Julius Caesar.

C. Iulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum. Caesar's Commentaries: the Gallic war, books I-Iv, with selections from books V-VII and from the civil war; online

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spared.' 199, a.

13. 1 . obsidibus : < as hostages ' ; predicative, after acceptis. 88, b.
primis : * the foremost men. 1 154, a, and 144, b 3 (2).

2. Galbae : chap. 4, 11. 22-24.

4. BellovacSs: trans, as if in fines Bellovacorum. 282.

5. Qui cum: 'when they.' 167. suaque omnia : 'with every-
thing they had.' How lit.? l, r >4, a. oppidum :' stronghold '; not
a city but a fortified place of refuge, occupied only in time of danger.

7. mai6res nftttt : 'the old men.' How lit.? 142, a. B. 226, 1 ;
A. 418; H. 480.

8. igressl: ' came out and.' 228, a. tendere: ' to stretch out.'

9. in eius fidem: 'under his protection.' 1 24, a. venire: Jl.i.b.

10. neque: trans, as If et . . . ndn. contendere: 'struggle'
any lon^

11. accessisset: t8S,c. pueri :' children,' not ' boys ' merely.

12. passis manibus: 'with hands outstretched.' 144, b, (2).
Principal parts of pandd and pat tort m6re : with passis. 136, c



ii, 14] Campaign against the Belgians 155

Diviciacus %)resents the case of the Bellovaci.

14. Pro his Diviciacus (nam post discessum Belgarum,
dimissls Aeduorum copils, ad eum reverterat) facit verba:

Bellovacos omni tempore in fide atque amicitid civitdtis
Aeduae fnisse ; impulsos ab suls prlncipibus, qui dicerent,
Aeduos, a Caesare in servitutem reddctos, omnes indignitdtes 5
continue lids que p erf err e, et ab Aeduls defecisse et populo
Romano be llitm intulisse. Qui eius consilii principes fuis-
sent, quod intellegerent, quant am calamitatem civitdtl in-
tulissent, in Bfitanniam profugisse.

Petere ndn solum Bellovacos, sed etiam pro his Aeduos, 10
jtt sua dementia ac mdnsuetudine in eos utdtur. Quod si

14. 1. his: Bellovacls. discessum: 'retreat'; chap. 11, 11. 1-5.

2. Aeduorum copils : chap. 5, 11. 5-10, and chap, io, 11. 19-20.
eum : Caesar. facit verba : ' made a plea.' How lit. ?

3-9. Direct form : Bellovaci omni tempore in fide atque amlcitia clvitatis
Aeduae fuerunt ; impulsi ab suls prlncipibus, qui dlcebant, Aeduos, a te in
servitutem redactos, omnes indignitates contumeliasque perferre, et ab Aeduls
defecertmt et populo Romano bellum intulerunt. Qui eius consilii principes
fuerant, quod intellegebant, quantam calamitatem clvitatl intulissent (204, 3)>
in Britanniam profugerunt.

3. Bellovacos, etc.: 213, b, and 212, c, (1). omni tempore:
N. to I, 11, 1. 6.

4. dicerent : i kept saying.' 175, a.

5. in: 'to.' servitutem: 10, f. omnes, etc.: 'every kind
of ill-treatment and insult.' 92, c.

6. et . . . et : 234, a. defecisse : ' had revolted.' 57, b.

7. Qui : as antecedent supply eos with profiigisse. principes :
here = anctores, 'advisers.'

10-14. Direct form : Petunt non solum Bellovaci, sed etiam pro his Aedui,
ut tua dementia ac mansuetudine in eos iitdris. Quod si feceris (future per-
fect), Aedu5rum auct5ritatem apud omnes Belgas amplificabis ; quorum auxi-
lils atque opibus, si qua bella inciderunt, sustentare cdnsnerunt (176, b) .

10. petere, utatur : vivid use of present tenses where past tenses
might have been expected.

