Julius Caesar.

C. Iulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum. Caesar's Commentaries: the Gallic war, books I-Iv, with selections from books V-VII and from the civil war; online

. (page 17 of 73)
Online LibraryJulius CaesarC. Iulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum. Caesar's Commentaries: the Gallic war, books I-Iv, with selections from books V-VII and from the civil war; → online text (page 17 of 73)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook

pugnantibus occurrit.

Temporis tanta fuit exiguitas hostiumque tarn paratus 10

21. 1. necessariis rebus imperatis: ' having given (only) the
indispensable orders. 1

2. quam in partem : = in earn partem, in quam ; with fors obtulit,
' where chance led, 1 a statement introduced to explain why Caesar came
first to the tenth legion, which, as the most experienced, had least need
of the generaPs presence. 69, b. decucurrit: Caesar was perhaps
near the northeast corner of the camp (Map 6, A) when he started to
rush down the slope to where the troops were forming.

4. uti . . . sustinerent : substantive clauses giving the gist of the
words of exhortation. 199, a.

5. neu perturbarentur animo: we should say 'and keep cool. 1
How lit. ? 142, a, and 199, d.

6. quod . . . aberant : gives the reason for signum dedit. quam
quo: 'than (the distance) to which. 1 194, b. B. 283, 2, a; A. 571,0;
H. 570, 1.

7. adigi : < be thrown. 1 signum : n. to chap. 20, 1. 6.

8. alteram partem: 'another part' of the hastily formed line;
apparently Caesar went across to the right wing, where the seventh and
twelfth legions were. See Map 6. profectus : principal parts of
proficlscor and proficid ?

9. pugnantibus occurrit : ' he found (the men already) fighting. 7
107, a, and 175, b.

10. Temporis . . . exiguitas: 'So short was the time. 1 How lit.?
hostium : dependent on animus. 233, b, and 353, d.


Caesar's Gallic War

[B.C. 57

ad dimicandum animus, ut non modo ad insignia accommo-
danda, sed etiam ad galeas induendas scutisque tegimenta
detrahenda tempus defuerit. Quam quisque ab opere in
partem casu devenit quaeque prima signa conspexit, ad
15 haed cdnstitit, ne in quaerendis suis pugnandi tempus

22. Instructo exercitu, magis ut loci natura deiectusque
collis et necessitas temporis, quam ut rei militaris ratio
atque ordd postulabat, cum diversae legiones aliae alia in
parte hostibus resisterent, saepibusque densissimis, ut ante

II. ad Insignia accommodanda : ' for fitting on their decorations,'
particularly the crests, which were taken off from the helmets on the
march. In battle it was important that the crests
be in place, for by differences of these in form
and color the different legions and cohorts could
be distinguished (Fig. 85).

12. ad galeas induendas : 'for putting on
their helmets' (Fig. 12). 822, a. scutis.
etc. : ' for drawing the coverings off the shields,'
which were protected by coverings against mois-
ture. 127, a. B. 214; A. 401 ; H. 462.

13. Quam, etc. : ' Whatever part (of the line)
each (soldier) chanced (to reach as) he came
down from the trench-work, (in that part he
stayed) and.' How lit.?

14. quaeque: = et quae; trans, as if ad
(' by ') haec signa, quae prima conspexit, cdnstitit

('he took his stand 1 ). Under ordinary circumstances it was a serious
offense for a soldier to be found in a maniple in which he did not belong.
W, °> (2).

15. in quaerendis suis : sc. signfs.

22. 1. ut: 'as.' loci: 'of the ground.'

2. rei . . . 6rd6: 'the arrangement approved by military science.'
How lit.?

3. diversae: 'separated.' aliae alia in parte: fuller expression
..f the thought in diversae; 'one at one point, another at another.'
171, c.

4. densissimis: 'very thick,' l r >,%a. ante : chap. 17, 11. 13-21.

Figure 85. — Roman
helmet, with crest.

II, 23j Campaign against the Belgians 169

demon stravimus, interiectis prospectus impediretur, neques
certa subsidia collocari neque, quid in quaque parte opus
esset, provider!, neque ab uno omnia imperia administrarl
poterant. Itaque in tanta rerum iniquitate fortunae quoque
eventus varii sequebantur.

Two legions drive the Atrebatians across the river, two force back
the Viromanduans, but two are outflanked by the Servians.

