Julius Caesar.

C. Iulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum. Caesar's Commentaries: the Gallic war, books I-Iv, with selections from books V-VII and from the civil war; online

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ever, the Nervians were expected to send a force of 6ooo warriors to
Alesia (VII, 75, 1. 14). gente: l stock. 1

2*. maiores natu, puerls : Notes to chap. 13, 1. 7 and 1. 11.

3. aestuaria : here * tidal marshes, 1 surrounded by salt water at high
tide. paludes: ' swamps. 1 coniectos: 89, c.

4. dixeramus: chap. 16, 11. 8-10. cum: 184, a- nihil im-
peditum : ' that there was nothing to oppose. 1 How lit.?

5. victls : 227, a, (4). nihil tutum : ' no safety, 1 we should say.
omnium : masculine, dependent on consensu.



180 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 5?

DC ad tres senatores, ex hominum milibus lx vix ad d, qui
arma ferre possent, sese redactos esse dlxerunt.

Quos Caesar, ut in miseros ac supplices usus miseri-
cordia videretur, diligentissime conservavit suisque flnibus
atque oppidls utl iussit et finitimis imperavit, ut ab iniuria
et maleficio se suosque prohiberent.

Capture of the Stronghold of the Atuatuci. 29-33

The Atuatuci gather in one stronghold.

29. Atuatuci, de quibus supra scripsimus, cum omnibus
copils auxilio Nerviis venirent, hac pugna nuntiata, ex itinere
domum reverterunt; cunctis oppidls castellisque desertis,
sua omnia in unum oppidum, egregie natura munitum, con-

8. DC: sescentls (sendtoribus). Reckoning the Nervian army at
60,000 (10,000 more than the Remi reported, chap. 4, 1. 25), 600 sena-
tdres would average one to every 100 men. It is possible, therefore,
that the Latin word senator is here applied to a leader of a hundred :
and this suggestion seems to be confirmed by the losses of the sendtdris
in battle. D: qulngtntds % modified by vix, i barely.' Exaggeration
on the part of the suppliants was to be expected. qui . . . possent :
subjunctive in the direct form. 194, a.

10. in : ' toward.' usus : sc. esse. 221, b. B. 328, 2 ; A. 582 ;
H.612,1. misericordia : 'compassion 1 ; cf. chap. 14, 1. 11. 131, c.

12. ut, etc.: 199, a. iniuria et maleficio: -wrong-doing and
ill-treatment' of the weak remnant of the Nervians.

29. 1. suprft : chap. 16, 11. 7-8. cum: 185, c. omnibus

c6pils : 19,000 men, if they reached the estimate of the Remi (chap. 4,
1. 29). 136, b. B. 220, 1 ; A. 412 ; H. 473, 3.

2. auxiliS Nerviis : 112, b. ex itinere : see Vocab., undei iter.

3. castellls: 'fortresses'; small fortified places, perhaps occupied
only in time of danger.

4. oppidum : < stronghold,' like that of the Bellovaci ; see N. to
chap. 13, 1. 5. This stronghold is by some located on the hill where
now the citadel of Namur is, at the junction of the Meuse and the
Sambre and across tin Sambre from the city of Namur; see Map 8.
Others, considering the hill at Namur too small, prefer, as the site of
the stronghold, the hill of Falhize, which lies on the north bank of the



MAP 8
Operations against the Stronghold of the Atuatuci
Book II, 29-33 To face page 180



J}j.OCt&i Hi, IxO(XtlJtf&^ / /^,




W K^M: ^X : ^™ V



SCALE OF ENGLISH MILES



SCALE OF ROMAN MILES



EXPLANATION

The Atuatuci abandoned their towns and gathered in a stronghold protected
by steep cliffs except on one side, where there was an easy approach not more
than 200 Roman feet wide.

Caesar blockaded the stronghold with a rampart and redoubts. Afterwards he
ran an embankment up the inclined approach, and made ready to attack.