11. s,ua: 'his well-known.' 151 \e. dementia: 'mercifulness,'



156



Caesar's Gallic War



[B.C. 57



fecerit, Aedudrum auctoritdtem apud otnnes Belgds ampli-
ficdturum, quorum auxilils atque opibus, si qua bella
inciderint, sustcntdre consuerint.

Caesar makes terms with the Bellovaci and Ambiani, learns about
the Nervians.

15. Caesar, honoris Diviciaci atque Aeduorum causa,
sese eos in fidem recepturum et conservaturum dixit ; et
quod erat civitas magna inter Belgas auctoritate atque
hominum multitudine praestabat, dc obsides poposcit.
s His traditis omnibusque armis ex oppido collatis, ab eo
loco in fines Ambianorum pervenit ; qui se suaque omnia
sine mora dediderunt.



the quality which leads a man to treat with kindness those against
whom he has grounds of offense. Near the close of his life a temple
was ordered built to 'Caesar's Mercifulness.' 268, and Fig. 163.
mfinsuc" t udine : < conjpassionateness, 1 the quality that makes one able
to realize the sufferings of others. in : 'toward.' Quod : 118, d.
■I, etc. : 218,(\),b.

13. si . . . suatentare : < to carry through any wars that had arisen.'
How lit. ? 168, and J,9, a.

15. 1. honoris: dependent on causa; 'out of regard for Divici-
acus,' etc. 94, b. Diviciaci : dependent on honoris. 102.

13> Ij 9-

3. civitas : Bellavacdrum* auc-
toritate : ' prestige.' 148, a.

4. multitudine: 142. a. B. 226;
A. 418 ; H. 480. DC : sescentos.
The fact that for the sake of his Aeduan
supporters Caesar had spared the Bel-
lovaci did not prevent him from exact-
ing a large number of hostages to bind
them in their pledge of submission,
locfi : Bratuspantium. For Cat-



2. in fidem : as in chap.

♦AT,




Figure 79. — A Nervian coin.
Cold, with crude designs.



5. ooliatls: 69, b.
route, see Map 1.
7. mora: 'delay.'



e6



dfididfirunt: 'surrendered.



II, 15] Campaign against the Belgians 157

Edrum fines Nervil attingebant; quorum de natura
moribusque Caesar cum quaereret, sic reperiebat :

Nullum aditum esse ad eos mercdtoribus ; nihil pati vinixo
reliqudrumque rerum ad luxuriam pertinentium Inferrl,
quod his rebus relanguescere animos edrum et remitti vir-




Figure 80. — A characteristic bit of the country through which Caesar
made his three-day march.

8. Eorum : the Ambiani. Nervil attingebant : i the country
of the Nervians adjoined' (Fig. 79). 282. de natura: 116, c.

10-17. Direct form: Nilllus aditus est ad e5s mercat5ribus; nihil patiun-
tur vlni reliquarumque rerum ad luxuriam pertinentium Inferri, quod his rebus
relanguescere animos e5rum et remitti virtutem existiviant. Sunt homines
ferl magnaeque virtutis; increpitant atque incusant reliqu5s Belgas, qui se
populd R5man5 dediderint p3.tr\a.mque virtutem proiecerint ; confirmant, sese
neque legatos missuros [esse] neque ullam condicionem pads accepturos
[esse].

10. Nullum, etc.: 212, c, (3). mercatoribus : 111. nihil
vim : 'no wine.' 97, a. The Nervii were ancient prohibitionists.
pati: sc eos as subject. 60.

11. ad luxuriam pertinentium : ' which contribute to luxurious
living.' How lit.?

12. rebus: 135, a. relanguescere: 'becomes weak.' ani-



158 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 57

f/ttrm existimdrent ; esse homines feros tnagnaeque virtutis ;
increpitdre atque ittciisdre rcliquos Belgds, qui se populo
15 Romano dedidissent patriamque virtutem proiecissent ; con-
firmare, sese neque legdtos mis surds neque ullam condicio-
nem pdcis accepturos.

The Nem'nns, Atrebatians, and Viromanduons await Caesar at
the Sambre.

