Julius Caesar.

C. Iulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum. Caesar's Commentaries: the Gallic war, books I-Iv, with selections from books V-VII and from the civil war; online

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positus erat et turn praeerat.

14. ex eis : 97, d. legati : in predicate after venerant ; < as envoys.'

15. nuntium: here *a message.' nisi: l (saying) that unless,'
etc. 213, b. sibi : ' to them,' the beleaguered inhabitants of Bibrax.
summittatur: 'should be sent to their relief.' 218, (1), a.

16. sustinere: intransitive, ' hold out.'

7. 1. E6: toward Bibrax. de : 242, d. isdem : 'the same
men.' 45, and 131, c. ducibus :' as guides,' predicative. 131, f.
usus : 226, c.

2. nuntii: construed as legati in chap. 6, 1. 14. Numidas, etc.:
308. Cretas: 19, f. sagittarios: 'bowmen.'



i42



Caesar's Gallic War



[B.C. 57



funditores Baleares subsidio oppidanis mittit ; quorum ad-
ventu et Rcmis cum spe defensionis studium propugnandi

5 accessit, et hostibus, eadem de causa, spes potiundi oppidi
discessit.

Itaque paulisper apud oppidum morati agrosque Remo-
rum depopulate omnibus vicis aedificiisque, quo adlre
potuerant, incensls, ad castra Caesaris omnibus copiis con-

[otenderunt et a mllibus passuum minus duobus castra posu-



3. funditores: 'slingers.' 74, a. Fig. 73 and Fig. 76. sub-
sidio, oppidanis: 112, b. B. 191, 2; A. 382, 1; H. 433. oppi-
danis: 'the inhabitants of




Figure 73. — Slinger, supplied with pebbles.



the town.' mittit: 175, b.

4. et . . . et : 233, a.
spe defensionis : 4 hope of
repelling the assault.' How
lit.? 74,6. studium pro-
pugnandi: 'eager desire to
take the offensive.' How
lit.?

5. hostibus: dative, but
trans, 'from the enemy. 1
109, b. potiundi oppidi :
64, b, and 230, (1).

7. paulisper : ' for a short
time.' morati, etc. : sc.
kostis as subject of conten-
ds runt. 61, a, (1).

8. vicis, aedificils : cf.
Book I, 5, 11. 4, 5 and Notes.
144, b, (2). quo: adverb;
trans, as ttodqiKU*

9. omnibus copiis : 136,



B. 220,



A. 41:



11.



473, 3-

10. a . . . duobus : • test
than two miles away, 1 i.e 'at 1



(lit. 'from*) 'a distance of thousands of paces less than two (thou-
sands).' The Roman point of view differs from ours in such phrases.



II, 8] Campaign against the Belgians 143

erunt; quae castra, ut fumo atque Ignibus significabatur,
amplius milibus passuum vin in latitudinem patebant.

Caesar adds to the fortifications of his camp, awaits attack.

8. Caesar primo et propter multitudinem hostium et
propter eximiam opmionem virtutis proelia supersedere sta-
tuit ; cotldie tamen equestribus proeliis, quid hostis virtute
posset et quid nostri auderent, periclitabatur.

Ubi nostros non esse Inferi5res inteliexit, loco pro castris 5
ad aciem instruendam natura opportuno atque idoneo,
quod is collis, ubi castra posita erant, paululum ex planitie
editus, tantum adversus in latitudinem patebat, quantum

11. quae castra : 'and this camp,' marked Camp of the Belgians
on Map 5, while Caesar's camp is at A. 167. fumo: 'by the
smoke. 1 significabatur : ' was indicated.' 73, d.

12. milibus: why ablative? 129, a. B. 217, 1 ; A. 407,*; H.471.
VIII : 38, b, and 36.

8. 2. eximiam opinionem virtutis: ' their extraordinary reputa-
tion for bravery.' 102. proelio supersedere : ' to refrain from
battle.' 127, a.