A. .Incline along which Caesar-constructed his siege embankment, agger.

B. General's gate, porta praetoria, of Caesar's camp.

C. Upper end of the inclined approach, fortified with a double wall (chap.
29, 11. 8-10) and moat (chap. 32, 11. 9, 10).

D-D. Rampart, vallum (chap. 30, 1. 3).
E-E. Redoubts, castella (chap. 30, 1. 4).



ii, 29] Campaign against the Belgians 181

tulerunt. Quod cum ex omnibus in circuitu partibus altis 5
simas rupes deiectusque haberet, una ex parte leniter
accllvis aditus in latitudinem non amplius ducentorum
pedum relinquebatur ; quern locum duplici altissimo muro
munierant ; turn magni ponderis saxa et praeacutas trabes
in muro collocabant. 10

IpsI erant ex Cimbrls Teutonisque prognatl, qui, cum
iter in provinciam nostram atque Italiam facerent, els im-
pedimentls, quae secum agere ac portare non poterant,
citra flumen Rhenum depositis, custodiam ex suls ac prae-
sidium vi mllia hominum una reliquerunt. Hi post eorum is
obitum multos annos a finitimis exagitati, cum alias bel-

Meuse, opposite the town of Huy, 19 miles below Namur. egregie :
'admirably.'

5. Quod cum: 'And although this.' 187, and 1 67. ex, etc.:
' on all sides round about. 1 How lit. ?

6. rupes : 'cliffs.' 15, b. leniter accllvis : 'gently rising.' If
the stronghold was on the hill across from Namur, this narrow ' ap-
proach ' was on the southwest side.

8. pedum: the case is not influenced by amplius. 100, a, and
129, b. duplici: 'double.' 26, a.

9. ponderis : 100, a. praeacutas trabes : ' beams sharpened
at the ends.' 17, c.

10. in: 'on.' collocabant: 'they were placing,' at the time
{turn) when Caesar came up ; the change of tense from the pluperfect
{iniinieranf) is to be noted.

11. Cimbrls Teutonisque, etc.: see N. to I, chap. 33, 1. 17.
prognatl: 'descended.' 128, b.

12. provinciam: 290. impedimentis : 'cattle and goods';
the use in 1. 13 of agere, 'drive,' with portare, shows that cattle as
well as portable possessions are here included.

14. citra : on the west side. depositis : with impedimentis.
custodiam: 'as a guard' of the impedimenta. 115, a. ex suis:
i.e. sex milia hominum ex suls. 97, d. praesidium : ' as a garrison.'

15. Hi: the 6000 Atuatuci. eorum: the great host of the Cim-
brians and Teutons.

16. obitum: 'destruction,' at Aquae Sextiae in 102 B.C. and at



182



Caesar's Gallic War



[B.C. 57



lure Inferrent, alias illatum defenderent, consensu eorum
omnium pace facta, nunc sibi domicilio locum delegerunt.

Caesar besieges it ; the Atuatuci ridicule the siege-works.

30. Ac primo adventu exercitus nostri crebras ex op-
pid5 excursiones faciebant parvullsque proelils cum nostris
contendebant ; postea vallo pedum xn, in circuitu xv mi-
lium crebrisque castellis circummuniti oppido sese con-
5 tinebant.

Ubi, vineis actis, aggere exstructo, turrim procul constitui
viderunt, prim um irrldere ex muro atque increpitare voci-



harassed. 1



alias



alias



nium




Vercellae in ioi B.C. exagitatl
'sometimes . . . sometimes.'

17. illatum: sc. bellum ; 'were repelling attack.' eorum om-
' of them all,' including the Atuatuci and their neighbors.

18. domicilio : 11 2, a. locum:
•district' (Fig. 89).

30. 1. primo adventu: i.e. prima
post adventum tempore, * Immediately
after the arrival.' 147, b.

2. excursiones: 'sallies.' par-
vulls proelils: 'skirmishes.' How
lit? 76, c.

3. v511o, castellis : these formed
the line of contravallation ; see Map 8.

