Julius Caesar.

C. Iulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum. Caesar's Commentaries: the Gallic war, books I-Iv, with selections from books V-VII and from the civil war; online

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COMMENTARIUS SECUNDUS



Campaign against the Belgians. 1-28

The Belgians form a league against Caesar.

1. Cum esset Caesar in citeriore Gallia, ita uti supra
demonstravimus, crebri ad eum rumores afferebantur, lit-
terisque item Labieni certior fiebat, omnes Belgas, quam
tertiam esse Galliae partem dixeramus, contra populum
Romanum coniurare obsidesque inter se dare : 5

Coniurandi has esse cans as : priniutn, quod vererentur,

1. 1. esset: 185, c. B. 288, i,b; A. 546; H. 600, 11. citeriore
Gallia: 124, a, and 284. ita uti: 'just as. 1 supra: i above,' in
the last chapter of Book I. We use the word "above" similarly in
referring to the preceding part of a work.

2. dSmonstravimus : 156. B. 242, 3; A. 143, a ; H. 500, 2.
Caesar the writer sometimes speaks in the first person, but always
presents Caesar the doer in the third. crebri : < frequently ' ; agrees
with rumores, \ reports,' but has the force of an adverb. 151. B. 239 ;

A. 290; H. 497. afferebantur: force of the imperfect? 175, a.

B. 260, 2; A. 470; H. 534, 3. litteris: 131, a. B. 218; H. 476.

3. certior fiebat: i he was informed.' How lit.? omnes . . .
dare : 213, a, and 214, a. Belgas : 19, e, and 287, a. quam :
subject accusative with esse, = quds, ' who ' ; attracted to the feminine
singular to agree with partem in the predicate. 164, c, and 282.

4. Galliae : here Transalpine Gaul, as in I, 1, 1. 1, referred to in
dixeramus. dixeramus : 214, c -

5. coniurare : * were conspiring,' according to the Roman point of
view. inter se dare: i were exchanging.' 159.

6-8. Direct form Coniurandi hae sunt causae : prlmum, quod verentur,
ne, omnl pacata Gallia, ad eos exercitus noster adducdtur ; deinde, quod ab
non nullis Gallis solliciiantur .

6. Coniurandi, etc. : summary of a statement made in a dispatch
from Labienus (1. 2, litteris). 212, c, (3), and 214, 0. h^s : 'as fol-

129



l.'SO Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 57

ne, 01 / 1 ni pdca t a Gallia, ad cos cxcrcitus nostcr adducent ur ;
dcuidc, quod ab non n fill is Gallis sollicitarcntur, partim qui,
ut Germanos diutius in Gallia versari noluerant, ita populi

o Roman! exercitum hiemare atque inveterascere in Gallia
molests ferebant, partim qui mobilitate et levitate animi
novis imperils studebant ; ab non nullis etiam, quod in
Gallia a potentioribus atque els, qui ad conducendds homi-
nes facilitates habebant, vulgo regna occupabantur, qui

s minus facile earn rem imperio nostro consequi poterant.

lows.' 161, a. Coniurandi causas : explained by the appositional
ouod-clauscs following. 230, (i ), and 198, b. primum, deinde :

7. 116: 'that.' 202. omni pacata Gallia: = si Gallia omnis
pacata esset. 144, b, (4). Gallia: Celtic Gaul, bordering the Bel-
gian country on the south ; the Romans remained in possession of a
considerable portion of Celtic Gaul after the defeat of the Helvetians
and Ariovistus. 287, b. ad eos, etc : the fear of a Roman inva-
sion was justified, as the event proved. The " conspiracy " of the Bel-
gians was the natural effort of a spirited people to defend their liberties
against anticipated encroachment. 158, b. noster : 157, c.

8. Bollicitarentur : ' were being stirred up.' partim qui: 'partly
(by those) who. 1 Caesar here passes to the direct form of statement,
presenting as - facts, on his own authority, details reported by Labienus.

9. ut: 'as. 1 188, b. diutius: 153, a. Germanos versari:
223, a.

10. inveterascere: < should become established.'

11. molests ferebant: 'were seriously objecting.' mobilitate
et levitate animi : ' by reason of temperamental instability and fickle-
ness.' How lit.?