3. equestribus proeliis: 'cavalry skirmishes,' as distinguished
from a regular engagement, with infantry. quid . . . posset : < what
mettle the enemy had.' How lit.? 118, b. virtute : 11$, a.

4. periclitabatur : ' kept trying to find out.' 175, d. B. 260, 2 ;

A. 470; H. 534,3-

5. loco . . . idoneo: trans, as if aim locus ('since the space')
. . . opftortiinus atque idoneus esset. 144? b, (3).

6. ad, etc. : 230,(3). natura: 'naturally.' How lit.? atque:
233, a.

7. quod . . . redibat : explains why the ground in front of the
camp was well adapted for forming a line of battle. ubi : ' on which.'
castra : Map 5, A. paululum editus : 'gradually rising.' How lit. ?

8. tantum, etc. : 'on the side toward the enemy extended in width
(far enough to provide) just the amount of space that a line of battle
would require.* How lit.? tantum: 118, a. adversus: adjec-
tive, agreeing with collis. quantum : correlative with tantum, and
object oi occupare, having loci dependent on it.



144 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 57

loci acies Instructa occupare poterat, atque ex utraque
10 parte lateris deiectus habebat, et in frontem feniter fastiga-
tus paulatim ad planitiem redlbat, ab utroque latere eius
collis transversam fossam obduxit circiter passuum quad-
ringentorum et ad extremas fossas castella constituit ibique
tormenta collocavit, ne, cum aciem Instruxisset, hostes, quod
istantum multitudine poterant, ab lateribus pugnantes, suos
circumvenire possent.

9. loci: trans, as if dependent on tarUum. 97, a. The long,
gently sloping hillside, broad enough to afford room for a Roman triple
line, is shown on Map 5, between the Miette brook and the narrowing
crest of the hill southwest of Caesar's camp; six legions are there
shown in order of battle. ex utraque parte : = ' on either side, 1
the side of the camp toward the river, and the opposite side.

10. lateris dSiectus : 'steep slopes. 1 How lit.? 13, e. in
frontem: 'in 1 (lit. 'into 1 ) 'front 1 of the camp, on the southwest
side. Igniter fastigatus : ' with gentle slope. 1 How lit.?

11. planitiem: the level ground between the hill and the river
above and below Berry-au-Bac. redlbat: here 'descended. 1

12. tr5nsversam fossam obduxit: 'he extended a trench cross-
wise, 1 that is, at right angles with the length of the hill. Starting from
opposite corners of the camp, Caesar prolonged two lines of intrench-
ments at right angles to the sides, each about a third of a mile in
length. One ran down the south slope of the hill, toward the Aisne,
the bed of which in Caesars time is indicated on the plan by the
broken line. The other ran down the north slope, toward the Miette
brook; both are indicated on Map 5 by red lines (a, b). At the
ends of these intrenchments he constructed 'redoubts 1 (B B), where
he stationed troops, with military engines. His purpose was to guard
against a flank movement on the part of the enemy, by which they might
reach the rear of the camp, and attack from behind while his forces were
engaged in front. passuum quadringentorum : four hundred paces
in length. How lit.? 100, a. How far by our measurement ? 243, b.

13. ad extrgmas fossas: 'at the ends of the trenches. 1 152, a.
B. 241, 1 ; A. 293 ; H. 497, 4. castella: Map 5, B B.

14. tormenta: ' torsioners,' such as were used in siege operations.
843. Instruxisset: 220. quod . . . poterant: 'because they
were so strong in numbers. 1 Why indicative?

15. tantum: US, b. ab lateribus: 'on the flanks.' 126, c.



MAP 5
The Battle at the Aisne (Axona)
Book II, 7-10 To face page 144




SCALE OF ENGLISH MILES



SCALE OF ROMAN MILES



EXPLANATION

Caesar, marching from the South, encamped on the north or right bank of the
A^isne, on a long hill. As the camp was well protected by the streams and the
low ground on the west, in order to secure the east side, he ran intrenchments
from the corners to both the Aisne and the Miette. The widely extended Bel-
gian camp was on the opposite side of the Miette (chap. 7, 11. 11-12).