It has been thought strange that, if the site of the stronghold was
opposite Namur, or at Falhize, no mention in this description is made
of the Sambre or the Meuse. The brow of the hill on which the
stronghold stood was so steep and high that perhaps the rivers
hardly entered into Caesar's calculations in planning the contravalla-
pedum XII : in height. S8 y b, and 100, a. xv milium :



Figure 89. — Coin of the Atuatuci.
Bronze. Obverse, a design suggest-



ing the heads of snakes.
hors«: inscription, avavcia



Reverse,



tion.



sc. pedum, though Caesar in such cases elsewhere has passuum. A
circuit of three Roman miles seems to satisfy the conditions. 248, b.
4. oircummunltl : 'closed in.' How lit? oppidd : 181, a.

6. vineis actis : 842, a. aggere exstructS : ' (and) after an
embankment had been built up.' 841. turrim: 14, b, and ..;.'. b.

7. irrldere: 'they (the Atuatuci) scoffed.' 182. increpitare
vficibus : • made taunting remarks.' How lit. ? 182, and 181, a.



II, 30]



Campaign against the Belgians



183



bus, quod tanta machinatio a tanto spatio institueretur :
Quibusnam manibus aut qui bus viribus, praesertim homines
tantidae staturae (nam plerumque omnibus Gallis prae 10
magnitudine corporum suorum brevitas nostra contemptui
est) tanti oneris turrim in muro sese collocdre posse confide-
rent f




Figure 90. — Site of the stronghold at Namur.
Caesar's camp was probably on the hill at the left.



8. quod, etc. : ' because (as they said) so big an engine,' etc. 214, b.
B. 286, 1 ; A. 592, 3 ; H. 588, II. a tanto spatio : * so far off' ; i.e.,
'at' (lit. 'from 1 ) 'so great a distance.' Cf. N. to chap. 7, 1. 10.

9. Quibusnam . . . confiderent : 213, b, and 212, c, (6). Qui-
busnam: 48, c. viribus : 18, a. homines, etc. : contemptuous,
'(being) men of so small size,' 'such little chaps.' 91, b, and
100, a.

10. nam . . . est: 214, c. Gallis, contemptui : both datives,
but trans, 'held in contempt by the Gauls.' How lit.?

12. oneris: 'weight.' 13, e. The Atuatuci seem to have thought
that the Romans would have to pick up the tower in order to move it.
cSnfiderent: 217, a. B. 315, 1 ; A. 586; H. 642, 3.



184 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 57

Frightened by the approach of the moveable tower, they me
for peace; they secretly keep back arms.

31. Ubi vero moveri et appropinquare moenibus vide-
runt, nova atque inusitata specie commoti, legatos ad
Caesarem de pace miserunt, qui, ad hunc modum locuti,

Non se existimare, Rdmdnos sine ope deorum bellnni
5 gerere, qui tantae altitudinis mdcJiindtiones tantd celeritdte
promovere possent, se suaque omnia eorum potestdti per-
mittere dixerunt;

Unum petere ac deprecdrl : si forte pro sua dementia ac

mdnsuetudine, quam ipsi ab aliis audirent, statuisset, Atua-

io tucos esse conservandos, ne se armis despolidret. Sibi omnes

fere finitimos esse inimicos ac suae virtuti invidere ; d qui-

bus se defendere, traditis armis, non possent.

Sibi praestdre, si in eum cdsum deducerentur, quamvis



31. i. movfirl, etc. : sc. turrim. moenibus: 105. vidSrunt :
Atuatucl.

2. inusitata: 'unwonted.' specie : 'sight.' 21, b.

3. qui: subject of dlxerunt,\. 7. hunc :' the following. 1 161, a.

4. ope : ' help. 1 deorum 8, d.

5. qui: 'since they. 1 194, c. B. 283, 3, a\ A. 535, e\ H. 592.

6. se suaque omnia: 'themselves and all they had. 1 How lit.?
eoium of the Romans.

8. Unum: 'one thing (only), 1 explained by ne . . . despoluuet.
dfiprecarl : ' begged to escape. 1 clgmentia, etc. : cf. chap. 14, 1. 1 1,
and n.