12. novis imperils : ' a change of rulers.' 105. How lit. ? non
nflllis : i.e. powerful nobles ; sc. sollicttabaniur.

13. a potentioribus: 'by the more powerful.' 154, a. ad
conducendos homines: 'for hiring men,' i.e. mercenary soldiers.
230,0).

14. rSgna occupabantur : ' the supreme power was seized.' 92 y a,
and 289, c. qui: 'and they.'

15. earn rem: 'that object,' the obtaining of supreme power,
imperio nostro: 'under our sovereignty.' 138. B. 221; A. 412:
H. 473> 3- poterant ; ' would be able.'



II, 2] Campaign against the Belgians 131

He raises two new legions, marches to their territory.
2. His nuntils litterlsque commotus, Caesar duas legi-
ones in citeriore Gallia novas cSnscrlpsit et inita aestate,
in ulteriorem Galliam qui deduceret, Q. Pedium legatum
misit. Ipse, cum primum pabull copia esse inciperet, ad
exercitum venit. Dat negotium Senonibus reliquisque 5




Figure 68. — Scene in Belgium: the Meuse, below Namur.

2. i. nuntils litterlsque: cf. I, 26, 1. 20, and N. duas le-
giones : the thirteenth and fourteenth. Caesar now had eight legions,
numbered vii to xiv. 307,a,e,f.

2. inita aestate : 'at the beginning of the warm season, 1 probably
the latter part of May. How lit. ? 68, b, and 144, b, (1) .

3. ulteriorem Galliam: 286. qui [eas] deduceret: i to lead
them,' probably over the Great Saint Bernard pass. 193, a. B. 282, 2 ;
A. 531, 2; H. 590. legatum: 313, a. Pedius was a son of
Caesar's sister Julia ; see Vocab.

4. pabull copia : forage was needed for the numerous draft animals
used for the transportation of military stores, as well as for the horses
of the cavalry and the officers. inciperet : 185, c.

5. exercitum : probably stationed at or near Vesontio ; see Map 1.
Dat negotium: i He directed. 1 175, b. reliquis : 171, a.



132 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 57

Gallis, qui finitimi Belgis erant, uti ea, quae apud eos
gerantur, cognoscant seque de his rebus certiorem faciant.
Hi constanter omnes nuntiaverunt, manus cogi, exer-
citum in unum locum conduci. Turn vero dubitandum non
10 existimavit, quln ad eos proficisceretur. Re frumentaria
comparata, castra movet diebusque circiter quindecim ad
fines Belgarum pervenit.

The Remi submit, and give information about the other Belgians.

3. Eo cum de improviso celeriusque omni opinione
venisset, Remi, qui proximi Galliae ex Belgis sunt, ad eum

6. Belgis: 108, a. uti . . . faciant: 199, a.

7. gerantur: 220. B. 324; A. 593 ; H. 652. s6 : 158, a.

8. constanter : ' uniformly,' with perfect agreement between the
reports. manus : ' bodies of troops ' among the Belgians.

9. locum : why not ablative ? 12J^,a. dubitandum non [esse] :
sc. sibi, i that he ought not to hesitate.' 73, e.

10. ad: 'against.' eos: Belgas. proficiscerStur : 201, c.
Rg frumentaria comparata : * Having provided for a supply of
grain.' lU,b,{2). How lit.?

11. castra movet: t he broke camp.' 175, b. digbus : 147, a.
circiter : adverb with quindecim. ad
fines pervenit : ' he reached the terri-
tories.' The probable route is indicated
on Map 1.

3. 1. E6 : = ad fines Belgarum.

improviso : ablative singular neuter of
Figure 69. — Coin of the Remi. A , ,. A . c

& the adjective used as a noun, forming

Bronze. The three heads of the . , __ , , . . . IM ..

obverse perhaps belong to a three- wlth d6 an adverbial phrase like the
headed divinity: inscription, remo. English colloquial phrase " of a sudden,"
Reverse, horses and chariot, copied Kg]] f a suf jden," i.e. « unexpectedly.'
from a Greek coin. . _ ' . _ ...

celerius omni opinione : more quickly

than any one had expected,' lit., k than every expectation.' 129, a. B.
217,4; A. 406; H. 471.