A. Caesar's camp (chap. 5, 1. 15 ; chap. 7, 1. 9 ; chap. 8, 1. 7).
a, b. Trenches, fossae (chap. 8, 11. n-13).

B. B. Redoubts, castella (chap. 8, 1. 13).

C. Redoubt at the south end of the bridge, caslellum, held by Q. Titurius
Sabinus (chap. 5, 11. 20-22 ; chap. 9, 1. 11).

D. Guard at the north end of the bridge, praesidium (chap. 5, I. 20).
E-E. The Belgians in battle order (chap. 8, 1. 20).

F-F. The six legions in battle order (chap. 8, 1. 19).

H-H. Probable routes taken by the Belgians to the fords at the Aisne, where
they were met by Caesar's light-armed troops and cavalry (chap. 9, !L 8-15).



ii, 8] Campaign against the Belgians 145

Hoc facto, duabus legi5nibus, quas proxime conscrip-
serat, in castrls rellctis, ut, si quo opus esset, subsidio duel
possent, reliquas vi legiones pro castrls in acie constituit.
Hostes item suas cdpias ex castrls eductas Instruxerant.




Figure 74. — View toward the Miette from the site of Caesar's camp.

The course of the brook is marked by the trees. Notice the flat, marshy land (palus)

near the brook.



pugnantes : with hostes. suos : 'his men.' 154, a. A glance at
the Map shows how well designed the trenches were to protect against
an attack upon the right end of the battle line, and block access to the
rear, which was otherwise protected by the river.

17. duabus legionibus : the thirteenth and fourteenth, enrolled a
few months before ; see chap. 2, 11. 1-4. Generally, as in this instance,
Caesar exposed his veterans to the brunt of the battle, leaving recruits,
whose powers had not been fully tested, as a reserve force. 307, d,
and/.

18. relic t is : 144, b, (2). quo: 'at any point.'' esset: 220.
subsidio : 'as a reserve force.' 112, a.

19. acie : undoubtedly a triple line. 337.

20. eductas instruxerant : ' had led forth and drawn up.' 228, a



1H, Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 57

Th* Belgians attempt to cross the Aisne and attack Titurius.

9. Palus erat non magna inter nostrum atque hostium
exercitum. Hanc si nostri transirent, hostes exspectabant ;
nostri autem, si ab illis initium transeundl fieret, ut impedi-
tds aggrederentur, parati in armis erant. Interim proelio
s equestri inter duas acies contendebatur. Ubi neutrl trans-
eundi initium faciunt, secundidre equitum proelio nostris,
Caesar suos in castra reduxit.

Hostes protinus ex eo loco ad flumen Axonam contende-

runt, quod esse post nostra castra dem5nstratum est. Ibi,

xovadis repertis, partem suarum copiarum traducere conati

B. 337' 5 ; A. 496, n. 2 ; H. 639. For the relative positions of the two
armies, see Map 5.

9. 1. Paltis : the marshy ground along the Miette brook, indi-
cated on Map 5. In the dry weather of the autumn of 1914 the German
army ran first-line and communicating trenches through this marsh,
but later these were flooded by the Miette brook. erat : 90, a.
nostrum, etc. : ' our army and that of the enemy. 1 157, d.

2. Hanc: palfuieui. si :< (to see) whether. 1 204,(4). B. 300, 3 ;
A. 576, a; H. 649, 11, 3.

3. nostri . . . erant : nostri autem parati in armis erant, ut, si ab
illis (hostibus) initium transeundi (paliidem) fieret, (eos, the enemy
engaged in crossing over, hence at a disadvantage) impeditos aggrede-
rentur. fieret: J.'t). \\. 324, 1 ; A. 593; H. 652.

4. aggrederentur: 57, c. Why subjunctive? proelio, etc. : 'a
cavalry engagement continued. 1 How lit.? 73, d.