16. Cum per eorum fines trlduum iter fecisset, invenie-
bat ex captivls :

Sabim flumen a castrts suis non amplius milia passuum x

abesse*; trans id flumen omnes Nervios consedisse advent urn-

5 que ibi Romdnorum exspectdre una cum Atrebdtibus et Viro-

manduls % flnitimls suis (nam his utrisque persuaserant,

mos: 92, a. virtfltem : 'valor,' the manifestation of courage in
brave deeds.

13. existimarent : lit, a. magnae virtutis: genitive of quality
taking the place of an adjective, hence connected by -que with feros.
100, a.

14. increpitftre atque incus are : sc. eos, 'that they upbraided
and condemned.' reliquos : 171, a. qui: 'because they.' 194, c.

16. Bfisfi, etc. : indirect discourse after confirmare. s6s6 : refers
to eds understood as subject of confirmare.

16. 1. e6rum: Nerviorum. trlduum: - tres dies. 118, a.

Iter fScisset: 'had advanced'; for the route see Map I, and Fig. 80.
inveniSbat : = quaerendo cognoscebat.

3. Sabim, etc.: 212, c, (3). Sabim: accusative like turrim.
I ',. c. milia : why not ablative? 129, b, and 118, a.

4. trans id flumen : they crossed over
to the south side of the Sambre, which
flows in an easterly direction into the
Meuse. 292.

6. his utrisque : ' both these peoples.'

Figure 81. — ViromTnduan f)U and 23 ' a ' The combined forces of the

co j n Nervians, Atrebatians, and Viromanduans

Bronze, of crude workmanship. ( Fi g- 8l ) were estimated at 75,000 (chap.

Inscription, soluos (solos). 4, 11- 21-28). nam, etc : 214, &




II, 17] Campaign against the Belgians 159

uti eandem belli f ortunam experlrentur) ; exspectdrl etiam
ab his Atuatucorum copids, atque esse in itinere ; mulieres,
quique per aetdtem ad pugnam inutiles viderentur, in eum
locum coniecisse, quo propter paludes exercitui aditns non esset. ic

They plan to surprise him on the march.

17. His rebus cognitis, exploratores centurionesque prae-
mittit, qui locum idoneum castris deligant. Cum ex dedi-
ticiis Belgis reliqulsque Gallis complures, Caesarem secutl,
una iter facerent, quldam ex his, ut postea ex captlvls
cognitum est, eorum dierum consuetudine itineris nostrls
exercitus perspecta, nocte ad Nervios pervenerunt atque
his demonstrarunt, Inter singulds legiones impedimento-
rum magnum numerum intercedere, neque esse quicquam
negotii, cum prima legio in castra venisset reliquaeque

8. in itinere : 'on the way.' mulieres : object of coniecisse.

9. quique : i.e. et eos, qui. per aetatem : ' by reason of age.'
inutiles: predicative, 'useless. 1 eum locum : ' a place,' perhaps in
the vicinity of the modern city of Mons. 160, d.

10. quo : adverb, = ad quern. esset : subjunctive also in the
direct form. 194, a. B. 283; A. 535; H. 591, 1.

17. 2. qui . . . deligant': * in order to choose.' 193, a, and 381, a,
and b. ex . . . Gallis: after compltires. 97, d. B. 201, 1, a; A.
346, c, H. 444. dediticils : the Suessiones (chap. 13, 1. 3), the
Bellovaci (chap. 15, 1. 2), and the Ambiani (chap. 15, 1). 5-7).

4. facerent: 185, c. quldam : 168. ut : 188, b.

5. eorum . . . exercitus: 'the marching order of our army in
those days, 1 the three days when Caesar was advancing into the country
of the Nervians (chap. 16, 1. 1). How lit.?

7. demonstrarunt: 64,a, ( i). impedimentorum, etc.: 311,
and 74, d.

8. numerum : 'quantity. 1 esse: the subject is adorirl ; 'and
that there was no difficulty — in attacking. 1 How lit. ? 222, b. quic-
quam : 168, and 49, a.

9. negotii : 97, b. castra : the place selected for a camp ; the camp
would not be fortified till the legions arrived. 332, 333. venisset,
abessent : indicative future perfect, and future, in direct discourse.



