestus, from honor, is
never our " honest."

19. hospitem : 'guest-friend.' 10, d. Creptum [esse], restitu-
tum [esse] : 213, a.

20. neque := et ndn. eius calamitate : 'by his' (Procillus s)
'destruction.' gratulatiSne : ' (reason for) thankfulness.'

21. quicquam dSminuerat : with the negative in nr</ut\ 'had not
detracted,' lit. 'had not lessened anything at all.' 168, and 117, a.
s6 praesente: ' in his presence.' How lit.?

22. ter: considered among primitive peoples a sacred number; the



I, 54] The Campaign against Ariovistus 127

retur an in aliud tempus reservaretur : sortium beneficio se
esse incolumem .

Item M. Metius repertus et ad eum reductus est. 25

His army in winter quarters, Caesar goes to North Italy.

54. Hoc proelio trans Rhenum nuntiato, Suebi, qui ad
rlpas Rheni venerant, domum revert! coeperunt ; quos ubi,
qui proximi Rhenum incolunt, perterrit5s senserunt, Inse-
cutl magnum ex his numerum occlderunt.

Caesar, una aestate duobus maximls bellis confectls, 5
maturius paulo, quam tempus annl postulabat, in hiberna
in Sequanos exercitum deduxit ; hibernls Labienum prae-

notion survives in our " three times and out. 11 sortibus consultum
[esse] : 'the lots were consulted 1 ; see chap. 50, 1. 14 and N. How
lit.? 73, d, and 131, a. utrum . . . an : 20^, (1). Ignl: 14, b.

statim : 77. necaretur : ' should be killed. 1

23. reservaretur: i should be saved up. 1 se, etc. : 'thathewas
unharmed. 1

25. M. Metius : chap. 47, 1. 16. eum: Caesarem.

54. 1. Suebi . . . venerant: see chap. 37, 11. 5-8. .

2. quos . . . senserunt: trans, as if et ubi el, qui fir oximi Rhenum
incolunt, eos (i.e. Sue bos) perterritos {esse) senserunt.

3. Rhenum : 123, b. B. 141, 3 ; A. 432, a ; H. 435, 2.

4. insecuti : 226, c. ex his : 97, d.

5. aestate: ' summer.' 147, a. The defeat of the Helvetians took
place near the end of June, that of Ariovistus the second week in Sep-
tember. With not more than 35,000 soldiers, including cavalry and
light-armed troops, Caesar in two campaigns completed in a single
season, had practically annihilated fighting forces several times as large
as his own, and had destroyed, or rendered docile, two hostile popula-
tions aggregating several hundred thousand persons. History affords
no more striking instance of a victory of military organization, dis-
cipline, and generalship over numbers, barbaric courage, and brute force.

6. maturius: 34, a. hiberna: * winter quarters.' 335, a, and b.

7. Sequanos: 282. The region in which the battle was fought had
probably formed a part of the Sequanian territory but had been ceded
to Ariovistus. hibernls : probably at Vesontio, which possessed



128 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 58

posuit; ipse in citeriorem Galliam ad conventus agendos
profectus est.

great advantages as a military base, as explained in chap. 38. prae-
posuit : ' put in charge of.' 107, b.

8. citeriorem Galliam : 284- ad conventus agendos : * to
hold court.' How lit. ? The governor of a province from time to time
visited the principal cities in order to preside over provincial courts for
the administration of justice. In Cisalpine Gaul, moreover, Caesar
would be nearer Rome and so enabled to keep in touch with political
conditions there.



Plate III Roman Soldiers, Infantry and Cavalry




I. Slinger, funditor. 2-3. Legionaries, with different types of equipment.

4. Pack, sarcinae. 5. Cavalry.



Online LibraryJulius CaesarC. Iulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum. Caesar's Commentaries: the Gallic war, books I-Iv, with selections from books V-VII and from the civil war; → online text (page 13 of 73)