5. neutrl: 'neither side 1 ; each side was waiting for the other to
anume the offensive. 05, </.

6. secundidre proeliS : 144, b, (5). B. 227, 2, c \ A. 420, 3 ; H.
489, 1. nostris: U)S, ,1.

8. pint in us: <at once. 1 e6 loc6 : on the opposite side of the
nuunfa tioin the Romans.

9. d6m6nstratum est : « it has been shown 1 ; see chap. 5, 11.
11-19.

10. vadls: shallow places, suitable for fording, are still found in
the Aisne, U tween the mouth of the Miette brook and the village of



II, 9] Campaign against the Belgians 147

sunt, eo consilio, ut, si possent, castellum, cui praeerat Q.
Titurius legatus, expugnarent pontemque interscinderent ;
si minus potuissent, agr5s Remorum popularentur, qui
magn5 nobis usui ad bellum gerendum erant, commeatuque
nostros prohiberent. IS




Figure 75. — View across the Aisne toward Pontavert.

The water in the foreground is in a canal. The river lies in the gully beyond ; there the
fight at the ford took place.



Pontavert ; for the route of the attacking forces see Map 5, H H.
11. eo consilio : ' with this design, 1 explained by the appositive ut-
clauses following. 135, a, and 208, (4). possent: 220. castel-
lum : on the south bank of the Aisne ; Map 5, C, and chap. 5, 11. 20-22.
The Belgians planned to storm the redoubt from the rear. The attempt
was justified, from the military point of view ; for the destruction of the
bridge would have made Caesar's position extremely difficult.

13. minus: trans, as if non. potuissent: change of tense from
possent, ' if they could,' to potuissent ' if (having made the attempt) they
should have been unsuccessful.' popularentur, prohiberent : sc.
ut, the clauses being in apposition with consilio.

14. nobis, usui: 112,6. commeatu : 127, a.



148 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 57

Caesar presents their crossing ; they decide to disperse.
10. Caesar, certior factus ab Titurio, omnem equitatum
et levis armaturae Numidas, funditores sagittariosque pon-
tem traducit atque ad eos contendit. Acriter in eo loco
pugnatum est. Hostes impeditos nostri in flumine aggressi
5 magnum eorum numerum occiderunt ; per e5rum corpora
reliquos audacissime transire conantes multitudine telorum
reppulerunt ; prlmos, qui transierant, equitatu circumventos
interfecerunt.

10. i . certior factus : ' on being informed ' of the attempted move-
ment, equitatum, pontem : 114, a. B. 179, 1; A. 395; H. 413.

As Caesar's camp was south of the

Miette and east of the bridge over

the Aisne, he could send his cavalry

across the bridge without danger of

interference, and from the south side

of the Aisne could attack the enemy

in the act of crossing.

Figure 76. — Leaden slingshot. 2. levia armaturae: 'of light

Hurled by soldiers of Octavianus equipment'; trans. 'light-armed.'

agalnat L. Antonius at the siege of S gg f anc j iqq^ a ^ funditores:

Perusia, 41-40b.c. Inscription. caesar 111 «j j .. L 1 j u 1

mKbrator]. referring to Octavianus. P robabl y P r0V,ded Wlth leaden bul "

lets, though such are not mentioned

by Caesar; slingshots of lead were in use both before and after the
Gallic Wars (Fig. 14 and Fig. 76).

3. eds : hostis. e6 loc6 : where the enemy started to cross the
river; marked on Map 5 by crossed swords.

4. pugnatum est: 78, d. aggressi: 226, c.

5. per: 'over.' The bravery of these Belgians, recorded by Caesar
with evident admiration, justifies his characterization at the beginning
of Book I (chap. 1,1.6),

6. c6nantfis: with reliquds. In 1914 this part of the Aisne again
became the scene of terrible slaughter. Near Berry-au-Bac French and
British troops constructed pontoon bridges in the face of artillery fire
accurately directed from the high ground on the north side of the river ;
and again the Aisne was choked with corpses.