23. Legionis vim et x milites, ut in sinistra parte aciei
constiterant, pills emissis cursu ac lassitudine exanimatos
vulneribusque confectos Atrebates (nam his ea pars ob-
venerat) celeriter ex loco superiore in flumen compulerunt
et, translre con antes insecuti, gladils magnam partem eorum 5

5. prospectus : 'the view' over the field of battle (Fig. 82).

6. certa subsidia collocari [poterant] : ' could reserves be posted
at fixed points 1 ; the movements of the enemy were so obscured by the
thickets that Caesar could not tell where reserve forces could be posted
to advantage. certa: 151. B.239; A. 290 ; H. 497. quaque:
from quisque. opus esset: 132, b.

7. provider!: sc. poterat. uno : 'one person. 1 omnia im-
peria . . . administrarl : ' all orders ... be given.'

8. in tanta rerum iniquitate: 'under so disadvantageous condi-
tions.' How lit. ? fortunae : dependent on eventiis.

9. eventus varii : ' various issues.'

23. 1. vim, X: nonae, decimae. 38, b. aciei: 21, b. For the
position of the legions see Map 6.

2. pills emissis : ' having hurled their pikes.' 322, d. lassitu-
dine : ' fatigue,' resulting from the three-quarter mile dash first down-
hill to the river, then across the river, and uphill again to the Roman
line. exanimatos : 'who were out of breath.' 227, a, (1).

3. vulneribus confectos : ' disabled by wounds, 1 referring to those
struck by the pikes. ea pars : the Roman left wing, which was in
command of Labienus. obvenerat : ' had encountered.'

4. loco superiore : the Romans, being nearer the top of the hill,
were on higher ground. compulerunt: 'forced. 1

5. cdnantgs : sc. eos {Atrebates), object of fnsecuti.

170 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 57

impeditam interfecerunt. IpsI transire flumen non dubi-
taverunt et, in locum inlquum progress!, rursus resistentes
hostes, redintegrato proelio, in fugam coniecerunt.

Item alia in parte diversae duae legiones, xi et vm,

10 profligatis Viromanduis, quibuscum erant congressae, ex
loco superiore, in ipsis fluminis ripls proeliabantur.

At totis fere castris a fronte et a sinistra parte nudatls,
cum in dextr5 cornu legio xn et, non magno ab ea inter-
valla, vn constitisset, omnes Nervii confertissimo agmine

is duce Boduognato, qui summam imperii tenebat, ad eum

6. impeditam : by the crossing of the river. IpsI : the soldiers
of the ninth and tenth legions. transire : 201, b.

7. locum inlquum: the 'ground' south of the Sambre, sloping
back from the river and in part covered with woods ; Map 7.

8. host6s: object of coniecerunt. redintegrato proelio : 'they
(the Romans) renewed the battle and. 1 144-> b, (2).

9. alia in parte : the Roman center, in front of the camp. See
Map 7. diversae : ' in different places ' ; not, as ordinarily, forming
a continuous line.

10. profligatis Viromanduis: ' having driven the Viromanduans. 1
quibuscum: 125, c. erant congressae: 57, c.

11. proeliabantur :< were continuing the battle. 1 175, a.

12. a: 126, b. nudatls: not only the 8th and nth legions in
front, but the 9th and 10th legions on the left of the camp, had aban-
doned their positions to pursue the enemy, leaving the camp 'unpro-
tected 1 except on the right, where the 12th and 7th legions stood.

13. cum: 'since. 1 lS/ h a. XII : duodecima. non: with MM
289, g. intervals : 138.

14. VII: (legio) septima. constitisset: why singular? omngs
Nervii: their fighting force was estimated by the Remi at 50,000
(chap. 4, 1. 25), but was later reported as 60,000 (chap. 28, 1. 8).
c6nfertissim6 agmine : a mass formation, like that of the Helvetians
(1,34,1, 12); called 'column, 1 agmtn, rather than 'battle-line/ 1
because it was still advancing, not yet having divided in order to
deliver the att.uk at two points.

15. duce Boduognato: 'led by Boduognatus. 1 How lit.? 144,
b, (2). summam imperil: * the supreme command. 1

II, 24] Campaign against the Belgians 171

locum contenderunt ; quorum pars ab aperto latere legiones
circumvenire, pars summum castrdrum locum petere coepit.

The Roman camp is taken; seemingly all is lost.