9. audlrent: 'they kept hearing about 1 ; audivissent, implying a
lingk instance, would have been less complimentary. statuisset,
etc. : in the direct form, si statueris (future perfect) . . . noil nos armis
dispolitlre. 218, ( 1 ) , b, and 2 1 (>'.

10. armis: 127, a. Sibi: after tnimnos, 1. 11.

11. virtuti: tOf, invidere : 'envied. 1 ft: we say 'against. 1

12. traditis armis: i.e. H arma tnuiita essent. 144, b, (4). B.
227, 2, b\ A. 420, 4; H. 575, 9.

13. praestare: » it was better. 1 eum casum : ' such a condition, 1



II, 32] Campaign against the Belgians 185

fortunam a populo Romano patl, quant ab his per cruciatum
interfici, inter quos dominari eonsuessent. 15

32. Ad haec Caesar respondit :

Se magis consuetudine sua quam merito eorum civitatem
conservaturum, si, prius quam murum aries attigisset, se
dedidissent ; sed deditionis nidlam esse condicionem nisi
armls traditis. Se id, quod in Nervils feci s set, facturum 5
finitimisque imperaturum, ne quam dediticiis popull Ro-
man! iniuriam inferrent.

Re nuntiata ad suos, 111! se, quae imperarentur, facere
dixerunt. Armorum magna multitudine de muro in fossam,
quae erat ante oppidum, iacta, sic ut prope summam murl 10

involving a choice between the mercy of the Romans and the treatment
of their neighbors. quamvis fortunam : * any lot whatever.' 49, a.

14. a: 'at the hands of. 1 pati: subject of praestare. 222, b.

15. dominarl: Ho exercise dominion.' 61, a, (1). consugs-
sent : 64, a, (2).

32. 2. consuetudine sua: 'in accordance with his practice' of
mercifully treating a prostrate foe. 136, c. merito : 185, a.

3. si, etc. : in the direct form, clvitate?n conservabo, si, prius quam
. . . attigerit (future perfect), vos dedideritis (future perfect). arigs :
' battering-ram.' It was a rule of war that besieged cities which did not
capitulate before the battering-ram touched the walls, should when
captured be given over to destruction. 10, e, and 342, c.

5. armls traditis: 144, b, (2). id, quod: 160, c. in: 'in
the case of.' facturum : 89, c.

6. ne, etc. : 199, a. quam: 168, and 49, a. dediticiis: 107, b.

8. imperarentur: 214, a- s § facere: 'that they carried out';
vivid use of the present tense where the future might have been
expected.

9. multitudine: 'quantity'; with iacta. fossam: Map 8, C.

10. sic ut, etc. : 197, b. summam . . . altitudinem : ' the full
height.' 152, a. The ' embankment ' had been prolonged to the edge
of the moat ; the deep space between the end of the ' embankment ' and
the 'wall,' from the bottom of the moat up, was nearly filled with
weapons.



L86 Caesar's Gallic War [B.c . *7

aggerisque altitudinem acervi armorum adaequarent, et
tamcn circiter parte tertia, ut postea perspectum est, celata
atque in oppido retenta, portis patefactis, eo die pace sunt
usi.

Then make a treacherous attack ; are defeated, and sold into

slavery.

33. Sub vesperum Caesar portas claudi militesque ex
oppido exire iussit, ne quam noctu oppidan! a militibus
iniuriam acciperent. IHi, ante inito, ut intellectum est,
consilio, quod, deditione facta, nostros praesidia deducturos
saut denique indlligentius servaturos crediderant, partim
cum eis, quae retinuerant et celaverant, armis, partim
scutis ex cortice factis aut viminibus intextis, quae subit5,
ut temporis exiguitas postulabat, pellibus induxerant,
tertia vigilia, qua minime arduus ad nostras munltiones

ii. acervi: 'heaps. 1

12. cfilata: 'concealed.'

13. patefactis: 'thrown open. 1 pace sunt usi: 'they kept
quiet ' ; lit. ' they enjoyed peace. 1

33. 1. Sub: 'Towards. 1 vesperum: 7,b.

2. nfi, etc. : 196, a. quam : as in chap. 32, 1.6. a : as in
chap. 31,1. 14.