100 Caesar's Gallic War [B.c :

xolegiones magnum spatium abessent, hanc sub sarctnis
adoriri ; qua pulsa impediment is que direptis, futfirum, ut
reliquae contra consistere non auderent.

Adiuvabat etiam eorum consilium, qui rem deferebant,
quod Nervii antiquitus, cum equitatu nihil possent (neque

isenim ad hoc tempus ei rel student, sed, quicquid possunt,
pedestribus valent copiis), quo facilius finitimorum equita-
tum, si praedandi causa ad eos venissent, impedirent, tene-
ris arboribus incisls atque inflexls, crebrlsque in latitudinem
ramis enatls, et rubls sentibusque interiectis, effecerant, ut

io. spatium: 118, a. sarcinls : 'packs. 1 The plan was to at-
tack the first legion to come up, just as it reached the place chosen for
encampment, before the soldiers could deposit their packs and get them-
selves into fighting trim. 330.

11. qui: 'when this' legion. direptis: ' had been plundered.'
How lit.? futfirum [esse] : the subject is ut . . . auderent ; *it
would come about that. 1 203, (i).

12. reliquae: sc. legiones. contra: adverb. contra consis-
tere : < to withstand the attack.'

13. Adiuvabat: the subject is quod . . . effecerant (1. 19); 'the
plan of those who furnished the information was favored by the fact that
the Nervii,' etc. How lit. ? 198, b.

14. antiquitus: 'long ago.' cum . . . possent: 'not being
strong in cavalry.' How lit.? 184, a. nihil: 118, c. neque
enim : 'and in fact . . . not.'

15. el rel student : ' they give attention to that arm ' of the service.
105. quicquid . . . cdpils : 'all the strength they have is in infan-
try.' How lit.? quicquid : 1 18, b.

16. oSpils: 142, a. qu6 ... impedirent : 193,b. B. 282, i,a;
A. 531, a; H. 568,7.

17. praedandi causa: 'in order to plunder.' 230, (1). v€nis-
■ent: 220.

18. tenerls . . . Inflexls: 'cutting into young trees and bending
them over.' How lit.? 144, b, (2). in latitudinem : ' at the sides,'
we should say.

19. rftmls finfttls : with cribrls, ' letting the branches grow thickly.'
/ U, and 61, a, (3). How lit.? rubls, etc. : 'planting briars and
thorn-bushes in the intervening spaces.' How lit.? effecerant, ut



it, 18] Campaign against the Belgians 161

fnstar murl hae saepes munimentum praeberent, quo non 20
modo non intrari, sed ne perspicl quidem posset.

His rebus cum iter agminis nostrl impediretur, non omit-
tendum sibi consilium Nervil existimaverunt.

Tlie Romans make camp on a height sloping to the river.

18. Loci natura erat haec, quern locum nostrl castrls
delegerant. *




Figure 82. — Hedges, near the river Sambre.



. . . praeberent: 208, (3). By cutting into young trees near the root
they were able to bend these down to a horizontal position without kill-
ing them. The stem of the tree would then increase in size very slowly,
but along the trunk branches would grow out, above and on the sides
(in latitadinem) . In the spaces along the line of defense not filled by
trees thus trained, briars and thorn-bushes were planted. The whole
formed a living and impenetrable hedge. Similar hedges are still found
in this region (Figures 82, 83, 87).

20. instar murl: * like a wall,' lit. 'the likeness of a wall 1 ; tnstar,
indeclinable, is in apposition to munimentum. 94, b. saepgs :
'hedges. 1 15, b. munimentum: ' line of defense. 1 74, d. prae-
berent : ' made. 1 quo : adverb = in quod (munimentum) ; but
trans, with the impersonal intrari, etc., 'which could not only not be
penetrated but not even seen through. 1 How lit. ? 78, d, and 287, c.

21. perspicl: 79, b. posset: 220.

23. omittendum: 89, c, and 78, e. sibi: 110. consilium:
'the plan 1 of attack proposed in 11. 9-12.