2. vgnisset: 185, c. Rgml: the name survives in Reims,

modern name of the city occupying the site of the ancient capital of the
Remi, Durocortorum. Galliae : Celtic Gaul. 287, b. Why dative?
108, a. ex Belgis : trans, as If inter Belgis.




II, 3] Campaign against the Belgians 133

legatos Iccium et Andecumborium, primos civitatis, mlse-
runt, qui dicerent :

Se snaque omnia in fidem atque potestdtem populls
Romdni permittere, neque se cum reliquls Belgls consensisse,
neque contra popnlum Romanum coniurdsse, pardtosque esse
et obsides dare et imperata facer e et oppidls recipere et fru-
mentd ceteris que rebus iuvdre.

Reliquos omnes Belgds in armls esse, Germdndsque, qui 10
cis Rhenum incolant, sese cum his co.niunxisse, tantumque esse
eorum omnium furorem, ut ne Suessiones quidem, frdtres

3. legatos: 'as envoys. 1 115, a. primos: 'the leading men. 1
154, a. civitatis : of the Remi.

4. qui dicerent: 'to say. 1 193, a. B. 282, 2 ; A. 531, 2 ; H. 590.

5-9. Direct form : Nos nostraque omnia in fidem atque potestatem popull
R5ma.nl per mittimus ; neque cum reliquls Belgls consensimus, neque contra
populum Romanum coniiirdvimus, flardtique sumus et obsides dare et impe-
rata facere et (Je) oppidls recipere et (te) frument5 ceterisque rebus iuvare.

5. Se, etc.: 212, c, (3). Se suaque omnia: 'themselves and
all that they had. 1 How lit. ? in fidem : ' to the protection. 1

6. permittere: sc. se as subject. 214, a. neque: 'and not. 1

7. coniurasse : = coniuravisse. 64, a, (1). paratos : adjective,
in predicate.

8. et, et : 234, &- dare, facere, [eum] recipere, [eum] iuvare :
after paratos. 221, c. B. 328, 1 ; A. 460, b\ H. 608, 4. imperata
facere: 'to obey (his) orders. 1 157, a. oppidls: 'in (their)
towns. 1 How lit.? 131, a. frumentS : 131, a.

10-15. Direct form: Reliqui omnes Belgae in armls sunt, Germdmque,
qui cis Rhenum incolunt, sese cum his coninnxerunt ; tantusque est eorum
omnium furor, ut ne SuessiSnes quidem, fratres consanguine5sque nostros, qui
eodem hire et Isdem legibus utuntur, iinum imperium unumque magistratum
nobiscum habent, deterrere potuerlmus, quin cum his consentirent.

1 1 . cis Rhenum : on the west side of the Rhine ; Caesar writes
from the point of view of the Province.

12. eorum omnium : Belgarum et Germanorum. ne" — quidem :
237, c. Suessiones : object of deterrere. The name survives in
Soissons.



134 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 51

consanguineosque suos, qui eddem iure et isdem legibus
utautur, unum imperiutn unumque magistrdtum cum ipsts
ishabeant, deterrere potuerint, quin cum his consentlrent.

Report of the Jiemi on the history and forces of the Belgians.

4. Cum ab els quaereret, quae clvitates quantaeque in
armis essent et quid in bello possent, sic reperiebat :

Plerosque Belgds esse ortos a Germanis, Rhcnumquc

antlquitus trdductos, propter loci fertilitdtem , ibi consedisse,

s G alios que % qui ea loca incolerent, expulisse, solosque esse,

qui patrum nostrorum memoria, omul Gallia vexdta, Tcu-

13. suos : ' their own,' referring to the Remi. iure : ' (body of)
rights. 1 13, g, and 131, c. isdem : 45.

15. potuerint: 197, a, b. B. 268, 6; A. 485,^; H. 550. quin
— consentlrent: 'from uniting. 1 201, a. B. 295, 3, a ; A. 558; H.

595> 2.

4. 1. ab els : 116, c. quaereret: why subjunctive? quae:
48, b.