3. ante Inito — consilio : ' having previously formed a plot. 1 How
lit.?

4. praesidia deducturos [esse] : ' would withdraw the outposts 7
from the redoubts and the line of circumvallation, where the Roman
sentries kept watch.

5. denique: 'at any rate. 1 indlligentius: 'less carefully.'
163, a. servaturSs [esse] : ' would maintain (them) ' the outposts.

6. oum : with <in/ris, and understood with scutis, 1. 7.

7. cortice: 'hark.' 98, b. viminibus intextis : ' (of ) wicker-
WOrlc, 1 lit. 'witlus interwoven. 1 Cf. Fig. 48, p. 60.

8. pellibus : 'with skins/ The Atuatuci had driven cattle into the
enclosure ; cf. chap. 29, 1. 4.

9. tertia vigilia : $42, c. arduus: 'steep.' SO.



ii, 33] Campaign against the Belgians 187

ascensus videbatur, omnibus c5piis repente ex oppido 10
erupti5nem fecerunt.

Celeriter, ut ante Caesar imperaverat, Ignibus significa-
tione facta, ex proximis castellis eo concursum est, pugna-
tumque ab hostibus ita acriter est, ut a virls fortibus in
extrema spe salutis iniquo loco, contra eos, qui ex vallo 15
turribusque tela iacerent, pugnari debuit, cum in una vir-
tute omnis spes salutis consisteret. Occisls ad hominum
mllibus mi, reliqui in oppidum reiecti sunt.

Postrldie eius diel refractis portis, cum iam defenderet
nemo, atque intromissls mllitibus nostris, sectionem eius 20

10. ascensus, etc. : implies that at the point attacked the Roman
line of contravallation was on ground somewhat above the level of the
plain, so that the enemy, after rushing down from the town, must ad-
vance up a height in order to storm the Roman fortifications. copiis :
137, b.

1 1 . eruptionem : ' sortie. 1

12. ignibus : ' by fire-signals. 1 See Plate IV, 2. significatione :
1 warning. 1

13. eo : to the point attacked. concursum est: 'the soldiers
rushed. 1 73, d.

14. ut, etc. : ' as brave men were bound to fight. 1 in . . . salu-
tis : cf. chap. 27, 1. 7, and N.

15. iniquo loco: 11+5, c. vallo: the Roman line of contraval-
lation.

16. turribus : stationed at intervals along the line of contravalla-
tion, as on the rampart around a camp ; cf. Plate IX, 6. iacerent :
194, a. B. 283,2; A. 535; H. 591, 1. una: 'alone. 1

17. ad : adverb, 'about, 1 modifying quattuor (nil).

19. diei: 94, c. refractis: 'had been burst in. 1 How lit.?
cum : 184, a. iam : ' any longer. 1

20. intromissls : ' had been sent in, 1 lit. ' into, 1 the stronghold.
sectionem universam : ' the booty in one sale, 1 at auction ; in such
cases the buyers who joined in the bid afterwards divided up the pur-
chase among themselves for resale in smaller lots. Such wholesale
buyers accompanied Roman armies. In this instance the booty in-
cluded not only everything that the captured Atuatuci had, but the
people themselves, who were sold into slavery.



188 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 57

oppidi universam Caesar vendidit. Ab els, qui emerant,
capitum numerus ad eum relatus est milium liii.

Successful Closing of the Year. 34, 35

Maritime states in northwestern Gaul submit to Publius Crassus.

34. Eodem tempore a P. Crasso, quern cum legione
una miserat ad Venetos, Venellos, Osismos, Coriosolitas,
Esuvios, Aulercos, Redones, quae sunt maritimae civitates
Oceanumque attingunt, certior factus est, omnes eas
5 civitates in dicionem potestatemque populi Romani esse
redactas.

German tribes offer submission; the army goes into winter
quarters; a thanksgiving is decreed at Home.

35. His rebus gestls, omni Gallia pacata, tanta huius
belli ad barbaros opinio perlata est, uti ab eis nationi-
bus, quae trans Rhenum incolerent, legati ad Caesarem

21. vendidit: <sold.'