18. 1. haec: 'as follows. 1 161, a. locum: 165, a. castrls:



162 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 57

Collis ab summo aequaliter dcclivis ad flumen Sabim,

quod supra nominavimus, vergebat. Ab eo flumine pari

5 acclivitate collis nascebatur adversus huic et contrarius,

passus circiter cc infimus apertus, ab superiore parte sil-

vestris, 1st non facile introrsus perspici posset.

Intra eas silvas hostes in occulta sese continebant ; in
aperto loco secundum flumen paucae stationes equitum
10 videbantur. Fhlminis erat altitudo pedum circiter trium.

A furious attack is made on the Romans while fortifying the camp.

19. Caesar, equitatu praemisso, subsequebatur omnibus
copiis ; sed ratio ordoque agminis aliter se habebat, ac



112, a. The site has been identified, on the left or north bank of the
Sambre {Sabts), in France, near the Belgian frontier, opposite the city
of Hautmont. Map 6, A.

3. Collis: on which the camp was laid out. ab, etc.: ' sloping
evenly from the top, descended. 1 How lit. ?

4. supra: chap. 16, I. 3. nominavimus: 'we have mentioned by
name.' 156. Ab e6 :< From the.' 160, ci. pari acclivitate :
1 with similar upward slope.' 143, a.

5. nascfibatur: * arose.' adversus huic et contrarius: 'fac-
ing this (hill) and opposite (to it),' on the south side of the Sambre;
the highest part of the second hill is at B on Map 6. huic : 108, a.

6. passfls: 118, a. cc : ducentds. 36. How far?" 243, b.
Infimus : ' at the lower edge ' of the hill, along the river. apertus :
free from woods. ab, etc. : * wooded along the upper portion.' 126, c.

7. ut: 'so that.' introrsus: 'within.'

9. apert6 loc6 : indicated on Map 6, between the river and the
broken line marking the northern limit of the woods. secundum :
preposition, * along.' statiSnfis :. ' pickets.'

10. vidGbantur: trans, as passive. pedum: 100, b. trium:
87, b.

19. 1. equitfttfi praemissfi : 328. omnibus copiis: 187. b.

2. ratifi 6rd6que: 'principle of arrangement,' lit. 'principle and
.ut mtfement.' aliter, etc. : 'were different from what the Belgians.'
How lit.? hab«bat: 173, a. B. 255, 3; A. 317, b\ H. 392, 4.
ac; ..'.;.;. <.



II, 19] Campaign against the Belgians 163

Belgae ad Nervi5s detulerant. Nam quod hostibus appro-
pinquabat, consuetudine sua Caesar vi legiones expedltas
ducebat ; post eas totlus exercitus impedimenta collocarat ; 5
inde duae legiones, quae proxime conscrlptae erant, totum
agmen claudebant praesidioque impedimentls erant.

Equites nostri, cum funditoribus sagittariisque flumen
transgress!, cum hostium equitatu proelium commiserunt.
Cum se ill! identidem in silvas ad suos reciperent ac rursus 10
ex silva in nostros impetum facerent neque nostri longius,
quam quern ad flnem porrecta loca aperta pertinebant,
cedentes InsequI auderent, interim legiones vr, quae pri-
mae venerant, opere dimensd castra munlre coeperunt.

4. consuStudine sua : » in accordance with his usual practice, 1 when
in the enemy's country. 136, c. VI : 38, b. The legions were those
numbered 7-12. expedltas: predicative, ' in light order'; with-
out the packs (sarcinae), which in such cases were doubtless carried
with the heavy baggage. 115, b.

5. impedimenta: 311. collocarat: full form? 64, a, (1).

6. duae legiones: numbered 13 and 14; chap. 2, 11. 1-4.
proxime : 35.

7. praesidio, impedimentls: 112, b, and 328. B. 191, 2, a ; A.
382, 1 ; H. 433-

9. transgress!: to the south side of the Sambre. cum : 137, c.
equitatu: the cavalry (chap. 18, 1. 9) must have been furnished by
the Atrebatians and Viromanduans, not by the Nervians (chap. 17,
1. 14).