7. equitatu: 131,6. circumventSa interf6c6runt : 4 surrounded
and killed.' 228, a.




II, 10] Campaign against the Belgians 149

Hostes, ubiet de expugnandd oppidoet de flumine trans-
eundo spem se fefellisse intellexerunt neque nostros in 10
locum iniquiorem progredi pugnandl causa viderunt, atque
ipsos res frumentaria deficere coepit, consilio convocato
constituerunt, optimum esse, domum suam quemque reverti,
et, quorum in fines primum R5manl exercitum intrdduxis-
sent, ad eos defendendds undique convenlrent, ut potius in is
suis quam in alienis finibus decertarent et domesticis copiis
rel frumentariae iiterentur.

Ad earn sententiam cum reliquis causis haec quoque
ratio eos deduxit, quod Diviciacum atque Aedu5s finibus

9. Hostes : the main body of the enemy, which remained inactive
while a detachment {partem suarum coftiarum, chap. 9, 1. 10) tried to
cross the river. oppido : Bibrax ; see chaps. 6 and 7. 230, (4).

10. spem se fefellisse: 'that they had been disappointed in their
expectations, 1 lit. ' that their expectation had cheated them.' neque :
trans, as if et . . . non. nostros : the six legions that had been
formed in order of battle and then led back to camp ; chap. 8, 1. 19,
and chap. 9, 11. 5-7.

11. locum iniquiorem: 'a less favorable position.' How lit.?
pugnandl causa: 230, (1), and 94, b.

12. ipsos: hostes. deficere: 'to fail. 1 57, b. As the Gauls for
the most part engaged only in short campaigns, their arrangements
for supplies were very defective. It is a maxim of modern warfare that
"the way to victory lies through the soldier's stomach. 11 Caesar, as all
great generals, paid the most careful attention to the provisioning of his
army. 317. consilio: ' a conference ^ of the leaders.

13. optimum esse: 'that it was best. 1 The subject of esse is the
infinitive clause quemque reverti, and optimum is in predicate. 1J+8, d.
domum suam : ' to his own home. 1 119, b.

14. introduxissent : 220. B. 324; A. 593; H. 652.

15. eos : antecedent of qudrum ; ' to defend that people. 1 230, (3).
convenlrent : sc. ut, 'that they should rally. 1 199, a, and 200, a.

16. alienis: = alidrum, 'of others, 1 as opposed to domesticis,
1 their own.' decertarent: 196, a. copiis: 'supplies.' 131, c.

19. ratio: ' consideration,' explained by the appositive clause quod
(' that ') . . . cognoverant. 198, b. Diviciacum, etc. : cf. chap.
5, 11. 5-10. finibus : 105.



150 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 57

ao Bellovacorum appropinquare cognoverant. His persua-
de ii, ut diutius morarentur neque suis auxilium ferrent, non
poterat.

The Belgians retreat in disorder; Caesar pursues them with
great slaughter.

11. Ea re constitute, secunda vigilia magno cum stre-

pitu ac tumultu castris egressi, nullo certo ordine -neque

imperio, cum sibi quisque prlmum itineris locum peteret et

domum pervenlre properaret, fecerunt, ut consimilis fugae

s profectio videretur.

Hac re statim Caesar per speculators cognita, insidias
veritus, quod, qua de causa discederent, nondum perspexe-
rat, exercitum equitatumque castris continuit. Prima luce,

20. appropinquare : * were approaching.' cognoverant : ' they
knew. 1 17(1, b. His: the Bellovaci, whose actual fighting force
probably did not reach the large estimate of 100,000 given by the Remi
(chap. 4, 11. 14-17). 105. His persuadgrl: 'These could not be
persuaded. 1 How lit.? 106, b.

21. ut morarentur: 'to stay' with the united Belgian host. Cae-
sars plan of dividing the forces of the Belgians, suggested in chap. 5,
wis thus successful. neque: 'and not.'