22. capitum: 'of persons'; cf. I, chap. 29, 1. 6, and N. liii :
qulnqudginta trium. 88, 6, and 86. Some of the Atuatuci, however,
were still left in the country ; cf. V, 38, 11. 1-2, and 39, 11. 9-1 1.

34. 1. P.: 19, a. Crasso: see Vocab. under Crassus, (2).

legione una : the 7th, which must
have started for western Gaul soon
after the battle of the Sambre.

2. Venetos : n. to III, 8, 1. 3.
Venellos : for the location of the
Venelli and other peoples men-
Figure 91. — Coin of theCoriosolites. tioned, see Map at the end of this
Reverse, human-headed horse. Obverse, volume. Coriosolitas • (Fig.

a fanciful head. gj) wf

3. quae: 164, c. maritimae: 'maritime.'

4. Ooeanum : the Atlantic ; see Vocab.

35. 3. incolerent: 880. B. 324, 1; A. 593; H. 652.




II, 35] Successful Closing of the Year 189

mitterentur, qui se obsides daturas, imperata facturas
•pollicerentur. Quas legationes Caesar, quod in Italiam 5
Illyricumque properabat, inita proxima aestate ad se
revert! iussit.

Ipse, in Carnutes, Andes, Turonos, quaeque civitates pro-
pinquae his locis erant, ubi bellum gesserat, legionibus in
hiberna deductls, in Italiam profectus est. Ob easque res 10
ex litteris Caesaris dierum xv supplicatio decreta est, quod
ante id tempus accidit nulll.

4. se : feminine, taking the gender of nationibus ; hence datiiras
and facturas (sc. esse) are feminine.

5. pollicerentur: 193, a. Quas: 167. Italiam: here in-
cluding Cisalpine Gaul. 283, b.

6. Illyricum: 298.

8. Carnutes, etc. : 282. See Map. quaeque civitates : et in
eas civitates quae. 165, c.

10. hiberna: 335, b. easque: 233, b.

11. ex: 'after receipt of.' litteris: ' dispatches ' to the Roman
Senate, reporting his victories. supplicatio: ' solemn thanksgiv-
ing,' services of prayer to avert misfortune as well as giving of thanks
to the gods for victory. Usually such services lasted only three or four
days ; the longest previous ' thanksgiving ' was of twelve days, decreed
after Pompey had brought to a close the war with Mithridates. quod :
sc id, referring to the fact stated in the preceding clause.

12. nulll: = nemini. 12, d.



COMMKNTARIUS TERTIUS



Operations in the Alps. 1-6

Caesar stations Oalba with a small Jorce in the Alps.

1. Cum in Italiam proficisceretur Caesar, Ser. Galbam,
cum legione xn et parte equitatus, in Nantuates, Veragros
Sedunosque misit, qui a finibus Allobrogum et lacu Le-
manno et flumine Rhodano ad summas Alpes pertinent.
5 Causa mittendi fuit, quod iter per Alpes, qu5 magno cum
perlculo magnlsque cum portorils mercatores ire consue-
rant, pateneri volebat. Huic permisit, si opus esse arbi-
traretur, uti in his locis legionem hiemandi causa collocaret.



1. i. proficisceretur: Caesar 'was starting' on the trip referred
to in II, chap. 35, 1. 10. 185, c. The events of Book III, as a whole,
belong to the year 56 B.C. ; but the uprising of the Alpine tribes, nar-
rated in chapters 1-6, took place in the latter part of the autumn and
early winter of B.C. 57. Italiam: Cisalpine Gaul. 283, b. Ser.
= Servium. 19, a. Galbam: see Vocab. under Galba, (1).

2. XII : duodciinnl. 88, b. Caesar had eight legions, numbered 7 to
14 inclusive. Nantu5t6s : 282. Locate the states mentioned on Map 1 .

4. sum mas Alpes : ' the highest part of the Alps.' 152, a.