10. identidem: ' repeatedly.' suos: the enemy's infantry, con-
cealed in the woods (chap. 18, 1. 8). reciperent: 175, d.

11. neque: trans, as if et . . . non. longius: 'further.'

12. quem ad flnem : = ad eum flnem ad quern, 'to the limit to
which.' porrecta, etc.: 'the stretch of open ground extended.'
How lit.?

1 3 . cedentes : sc. eos (Jiostes) , object of insequl ; ' as they retreated.'
primae venerant : ' had been the first to come up.' 152, b.

14. opere : 'the trench-work,' the first work on the fortifications of
the camp. 333. dimenso : ' having measured off.' How lit. ?
144, b, (2), and 59, b.



164 Caesar's Gallic War [B.<

x S Ubi prima impedimenta nostri exercitus ab eis, qui in
silvis abditi latebant, visa sunt, quod tempus inter eos
committendi proeiii convenerat, ut intra silvas aciem ordi-
nesque constituerant atque ipsi sese conflrmaverant, subitd
omnibus c5piis provolaverunt impetumque in nostros

2c equites fecerunt. His facile pulsis ac proturbatis, incredibili




Figure 83. — View across the fields in the direction from which Caesar's
baggage was coming.

15. prima impedimenta: 4 the first part of the baggage train.'
Map 6. 1 ■',',,/.

16. visa sunt: passive in meaning. quod tempus : X.t.ttmpus
(in thought an appositive of the clause Ubi . . . visa sunt, but attracted
into the relative clause) . . . quod convcnerat, i which had been agreed
on.' 16fi, b.

17. oommittendl proeiii: dependent on tempus, 'for beginning
thr battle.* How lit.? %80> (1). ut: 'just as.'

18. tpsl s6s0 cSnflrmaverant ; 'had encouraged one another.'

19. odpils: 18ft, b. pr5volftv6runt : 'they rushed forward. 1
nostr6s equites : who had crossed the river (11. 8, 9).

20. pr6turbfttls: • scattered in a panic' incrfidibill: 74,/.



MAP 6

The Battle at the Sambre (Sabis) : First Phase

Book II, 18-22 To face page 164




SCALE OF ENGLISH MILES



SCALE OF ROMAN MILES



EXPLANATION

Caesar's army, approaching the Sambre from the north, started to make a camp
on a hill overlooking the river. The Belgian forces, comprising Nervians, Viro-
manduans, and Atrebatians, were lying in wait on the south side.

Supposing that each legion would be followed by its baggage train, the Bel-
gians had planned to attack the first legion and destroy it before the others could
come to the rescue, and in like manner to destroy the others one by one. Caesar,
however, had placed six legions in light marching order first, then all the bag-
gage, and two legions last, the XIII th and XIV th ; he sent cavalry, bowmen, and
slingers in advance of the main column.

When the baggage train came into view, the Belgians hurled back the cavalry,
bowmen, and slingers, rushed across the river and charged up the hill.

A. The Roman camp (chap. 18, 11. 1-7), with six legions forming in front.

B. The camp of the Belgians (chap. 26, 11. 10-12).



li, 20] Campaign against the Belgians 165

celeritate ad flumen decucurrerunt, ut paene uno tempore
et ad silvas et in flumine et iam in manibus nostrls hostes
viderentur. Eadem autem celeritate adversd colle ad
nostra castra atque eds, qui in opere occupati erant, con-
tenderunt. 25

Discipline and training enable the soldiers to meet the emergency

20. Caesar! omnia uno tempore erant agenda : vexil-
lum proponendum, quod erat Insigne, cum ad arma con-
curri oporteret; signum tuba dandum ; ab opere revocandi
milites ; qui paul5 longius aggeris petendi causa proces-



%



Figure 84. — Roman trumpet, tuba.



21. decucurrerunt: 'they ran down ' the sloping ground between
the edge of the forest and the river. ut : 'so that. 1 tempore :
'instant.'