2. essent: 204, (2). B. 300; A. 574; H. 649, 11. quid —
possent : ' what strength they had, 1 lit. ' to what degree they were
able. 1 118, b. B. 176, 3; A. 390, c ; H. 409, I. sic: 'as follows. 1

3-9. Direct form : PlerTque Belgae suntortia. Germanis, Rhenumque antl-
quitus trddiuti, propterlocifertilitatem,^r<?«.w#>'#«/, Gallosque, qui haecXocz.
incolebant, expulerunt ; jrV/que sunt, qui patrum nostrorum memoria, omnI
Gallia vexata, Teutonds Cimbrdsque intra suds fines ingredi prohibuerint
{I'h't, a); qua ex refit, uti earum rerum memoria magnam sibi auctdritfiU-m
magndsquc spiritus in re militari sfimant.

3. Plgrosque Belgas : 'That most of the Belgians' 97, C. a
Germanis : 128, b. The Belgians were of Celtic stock, but had for-
merly lived on the east side of the Rhine ; hence probably arose the
belief that they were of Germanic origin. Rhgnum : accusative after
trains) in tr&ductds. ll^a.

4. antlquitus: 4 in ancient times.' fertilitatem : 'productive-
ness. 1 ibi : in Gaul.

5. solos : in predicate; 'were the only (people of Gaul) who. 1

6. memoria : 147, b. oranl Gallia vexata : « when ( iaul as a



II, 4] Campaign against the Belgians 135

tonds Cimbrosque intra suds fines ingredi pro hibuerint ; qua
ex re fieri, utl earum rerum memoria magnam sibi auctori-
tatem magnosque spirit us in re mil i tart sumerent.

De numero eorum omnia se habere explorata RemI dice- 10
bant, propterea quod, propinquitatibus affinitatibusque
coniuncti, quantam quisque multitudinem in communl Bel-
garum concilio ad id bellum pollicitus sit, cognoverint :

Plurimum inter ebs Bellovacos et virtute et auctoritate et
Jwminum numero* valere ; hos posse conficere armata miliais

whole was ravaged ' by the Cimbrians and Teutons ; see N. to I, 33,
1. 17. lU,b, (2), and 286.

7. ingredi : i from entering ' ; Caesar uses the infinitive with subject-
accusative after prohibeo. 223, a, (3). qua ex re : ' and in conse-
quence of this achievement.'' 167.

8. fieri, utl . . . sumerent: 203, (1). memoria: 135, a.

9. in re militari: < in respect to the art of war.' sumerent:
why imperfect? 177, a.

10. eorum: Belgarum. omnia se habere explorata: 'that
they possessed complete information.'' How lit. ? 229, a. B. 337, 7 ;
A. 497, <*; H. 431,3.

11. propterea quod: n. to I, chap. I, 1. 6. propinquitatibus
affinitatibusque : ' by blood relationships and intermarriages.' 76, a.

12. quisque : 'each ' representative, speaking for his state or tribe.
multitudinem: 'host.'

13. pollicitus sit : #04,(3). cognoverint: 214, a

14-17. Direct form: Plurimum in-
ter eos Bellovaci et virtute et auct5ri-
tate et hominum numero valent ; hi
possunt conficere armata mllia centum;
polliciti (sunt) ex eo numero electa
sexaginta, totlusque belli imperium

pos u an . Figure 70. — Coin of the Bellovaci.

14. Plurimum, etc. : 212, c, (3) . GoId . fanciful designs
Plurimum Bellovacos valere :

'that the Bellovaci were the most powerful' (Fig. 70). 118, b.
virtute : 135, a.

15. conficere: 'muster.' 57, b. armata milia : trans, as if
milia hominum armdtorum.




136 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 57

centum, pollicitos ex eo numero electa sexdgintd, totiusque
belli imperium sibi postuldre.