24. Eodem tempore equites nostrl levisque armaturae
pedites, qui cum els una fuerant, quos primo hostium
impetu pulsos dlxeram, cum se in castra reciperent, adversis

Figure 86. — Open ground along the Sambre, over which the Nervians
advanced ; looking toward the site of Caesar's Camp, now in part
covered by woods.

1 6. ab aperto latere: 'on the exposed flank,' the right flank.
legiones : the 7th and 12th.

17. summum castrorum locum: ' the height on which the camp
was.' How lit.?

24. 1. levis armaturae pedites: slingers and bowmen (chap.
19, 1. 8).

2. cum els una: ' along with them,' the cavalry.

3. dixeram : chap. 19, 11. 15-23. reciperent, respexissent
(1. 7): force of re-? 79, d. adversis, etc.: 'were meeting the
enemy face to face.' 107, a. The Nervians came up so rapidly that they
were already entering the Roman camp at the time when Caesar's cav-
alry and light-armed troops, which had been routed on the other side

172 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 57

hostibus occurrebant ac rursus aliam in partem fugam pete-
s bant ; et calones, qui ab decumana porta ac summo iugo
collis nostros victores flumen transisse conspexerant, prae-
dandi causa egressi, cum respexissent et hostes in nostrls
castris versari vidissent, praecipites fugae sese mandabant.
Simul eorum, qui cum impedimentis veniebant, clamor
io f remitusque oriebatur, aliique aliam in partem perterriti

Quibus omnibus rebus permoti, equites Treverl, quorum

inter Gallos virtutis opinio est singularis, qui auxilii causa

a civitate ad Caesarem missi venerant, cum multitudine

ishostium castra nostra complerl, legiones premi et paene

of the Sambre, were just coming back to it again. The descriptive force
of the imperfects in this chapter adds to the vividness of the picture.

5. cfll5n8s : 'camp-servants, 1 chiefly, we may assume, servants of
officers. ab decumSna porta : 'at the rear gate 1 of the camp,
which, since the hill sloped toward the river, was on the highest part
of the hill. Map 7, C, C. 384, a.

6. noatr6s : the 9th and 10th legions. praedandi, etc. : they
were leaving the camp by the rear gate to hunt for plunder.

7. hostSs . . . versari: * that the enemy were moving about. 1

8. praecipitfis: 'precipitately. 1 151. B. 239; A. 290; H. 497.

9. edrum, qui: the drivers of the baggage-train, just coming up;
behind it were the 13th and 14th legions bringing up the rear. See
Map 7. clamor : ' shouting. 1

10. fremitus: 'hubbub. 1 orifibatur : 61,6, and 17S y a. ' alii-
que, etc. : ' some in one direction, others in another. 1 171, c.

11. ferSbantur: ' were rushing. 1 17 4. B. 256, 1 ; H. 517.

13. virtatis opinio : 'reputation for courage 1 ; meant of the Tre-
veri as a whole, not merely of the cavalry. singularis : ' extraordi-

The implication is that the Treveran horsemen went away not
by reason of cowardice but because they thought the day hopelessly
lost. auxilii, etc. : Caesar must have made an agreement with the
Treveri before starting on this campaign.

14. civitate: personified, hence with <*. 126, a, cum . . . vi
dissent 1 /.s\5, c.

15. legiones: the 7th and 12th; see Map 7.


The Battle at the Sambre (Sabis) : Second Phase

Book II, 23-27 To face page 172





The Atrebatians, having crossed the river, were thrown back by the IX th and
X th legions, and fled through the woods east of the Belgian camp. The IX th and
X th legions entered the Belgian camp (B), which was on a hill.

In like manner the XI th and VIII th legions routed the Viromanduans and
crossed to the south side of the river in pursuit.

Of the Nervians, one division (D) made for the Roman camp (A) and entered
it ; the cavalry, bowmen, and slingers that had taken refuge there fled precipi-
tately (C). Other divisions (E, F) started to surround the VII th and XII th
legions, which by Caesar's order took up a position rear to rear.

Hearing the noise of battle the baggage train halted, and the XIII th and
XIV th legions hastened to the scene.

Caesar rushed into the front rank, and saved the day.

II, 25] Campaign against the Belgians 173

circumventas tenerl, calones, equites, funditores, Numidas
diversos dissipatosque in omnes partes fugere vidissent,
desperatis nostris rebus, domum contenderunt ; Romanos
pulsos superatosque, castrls impedimentlsque e5rum hostes
potitos, civitati renuntiaverunt. 20

Caesar rushes into the fight, calls centurions by name, directs
the formation of a double front.