11. 1. r6: 'conclusion,' i.e. to disperse, secunda vigiliS: 242, c,
and //,7, a. strepita :' uproar.' 136, a.

2. castris: shown on Map 5. 127, a. nflllo . . . imperio:
■blative <>f attendant circumstance, -explaining magno . . . tumult ft.
and In turn explained by the causal clause cum . . . proper &rtt\ 'with-
out a fixed order and without discipline.' 138.

3. sibi quisque: 170, b. prlmum: ' the foremost.' peteret:
/*;,,/. B. 286,2; A. 549; H. 598.

4. fficfirunt . . . vidSrfitur : « they made their departure look like
a rout.' How lit.? 203, (3). fugae : 1 08, a.

6. per: 123, a. speculat6r8s : 'spies.' 327.

7. veritua: 226, c. discfiderent : 204, (2).

8. oastrls: 131, a. Trans, 'in camp. 1 Prima luce : at day-
break.' 152, a.



II, ii] Campaign against the Belgians 151

confirmata re ab exploratoribus, omnem equitatum, qui
novissimum agmen moraretur, praemisit. His Q. Pedium 10
et L. Aurunculeium Cottam legatds praef ecit ; T. Labienum
legatum cum legionibus tribus subsequi iussit

HI, novissimos adorti et multa mllia passuum prosecuti,
magnam multitudinem eorum fugientium conclderunt, cum
ab extremo agmine, ad quos ventum erat, consisterent for- is
titerque impetum nostrorum militum sustinerent, priores,
quod abesse a perlculo viderentur, neque ulla necessitate
neque imperio continerentur, exaudito clamore perturbatis
ordinibus omnes in fuga sibi praesidium ponerent.

Ita sine ul-16 perlculo tantam eorum multitudinem nostri 20

9. r§: ^the fact' that the Belgian host had actually dispersed.
exploratoribus : 327.

10. novissimum agmen: * the rear guard' of the retreating Bel-
gians. 27, b. moraretur: 193, a. B. 282, 2; A. 531,2; H. 590.
His : plural from the idea of equites in equitatum. 107, b. Pedium :
N. to chap. 2, 1. 3.

12. lggatum : 313, a. subsequi : ' to follow closely.'

13. Hi: 'These men,' the legionaries under Labienus ; the cavalry
had gone ahead to retard the Belgian rear till the Roman infantry could
catch up with it. milia : 118, a.

14. eorum fugientium : 'of them as they fled.' cum, etc . :
sc. ei; 'since those (Belgians) at the rear, to whom (the Roman
soldiers) had come, were making a stand.' How lit.? cum:
184, a.

15. extremo: 152, a. agmine: here used not of an orderly
marching column but of a mass of soldiers in flight. ventum erat :
73, d.

16. priores: 'those in advance,' the bulk of the retreating host.
154, a, and 33.

17. viderentur: 220. B. 324; A. 593 ; H. 652. neque: 'and
. . . not.' necessitate: 'compulsion.'

18. exaudito clamore: 'when they heard the shouting' behind
them.

19. ordinibus: 'ranks.' sibi: 109, a. praesidium pone-
rent : ' sought safety.' How lit. ? ponerent : with cum in 1. 14.



1.72



Caesar's Gallic War



[B.C. 57



interfecerunt, quantum fuit die! spatium ; sub occasum
solis destiterunt seque in castra, ut erat imperatum, rece-
jh runt.

Noviodunum, besieged by Caesar, surrenders.
12. Postridie eius diei Caesar, prius quam se hostes ex
terrore ac fuga reciperent in fines Suessionum, qui proximi
Remls erant, exercitum duxit et magno itinere ad oppidum
Noviodunum contendit. Id ex itinere oppugnare conatus,
s quod vacuum ab defensoribus esse audiebat, propter lati-
tudinem fossae murique altitudinem, paucis defenden-
tibus, expugnare non potuit. Castris munltls, vineas

21. quantum, etc.: 'as daylight permitted'; how lit.? sub:
'toward.'