Suessiones suds esse finitimos ; fines latissimos ferdcissi-
mosque agros possidere. Apud eos fuisse regcm nostra
20 etiam memorid Dlvicidcum, totlus Galliae potentissimum,
qui cum magnae partis hdrutn regionum, turn etiam Bri-
tanniae, imperium obtinuerit ; nunc esse regem Galbam ; ad
hunc propter iustitiam prudentiamque summam totlus belli
omnium voluntate deferrl ; oppida habere numero x/f, pol-

16. pollicitos : 89, b. electa sexaginta : sc. milia, i sixty (thou-
sand) picked men.' totlus : 23, a.

18-31. Direct form: Suessiones nostrl sunt finitimi ; fines latissimos
feracissimosque agros possident. Apud eos fuit rex nostra etiam memoria
Dtvicidcus, totlus Galliae potentissimus, qui cum magnae partis harum regio-
num, turn etiam Britanniae, imperium obtinuit ; nunc est rex Galba; ad hunc
propter iustitiam prudentiamque summa tdtlus belli omnium voluntate defer-
tur; oppida habent numero XII, pollicentur milia armata L; totidem Nervii,
qui maxime ferl inter ipsos habentur longissimeque absunt ; XV milia Atre-
bates t Ambidm\ milia, AforinI xxv milia, Menapil vn milia, Caletl x milia,
Veliocasses et Viromandul totidem, Atuatuci xvmi milia; Condrusos, Ebu-
rones, CaerosSs, Paemanos, qui uno ndmine GermanI appellantur, arbitrdmur
posse armare ad XL milia.

18. suos finitimos : < their neighbors,' neighbors of the Remi.
feracissimos : 'very productive. 1 27, a, and 153, a.

19. possidere : as subject-accusative supply eos, i.e. Suessiones.
fuisse ' that there had been.' 90, a.

20. Diviciacum : not to be confused with Diviciacus the Aeduan
druid, who is mentioned in the next chapter.

21. cum . . . turn: 'not only . . . but also,' 186, b. regionum :
dependent on partis, which limits imperium. Britanniae : not the
whole of Britain — probably only a portion of the island along the
southeast coast. 294>

22. esse, etc. : trans, as if Galbam esse rigem. 19, d. ad hunc
— defei 1 1 : < that upon him — was conferred.' 69, b.

23. prudentiam : ' good judgment.' summam \ ( the supreme
command.'

24 voluntate: 138. habere, pollicfirl: sc. eds (Suessidnis).
numerS : 1&, a, and 86. XII, L. etc. : 38, b, and 36.



XI, 5] Campaign against the Belgians 137

licetl mllia armdta l; totidem Nervios, qui maxime ferl^
inter ipsos habeantur longissimeque absint ; xv mllia Atre-
bates, Ambianos x mllia, Morinos xxv mllia, Menapios vn
mllia, Caletos x mllia, Veliocasses et Viromanduos totidem,
Atuatucos x vini mllia ; Condrusos, Ebnrones, Caerosos,
Paemdnos, qui uno nomine GermanI appellantur, arbitrarl^a
se posse armare ad xl mllia.

Caesar, taking hostages from the Remi, crosses the Aisne, and

encamps.

5. Caesar, Remos cohortatus liberaliterque oratione pr5-
secutus, omnem senatum ad se convenire principumque
liberos obsides ad se adducl iussit. Quae omnia ab his
diligenter ad diem facta sunt. 35

25. milia armata : n. to 1. 15. totidem: sc. milia armdta fiol-
liceri. Nervios : locate the Nervians, and the other peoples named,
upon Map 1 . maxime f erl : in predicate. 80.

26. ipsos : the Belgians in general, not the Nervians. habean-
tur, absint : vivid use of the present tense where the imperfect, after
cognoverint, in 1. 13, might have been
expected. absint : from the country
of the Remi. Atrebates : sc. polliceri.

27. Ambianos : in the region of
modern Amiens (Fig. 71).

29. XVIIII: iindevigintl. 36. Figure 71. — Coin of the

30. qui . . . appellantur: 214, c. Ambiani.

GermanI: perhaps so called because, Bronze. Obverse, figure with

although of Celtic Stock, they had been u P^ ed hands, wearing a necklace
, , ° . , _ , . y . and bracelets ; perhaps a divinity

the last of the Belgians to remove from

the east side of the Rhine to the Belgian country, uno : 'a common.'

31. se: 158, a. ad: adverb, 'about.'