25. Caesar ab x legionis cohortatione ad dextrum cornu
profectus, ubi suds urgerl signisque in unum locum collatis
xii legionis confertos mllites sibi ipsos ad pugnam esse

17. diversos dissipatosque : ' separated,' one body of troops from
another, ' and scattered.'

18. desperatis, etc. : 'despairing of our victory.' 144i b, (3)*

19. pulsos, superatos : sc. esse. castris, impediments : after
potttos [esse]. 131, c.

25. 1. Caesar, etc.: subject of a complex sentence which ends
with possent in 1. 18.

1-18. Analysis: The paragraph forms a single complex sentence. The
principal clause has for its subject Caesar, with which the participles profectus
(1. 2) and cohort&tus (1. 16) agree; for its predicate it has the verbs processit
(1. 15), iussit (1. 17). The leading subordinate clause is ubi . . . vldit, which
is so expanded by the introduction of details that vtdit is repeated (1. 12) for
clearness. These details are expressed in part by infinitives with subject-accu-
satives dependent on vldit, in part by ablatives absolute, and in part by the
minor clauses ut . . . posset (1. 8) and quod . . . posset (1. 13).

In translating, the sentence may be broken up into three or four English
sentences; most of the ablatives absolute are best rendered by clauses.

1. ab . . . cohortatione : = ab decima legione, q?tam cohortdtus
erat. Caesar's account of his personal part in this battle, which was
interrupted by his description of the progress of the fighting (chaps.
22-24) is here resumed from chap. 21, 11. 1-9. X: 38, b, and 36.

2. suos urgerl : i that his men were hard pressed.' signis : ' the
standards' of the maniples. 324, b, (2).

3. XII: duodecimae. The crowding together of the soldiers of the
1 2th legion, which exposed them all the more to the missiles of the
enemy, and their consequent losses, were no doubt in part due to their

174 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 57

impedimenta vidit, quartae cohortis omnibus centuri5nibus
soccisis signiferoque interfecto, signo amisso, reliquarum
cohortium omnibus fere centurionibus aut vulneratis aut
occisis, in his primipllo P. Sextio Baculo, fortissimo viro,
multis gravibusque vulneribus confecto, ut iam se sustinere
n5n posset, reliquos esse tardiores et non nullos ab novis-
iosimis, deserto loco, proelio excedere ac tela vitare, hostes
neque a fronte ex Inferiore loco subeuntes intermittere et
ab utroque latere instare et rem esse in angusto vidit,

lack of experience in fighting; for this legion, raised in 58 B.C. (I, chap.
10, 1. 10 and N.), had been in service only a year. During the battle
with the Helvetians it guarded the baggage, having no part in the fray.
sibi . . . impedimenta : ' were hindering one another in fighting.'
How lit.? 178, and 112, b.

4. quartae cohortis : at the front, perhaps at the end of the first
line. 337, a, and Fig. 186.

5. signiferS: ' the standard-bearer.' Each cohort had three stand-
ards, of which there were thirty in the legion. Here the reference
probably is to the standard-bearer who carried the standard of the first
maniple of the cohort, which was looked upon as the standard of the
cohort. 8*4, b, (2).

7. prlmipHS : ' the first centurion ' of the first cohort, hence regarded
as the first centurion of the legion. 815, b.

8. multlB gravibusque : « many severe wounds.' 152, c. con-
fectS: 'exhausted'; with primipllo. Baculus did not die, but lived
to t st.il.lish the reputation of being one of the bravest, if not the most
brave, among Caesars men. ut : <so that.'

9. tardiSrfis : i less active,' having lost their initiative. ab 110-
vissimls : < in the rear ranks.' 126, c.

10. dfisertd loc6 . . . exegdere: i had abandoned their position
and were withdrawing.' How lit.? proelio: 127, a. host€s,
etc. : 'that both in front the enemy did not cease coming up — and on
both flanks,' etc. ; see Map 7. The Nervians outnumbered the men of
the 1 2th and 7th legions five or six to one.

1 1 . neque . . . et : 238, d. ex InferiSre loc6 : ' from the lower
ground ' along the river.

12. rem, etc.: 'that matters had reached a crisis.' How lit.?
164, **

II, 25] Campaign against the Belgians 175

neque ullum esse subsidium, quod summittl posset; scuto
ab novissimis uni militl detracto, quod ipse eo sine scuto
venerat, in primam aciem processit centurionibusque is
nominatim appellatis, reliquos cohortatus, railites signa Tn-
ferre et manipulos laxare iussit, quo facilius gladils utl

Figure 87. — Typical hedges near the site of the battle at the Sambre.