5. mittendi: 230, (1). iter: 'route 1 to Italy, over the pass now
known as the Great St. Bernard, where the famous hospice is. By this
route Napoleon I in May, 1800, made his venturesome "crossing of the
Alps," with an army of 36,000 men. (Fig. 92.)

6. perlculo. the danger arose not so much from the precipitous
way over the mountains as from the hostility of the natives. These
lived iu part l>\ plundering and by levying tolls on the goods of traders
goin- over the pass. portorils: N. to I, 18, 1. 9.

7. patefierl : be kept open ' ; the subject is iter. 70, c, and 223, a.
Huic : Galba. opus esse : ' that it was necessary. 1 arbitr5r6tur:
arbitriihcris in the un.ittracted form. 220.

8. legionem, ( u . : the 12th legion had suffered, so severely in the

190



Ill, 1]



Operations in the Alps



191



Galba locates his winter quarters in Octodurus.

Galba, secundls aliquot proeliis factis castelllsque com-
pluribus eorum expugnatis, missis ad eum undique legatis
obsidibusque datis et pace facta, constituit cohortes duas in




Figure 92. — The Great St. Bernard Pass and the famous hospice.

battle of the Sambre (II, chap. 25), that Caesar would hardly have sta-
tioned it at so difficult a post if he had anticipated serious opposition.
collocaret : 199, a.

9. proeliis, etc. : the ablatives absolute indicate successive events,
and should be rendered by clauses. First come the engagements, then
the taking of strongholds ; later, the sending of envoys, then the giving
of hostages; finally, the ratification of peace. •

11. cohortes duas: how many men? 307, c. in NantuSti-
bus : perhaps where St. Maurice now is, on the upper Rhone. 282.



192 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 57

Nantuatibus collocare et ipse, cum reliquis eius legionis
cohortibus, in vico Veragrorum, qui appellatur Octodurus,
hiemare; qui vicus, positus in valle, non magna adiecta
isplanitie, altissimls montibus undique continetur. Cum hie
in duas partes flumine dlvideretur, alteram partem eius vici
Gallis concessit, alteram, vacuam ab his rellctam, cohortibus
ad hiemandum attribuit. Eum locum vallo fossaque mu-
nlvit.

There is a sudden upnsing of the mountaineers.

2. Cum dies hibernorum complures transissent, frumen-

tumque eo comportari iussisset, subito per exploratores

certior factus est, ex ea parte vici, quam Gallis concesserat,

omnes noctu discessisse, montesque, qui impenderent, a

5 maxima multitudine Sedunorum et Veragrorum teneri.



12. reliquis cohortibus : doubtless the two strongest cohorts were
detailed for the separate post ; how many men the remaining eight con-
tained it is difficult to estimate.

13. vico: how different from oppidum ? Octodurus: near Mar-
tigny; see Map 1, and Fig. 93.

14. qui: Hil. valle: 'valley. 1 non magna : 239, g. adiecta:
'adjoining.' How lit.?

1 6. flumine: the Dranse, which flows into the Rhone, from the
south, at the point where the Rhone turns northwest toward Lake
Geneva. alteram. . .alteram: 171, b.

17. vacuam: predicative, after rellctam-, Galba expelled the in-
habitant! from the part of Octodurus which was on the west bank of the
Di. iiisc, and turned the dwellings into winter quarters. 88, b.

2. 1. hlbern6rum :« of the (life in) winter quarters. 1 trinsls-
•ent : $8, b, and 185, c.

v.6: to the part of the town used for winter quarters, iussisset :
sc. Galba. ejcpl6rat6r6s :

3. concesserat: 214, c. The Gauls occupied the part of the town
on the t-.ist hank.

4. impendfirent: $14, a. 5: with the ablative of agent because
of the idea ol" hontim's in multitmto. 120, b.



Ill, 2]



Operations in the Alps



193



Id aliquot de causis acciderat, ut subito Galli belli renc-
vandi legionisque opprimendae consilium caperent : pri-



Online LibraryJulius CaesarC. Iulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum. Caesar's Commentaries: the Gallic war, books I-Iv, with selections from books V-VII and from the civil war; → online text (page 18 of 73)