5. 1. Remos . . . prosecutus : < encouraging the Remi and ad-
dressing (them) in gracious words.' How lit.? 226, c.

2. senatum : 289, b, and 75, b. principum : 10, b.

3. obsides: l as hostages. 1 88, a. iussit: ' gave orders (that) .'
Quae . . . facta sunt: 'these instructions . . . were carried out.'

4. diligenter: 'carefully. 1 34, a. ad diem : 'promptly.'




138 Caesar's Gallic War [v..>

s Ipse, Dlviciacum Aeduum magnopere cohortatus, docet,
quanto opere rel publicae communisque salutis intersit,
manus hostium distineri, ne cum tanta multitudine uno
tempore confiigendum sit: Id fieri posse, si suds capias
Ac did in fines Bellovacorum intrdduxerint et eorum agros

xopopulan coeperint* His mandatls eum ab se dimittit.

Postquam omnes Belgarum copias in unum locum coactas
ad se venire vidit, neque iam longe abesse, ab els, quos
miserat, exploratoribus et ab Remis cognovit, flu men Axo-
nam, quod est in extremis Remorum flnibus, exercitum

istraducere maturavit atque ibi castra posuit. Quae res et

5. DlviciScum : n. to chap. 4, I. 20, and Book I, chapters
18, 20, 31, etc.

6. quanto opere, etc. : ' how important it was for the State and for
their mutual welfare.' How lit.? 103, e. B. 211, 1 ; A. 355 ; H. 449.
rel publicae : Ronnnwrum. communis : of Romans and Aeduans.
intersit: 20/ h (3).

7. manus distingrl: subject of intersit ; 'that the enemy's forces
be kept apart. 1 222, c, and 79, d. 116 .. . confligendum sit : ' that
it inlgfat not be necessary to fight. 1 73, e.

8. Id: refers to matins distineri, 'that (object)/ 213, b< and
160, c.

9. in -^ introduxerint : 'should have led — into 1 ; future perfect
indicative in the direct form. 218, (1), b.

11. coactSs . . . venire: 'had been brought together and were
coming.' 228, a.

12. vidit : more vivid than intellexit ; so we use the word u see " of
things understood but not perceived with the eyes. 188, a. neque :
11 in as tfit iiou. abesse: sc. eds (= copies) ; dependent 01
n,'vit. els : with cxplonltoribus.

13. expl6rat6ribus : 327. flumen, exercitum: //;. ,/. B.
179, 1 ; A. 395; H. 413. Axonam: now Aistw. See Map 1.

14. quod: the antecedent is flumen. extrgmls flnibus: 'the
moil remote part of the country. 1 152, a.

15. ibi castra posuit : Caesar ' encamped ' on the north side of the
Axona, al.ont a mile and a half northeast of the present village of
I'.eiry-au-Bac. See Map 5. Quae r6s : ' Now this movement.

et . . . et : 233, d.



ii,5] Campaign against the Belgians 139

lalus linum castrorum rlpis fluminis muniebat et, post euin
quae erant, tuta ab hostibus reddebat et, commeatus ab
Remls reliquisque civitatibus ut sine periculo ad cum por-
tari possent, efficiebat.

In eo flumine pons erat. Ibi praesidium ponit et in 20



Figure 72 — View across the Aisne from the site of Caesar's camp.
The present course of the Aisne is marked by the nearer line of trees.

16. rlpis : 1SU a. post . . . reddebat : ' made the rear secure
against the enemy.' 881, b. How lit.?

tf. quae: i.e. ea (/oca) quae. tuta: 115, b. commeStus
. . . efflciSbat: 'made it possible for supplies to be brought, 1 etc.
90S, (3). B. 297, 1; A. 568; H. 571, 3. commeatus : plural

because the supplies were furnished by more than one state.

20. In: 'across.' pons: 17, c. erat: .90, a. praesidium:
at D on Map 5. in altera parte: on the south side of the Aisne,
opposite Berry-au-Bac ; see Map 5, C. Caesar now had both ends df
the bridge well guarded. In consequence he was able to get provisions
from his allies across the river; to set a watch on the Remi, the sincerity
of whose professions of loyalty was not beyond question; and, finally,
to keep open an avenue of retreat in case of disaster (Fig. 72).