22. ut erat imperatum : ' in accordance with their orders. 1 73, d.
12. i. diei: 94, c. sg reciperent: 'could rally.' Why sub-

junctiye? 189, b.

see Map i. Having scattered the great
host of united Belgians, Caesar pro-
ceeds to the reduction of the different
states one by one (Fig. yj).

3. Reirls : 108, a. magno
itinere : ' by a forced march.' 829.

4. Noviodunum: =" New-
town" ; thought to have been on the
hill of Pommiers, near the modern
city of Soissons. ex itinere : see
Vocab. under/ter. oppugnSre : 340.

5. vacuum ab : 'destitute <>t.'
esse: i.e. id {pPfidum) esse vacuum. lat.itudinem fossae: the
wider the l moat.' the more difficult the filling of it so as to gain access
to the wall. l&titudinem fossae murique altitudinem : 239, c.

6. pauols dfifendentibus : ' though there were but few defending
it/ 144,6,(5)'

7. Castris : probably on high ground east of Pommiers. where
traces of a Roman camp, thought to date from Caesar's time, have
been discovered. vineas agere : ' to move forward the arbor sheds.'



2. in fiiigs Suessionum




Figure 77. — Coin of the
Suessiones.

Bronze. Obverse: a Gallic neck-ring,
torque, is seen on the neck.



ii. 12] Campaign against the Belgians 153

agere, quaeque ad oppugnandum usul erant, comparare
coepit.

Interim omnis ex fuga Suessionum multitudo in oppidum ic
proxima nocte convenit. Celeriter vlneis ad oppidum actis,
aggere iacto turribusque constitutis, magn'tudine operum,
quae neque viderant ante Galll neque audierant, et celeri-




Figure 78. — Hill town in France, having a situation similar to that
of Noviodunum.



8. quae : as antecedent supply ea, object of comparare. usul:

'of use.' Why dative? 112, a.

1 1 . proxima nocte : the night following the day on which Caesar
reached Noviodunum, encamped, and commenced preparations for be-
sieging the town. vineis, etc. : ' arbor sheds,' open at the ends, were
rapidly constructed, and placed in parallel rows which began outside
the range of the enemy's weapons and were extended to the edge of the
moat. 144, b, (2).

12. aggere iacto: 'filling,' carried under the lines of arbor sheds,
was ' cast ' into the moat so as to level it up and make it possible to roll
the towers close to the city wall. turribus : < towers.' 342, b.
magnitudine, celeritate : 135, a. operum: ' siege-works •'



|.,1 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 57

tate Romanorum permoti, legatos ad Caesarem de deditidnc
is mittunt ct, pctentibus Remis, ut conservarentur, impetrant.

77/, Surssiimrs submit; Canaar marches against the IMlocaci,
gathered in Bratuspantinm.
13. Caesar, obsidibus acceptis primis civitatis atque
ipsius Galbae regis duobus filils, armisque omnibus ex
oppido traditis, in deditionem Suessiones accipit exerci-
tumque in Hellovacos ducit.

s Qui cum se suaque omnia in oppidum Bratuspantium
contulissent, atque ab ed oppido Caesar cum exercitu cir-
citer milia passuum v abesset, omnes maiores natu, ex
oppido egressi, manus ad Caesarem tendere et voce signifi-
care coeperunt, sese in eius fidem ac potestatem venire

io neque contra populum R5manum armis contendere. Item,
cum ad oppidum accessisset castraque ibi poneret, pueri
iiuilieresque ex muro passis manibus suo more pacem ab
Romanis petierunt.

15. petentibua Remis : ' at the urgent request of the Remi.' How
lit. ? ut conservarentur : after petentibus, i that they should be



Online LibraryJulius CaesarC. Iulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum. Caesar's Commentaries: the Gallic war, books I-Iv, with selections from books V-VII and from the civil war; → online text (page 15 of 73)