22. ad silvas : ' near the woods, 1 whence they had just emerged
in manibus nostrls : in our idiom, ' upon us ' ; how lit. ?

23. adverso colle . . . contenderunt : ' dashed up the hill ' on the
north side of the Sambre. The Belgians may have covered the distance
between the woods on the south side of the Sambre and the site of the
Roman camp in ten minutes ; the distance is about two-thirds of an
English mile.

24. occupati: 'engaged. 1 lJ+8,c.

20. 1. Caesari: emphatic, hence placed at the beginning. 110>
and 229, c. vexillum : ' the flag. 1 324, b, 3, and Fig. 149.

2. proponendum, dandum, revocandi, etc. : sc. erat, erant.
229, c. ad arma concurri: 'to arm.' How lit.? 73, d.

3. tuba: ' with the trumpet ' ; the signal was to "fall in." 326,
a, (1). Fig. 84. opere chap. 19, 1. 14 and N. revocandi
[erant] : ' had to be recalled. 1

4. qui : as antecedent sc el {milites), subject of arcessendi \eranf\.



166 Caesar's Gallic War [b.c. 57

sserant, arcessendi; acies instruenda, milites cohortandi,
signum dandum. Quarum rerum magnam partem tern-
poris brevitas et incursus hostium impediebat.

His difficultatibus duae res erant subsidio, scientia atque
usus militum, quod superioribus proelils exercitati, quid

10 fieri oporteret, non minus commode ipsi sibi praescribere,
quam ab aliis doceri poterant, et quod ab opere singulisque
legionibus singulos legatos Caesar discedere, nisi munitis
castrls, vetuerat. Hi propter propinquitatem et celeritatem
hostium nihil iam Caesaris imperium exspectabant, sed

is per se, quae videbantur, administrabant.

paul6 longius : 'a little further' than usual. 140. aggeris : ' ma-
terial' for the rampart, in this case probably wood. 230, (1).

5. arcessendi [erant] : 'had to be sent for.' cohortandi [erant] :
N to I, 25, 1. 3.

6. signum dandum [erat] : ' the signal ' for battle ' had to be
given.' 826, c. Quarum : 167.

7. brevitas: 'the shortness.' incursus: 'the onrush.' im-
pedifibat: 178, a.

8. His . . . subsidio : ' Two things served to offset these disad-
vantages,' explained by scientia . . . poterant and quodab opere . . .
vetuerat. How lit.? 112, b.

10. oporteret: 204, (2). non minus, etc.: 'they were able
(themselves) to determine for themselves . . . just as fitly as others could
instruct them.' How lit. ? ipsi : agrees with the subject of poterant,
but need not be translated.

1 1 . quod, etc : « the fact that Caesar had forbidden the several lieu-
ti 'innts to leave the work and their respective legions.' How lit.?
198, b.

12. discedere: 200, b. nisi munitis castrls: 'only after the
fortifying of the camp had been completed.'

14. nihil : adverbial accusative. 118, c.

15. per se: 'on their own responsibility.' quae videbantur :
i.e. qua4 vidlbtntur atbmnistranda, • were taking (the measures) which
the situation seemed to require.' How lit. ? These veterans knew what
t<> do, when they saw the enemy coming, and did not lose their
heads.



II, 2i] Campaign against the Belgians 167

TJiey form hurriedly ; under Caesar's encouragement they fight
desperately, against great odds.

21. Caesar, necessariis rebus imperatis, ad cohortandos
mllites, quam in partem fors obtulit, decucurrit et ad
legionem decimam devenit. Mllites non longiore oratione
cohortatus, quam uti suae pristinae virtutis memoriam re-
tinerent neu perturbarentur animo, hostiumque impetum 5
fortiter sustinerent, quod non longius hostes aberant, quam
quo telum adigi posset, proelii committendi signum dedit.
Atque in alteram partem item cohortandi causa profectus



Online LibraryJulius CaesarC. Iulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum. Caesar's Commentaries: the Gallic war, books I-Iv, with selections from books V-VII and from the civil war; → online text (page 16 of 73)