13. subsidium: 'reserve force'; the 13th and 14th legions were
not yet available, because too far off. posset: 194* a- B. 283, 2;
A. 535, a\ H. 591, 1. scuto, etc.: ' snatching a shield from a sol-
dier in the rear rank. 1 How lit. ? 144, b, (2).

14. uni : here ' a,' weaker than ' one ' ; in English " an " and " one "
were originally the same word. 23, a. militl : 109, b. B. 188, 2, d\
A. 381 ; H. 427. eo: adverb. sine scuto: in battle even com-
manders may have carried shields, for protection in an emergency.

16. nominatim : Caesar's personal knowledge of his men was
always an important factor in his success. signa inferre : 'to
advance.' 325.

17. manipulos laxare: 'to open up the ranks,' we say; lit. 'to
spread out the companies.' quo: 193, b. Longfellow in "The

176 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 57

Cuius adventu spe illata militibus ac redintegrato animo,
20 cum pro se quisque in conspectu imperatoris etiam in ex-
tremis suis rebus operam navare cuperet, paulum hostium
impetus tardatus est.

26. Caesar, cum vn legionem, quae iuxta constiterat,
item urgeri ab hoste vidisset, tribunos militum monuit, ut
paulatim sese legiones coniungerent et conversa signa in
hostes inferrent. Quo fact5, cum alils alii subsidium
5 ferrent, neque timerent, ne aversi ab hoste circumveni-
rentur, audacius resistere ac fortius pugnare coeperunt.

Hie Romans gain a complete victory, though the enemy fight
with the courage of despair.

Interim milites legionum duarum, quae in novissimo
agmine praesidio impedimentls fuerant, proelio nuntiato,

Courtship of Miles Standish " has portrayed the course of the battle in
verse :

He seized a shield from a soldier,
Put himself straight at the head of his troops, and commanded the captains,
Calling on each l>y his name, to order forward the ensigns;
Then to widen the ranks, and make more room for their weapons;
So he won the day.

19. Cuius: 167. iliatft: 69, b. militibus: why dative?

20. pr6 s6 quisque : 170, fi. in extrgmls suis rgbus : 'under
conditions of the utmost peril to himself.' How lit. ?

21. operam navare : * to do his best.'

22. tardatus est: « was checked. 1

26. 1. iuxta: the 7th legion was *near by' the 12th, on the right
wing ; see Map 6.

1. vidisset: 185, c. ut . . . Inferrent: 'that the (two) legions
gradually draw together, face about, and advance against the enemy. 1
Probably one legion simply took up a position behind the other, facing
in the opposite direction, s<> that the rear of both was secure. 199, a.

3. conversa signa : S25, and 228, a. B. 337, 2 ; A. 496, N. 2 ; H. 639.

5. ferrent: is '.'„ ,1. neque: trans, as if et . . . non. n6 : 202.
aversi ' in the rear ' ; the new formation h shown on Map 7.

7. legifinum duarum: the 13th and 14th; see Map 7.

II, 27] Campaign against the Belgians 177

cursu incitato in summo colle ab hostibus conspiciebantur,
et T. Labienus castrls hostium potitus et ex loco superiore, 10
quae res in nostris castris gererentur, conspicatus, x
legionem subsidio nostris misit. Qui cum ex equitum et
calonum fuga, quo in loco res esset, quant5que in perlculc
et castra et legi5nes et imperator versaretur, cognovissent,
nihil ad celeritatem sibi reliqui fecerunt. 15

27. Horum adventu tanta rerum commutatio est facta,
ut nostri, etiam qui vulneribus c5nfecti procubuissent,
scutis innlxl proelium redintegrarent, calones, perterritos
hostes conspicatl, etiam inermes armatis occurrerent, equi-

9. cursu incitato : ' having quickened their pace ' ; relation of this
ablative absolute to the preceding? summo colle: 'the top of the
hill ' back of the Roman camp. 152, a.

10. castris : 131, c. loco superiore : the height on which the
Belgian camp was ; Map 7, B. Hither Labienus with the 9th and 10th
legions had pursued the Atrebates ; chap. 23, 11. 1-8. The probable
lines of flight and pursuit are indicated on Map 7.