140 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 57

altera parte fluminis Q. Titurium Sabinum legatum cum
sex cohortibus relinquit; castra in altitudinem pedum duo
decim vallo fossaque duodeviginti pedum munfre iubet.

The Belgians attack Bibrax, a town of the Remi.

6. Ab his castris oppidum Remorum, nomine Bibrax,
aberat milia passuum vm. Id ex itinere magno impetu
Belgae oppugnare coeperunt. Aegre eo die sustentatum
est.
5 Gallorum eadem atque Belgarum oppugnatio est haec.
Ubi, circumiecta multitudine hominum totis moenibus, un-
dique in murum lapides iaci coepti sunt, murusque defen-
soribus nudatus est, testudine facta portas succendunt

22. sex cohortibus: about how many men? 307, c. castra:
Map 5, A. pedum : 100, a. The measurement of twelve feet in-
cluded both the height of the bank formed by the earth thrown out of
the trench and that of the row of palisades along the outer edge. 833.

23. vallo: why ablative? duodSviginti pedum : eighteen Ro-
man feet broad, measured across the top ; the trench, with sloping sides,
was probably about ten feet deep. Excavations, made in 1862, brought
to light traces of this rampart and trench.

6. 1. nomine: < called.' How lit. ? 11$, a. B. 226; A. 418; H.
480. Bibrax : the name in Celtic meant ' Beavertown.'

2. milia passuum vm : 118, a ; 100, a, and 243, b. ex itinere .
from the line of march, 1 attacking the town as soon as they reached it ;

see Vocab. under iter.

3. Aegr6 sustentatum est : 'With difficulty the defense was main-
tained.'

5. eadem atque Belgarum: < the same as (that) of the Belgians.'
233, c. oppugnatio : < the (method of) storming (fortified places).'
haec : 161, a.

6. Ubi, etc. : ' When a host of men has been thrown around the
entire (circuit of ) fortifications and.' How lit.? 144, b, (2). moe-
nibus : 104, a*

7. iaci: 57, b. coepti sunt: 72, c. d8f6ns5ribus : 'of its
defenders.' 127, a, and 74, a.

8. nudatus est: 'has been cleared.' testudine facta; 'having



ii, 7] Campaign against the Belgians 141

murumque subruunt. Quod turn facile flebat. Nam cum
tanta multitudo lapides ac tela conicerent, in muro consis- ic
tendi potestas erat nulli.

Cum finem oppugnandl nox fecisset, Iccius Remus,
summa nobilitate et gratia inter suos, qui turn oppid5 prae-
f uerat, iinus ex eis, qui legati de pace ad Caesarem venerant,
nuntium ad eum mittit, nisi subsidimn sibi summittatur, sese 15
diutius sustinere non posse.

Caesar relieves the toivn; the Belgians march toward his camp.

7. Eo de media nocte Caesar, isdem ducibus usus, qui
nuntii ab Icci5 venerant, Numidas et Cretas sagittarios et

made a tortoise roof,' in the Roman fashion. 345. testudine : 12, d,
and 144, b, (2). succendunt : 'they,' the attacking host, 'set on
fire.' 175, c.

9. subruunt: l undermine.' Quod turn: < Now this, in the pres-
ent instance,' referring to the burning of the gates, and undermining of
the walls, of Bibrax.

10. conicerent: 173, b, and 184, a. B. 254, 4; A. 317, d\ H. 389, 1.
consistendi: 230, (1).

11. null! : trans, as if neminl (12, d, and 111), k no one was able to
stand.' How lit. ?

12. finem oppugnandl fecisset : 'had checked theassault.' 185, c.
How lit.? Iccius : chap. 3, 1. 3.

13. summa nobilitate : 143, a. inter suos : ' among his coun-
trymen.' 154, a. oppido : 107, a. turn praefuerat : i.e. prae-



Online LibraryJulius CaesarC. Iulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum. Caesar's Commentaries: the Gallic war, books I-Iv, with selections from books V-VII and from the civil war; → online text (page 14 of 73)