11. quae: 48, b. gererentur: 204, (2). conspicatus: as
spy-glasses were not yet invented, Labienus saw with the unaided eye ;
the distance from camp to camp across the valley was over a mile.
X : decimam.

12. subsidio, nostris: 112, b. Qui cum: 'And when they.'
167. Qui : plural from the idea of milites in legionem.

13. quo in loco res esset: 'how matters stood. 1 How lit.?
204, (2). B. 300, 1 ; A. 574; H. 649, 11.

14. versaretur: agrees with the nearest subject; trans, 'were.'
172, b, and 204, 0)-

15. nihil . . . fecerunt: 'they made the utmost possible speed,'
more lit. 'left nothing undone in regard to speed.' sibi: 109, a.
reliqui : predicate genitive.

27. 2. qui: {ei)qui. procubuissent :' had sunk down.' 220.
B. 324, 1; A. 593; H. 652.

3. scutis: 131, c. innixi: 'supporting themselves. 1 redin-
tegrarent: 197, b. perterritos: predicative.

4. inermes : with calones ; placed, for the sake of contrast, next to
armatis; 'unarmed, rushed against armed (men). 1

178 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 57

s tes vero, ut turpitudinem fugae virtute delerent, omnibus
in locis pugnando se legionarils militibus praeferrent.

At hostes etiam in extrema spe salutis tantam virtutem
praestiterunt, ut, cum primi eorum cecidissent, proximi
iacentibus insisterent atque ex eorum corporibus pugna-

orent; his deiectis et coacervatis cadaveribus, qui superes-
sent, ut ex tumulo, tela in nostros conicerent et pila inter-
cepta remitterent ; ut non nequiquam tantae virtutis
homines iudicari deberet ausos esse transire latissimum
flumen, ascendere altissimas ripas, subire iniquissimum

5 locum, quae facilia ex difficillimis animl magnitudo

5. v6r6: 286, a. turpitudinem: 'disgrace.' delerent: 'they
might wipe out.' omnibus, etc. : 'strove to outdo the legionaries at
all points in fighting.' As an arm of the service cavalry was rated by
the Romans of secondary importance. 309.

6. pugnando: 230,(4). militibus: 107, b.

7. etiam, etc. : ' even in utter despair of safety.'

8. primi eorum: ' their foremost ranks.' How lit. ? 154, a.

9. iacentibus Insisterent : 'mounted upon the fallen.* .'.'l.a. (4).
ex : 126, c.

10. coacervatis cadaveribus: 'when their bodies had been
heaped ' on those of the Nervians that had first fallen. qui : as ante-
cedent supply el, subject of conicerent. superessent : f$0.

11. ut ex tumulo: ' as from a mound.' conicerent: 'continued
to hurl.' pila intercepta remitterent : ' picked up and threw back
the pikes,' though these could be of little value as weapons ; cf. n. to I,
25, 1. 9. • conicerent, remitterent : in the same construction as
Insist emit, pUgnBrtttt. 197, b.

12. ut, etc.: a result clause, presenting Caesar's conclusion; 'so
that it ought not to be thought that men of so great valor in vain
dared,' etc. ; they fought in a manner worthy of their heroic advance.

13. ausdsesse: 62. latissimum: Fig. 88. 163, a.

14. altissimas : the banks are steep where the Nervians crossed.

15. quae: 'things (referring to the actions expressed in the preced-
ing infinitive) uhieh. in themselves most difficult, their heroic courage
had made easy. 1 How lit.? facilia: 115, b.

II, 28]

Campaign against the Belgians


Caesar spares the remnant of the Nervians.

28. Hocproelio facto, et prope ad internecionem gente
ac nomine Nerviorum redacts, maiores natu, qu5s una cum
puerls mulieribusque in aestuaria ac paludes coniectos
dixeramus, hac pugna nuntiata, cum victoribus nihil im-
pedltum, victls nihil tutum arbitrarentur, omnium, quls
supererant, consensu legatos ad Caesarem miserunt seque
el dediderunt ; et in commemoranda civitatis calamitate, ex

Figure 88. — View on the Sambre, near the site of the battle.

28. i. Hoc proelio facto : ' Now that this battle was over. 1 How
lit.? internecionem: 'utter destruction. 1 Six years later, how-

Online LibraryJulius CaesarC. Iulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum. Caesar's Commentaries: the Gallic war, books I-Iv, with selections from books V-VII and from the civil war; → online text (page 17 of 73)