Julius Caesar.

C. Iulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum. Caesar's Commentaries: the Gallic war, books I-Iv, with selections from books V-VII and from the civil war; online

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mum, quod legionem, neque earn plenissimam, detractis
cohortibus duabus et compluribus singillatim, qui commea-
tus petendi causa missi erant, absentibus, propter paucita- 10
tern despiciebant ; turn etiam, quod propter iniquitatem loci,
cum ipsi ex montibus in vallem decurrerent et tela conice-
rent, ne primum quidem impetum suum posse sustineri

Accedebat, quod su5s ab se liberos abstract5s obsidum is

Figure 93- — Valley of the Dranse-
View near Martigny. The tower belongs to the ruined castle of Batiaz.



6. Id : explained by the clause ut . . . caperent.
vandi: 'of renewing.' 230, (i).

8. neque earn plenissimam : 'and that lacking its full strength ' ;
the reason is explained by the following ablatives absolute. How lit. ?
161, c.

9. compluribus : sc. mllitibus. singillatim : ' as individuals,
not sent out as cohorts or maniples. commeatus, etc. : 230, (1).

1 1 . turn etiam : deinde is more common as correlative with primum.
237, b.

12. ipsi: Galli. dgcurrerent : 'should rush down. 1

15. quod . . . dolgbant: subject of Accedebat ; 'There was the

194 Caesar's Gallic War [b.c.57

nomine dolebant, et Romands non solum itinerum causa,
seel etiam perpetuae possessions culmina Alpium occupare
conari et ea loca finitimae provinciae adiungere sibi per-
suasum habebant.

Galba, calling a council, decides not to retreat.

3. His nuntiis acceptis, Galba, cum neque opus hiber-
norum munitionesque plene essent perfectae, neque de fru-
mento reliquoque commeatu satis esset provlsum, quod,
deditione facta obsidibusque acceptis, nihil de bello timen-
sdum existimaverat, consilio celeriter convocato, sententias
exquirere coepit.

Quo in consilio, cum tantum repentini pericull praeter

further consideration that,' etc. 198, b. B. 299, 1 ; A. 572 ; H. 588, 3.
abstractos : * had been taken away. 1 89, c, and 223, a, (2).

16. nomine: 'under the name.' 136, b. itinerum causa : cf.
chap. 1, 11. 5-7.

17. culmina: 'summits, 1 commanding the passes. 12, e.

18. provinciae: 107, b, and 290. adiungere: 'annex. 1 sibi
persuSsum habebant, etc.: 'were convinced that the Romans were
trying, 1 lit. ' had persuaded themselves 1 , etc 229, a. B. 337, 7 ; A. 497,
b. persuSsum: predicative, in agreement with the infinitive clause
Romands . . . conari, object of habebant. 148, d.

3. 1. neque. . .neque: 'not. . . and not. 1 opus hibernorum,
*nunlti6n6s : 'the work on the winter quarters, 1 in general, including
as the most important item, 'the fortifications 1 (chap. 1, 1. 18). Cf.
I, 31, 1. 48, I'xenipLi crucidtusque, and N.

2. plfinfi: 'quite. 1 perfectae: agreement? 172, b. dfii'for. 1

3. satis esset provlsum: 'sufficient provision had been made.'

4. nihil . . . timendum [esse] : ' that he had no occasion to
fear bottOitlet. 1 How lit.? 73, e.

5. c6nsili6 : douhtliss of the centurions; cf. I, 40, 11. 1-2.
sententias exquirere : ' to ask for opinions ' regarding the best course
to pursue.

7. Qu6: 167. tantum repentini pericull: 'so great danger
suddenly; 1 lit. 'so much of sudden danger.' 97, b. praeter opl-
nionem ; ' contrary to expectation. 1

in, 4] Operations in the Alps 195

oplnionem accidisset ac iam omnia fere superi5ra loca
multitudine armatorum completa conspicerentur, neque
subsidio venlrl neque commeatus supportari, interclusis 10
itineribus, possent, prope iam desperata salute non nullae
eius modi sententiae dicebantur, ut, impedimentis rellctis
eruptione facta, Tsdem itineribus, quibus eo pervenissent,
ad salutem contenderent. Maiori tamen parti placuit, hoc
reservato ad extremum consilio, interim rei eventum experlri 15
et castra defendere.

The mountaineers, superior in numbers, make a furious attack.

4. Brevi spatio interiecto, vix ut els rebus, quas con-
stituissent, collocandis atque administrandis tempus dare-
tur, hostes ex omnibus partibus, sign5 dat5, decurrere,
lapides gaesaque in vallum conicere.

Nostri primo integris viribus fortiter repugnare neque s
ullum frustra telum ex loco superiore mittere, et quae-

9. completa [esse] : participle here used as a predicate adjective.
221, b. neque subsidio veniri: sc. /^j^'and help could not
come.' How lit. ? 73, d, and 112, a.

10. interclusis itineribus: 144, b, (3).

12. eius modi: « of the following purport.' 100, a. ut, etc.:
203, (4).

13. Isdem: 4.5. itineribus: 134, a. pervenissent: 220.

14. ad salutem: 'to (a place of) safety. 1 Maiori parti
placuit: < the majority decided. ' 73, c.

15. ad extremum: 'to the last.' 154, a. eventum experlri:
' to await the outcome. 1

4. 1. Brevi spatio interiecto: "After a brief interval. 1 How
lit.? ut: ; so that. 1 rebus — collocandis: 230, (2). consti-
tuissent: 220.

3. decurrere, conicere : 182. B. 335 ; A. 463 ; H. 610.

4. gaesa : Gallic 'javelins. 1 349, and Fig. 40.

5. integris: 'unimpaired. 1 22, f, and 80, b\ also, 135, a.
neque ullum telum : ' and no missile. 1

6. frustra : ' in vain. 1 ex loco superiore : the rampart of the
camp; chap. 1,1. 18. quaecumque : 50, a, and 192.

(06 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 57

cumque pars castrorum nudata defensoribus premi videba-
tur, eo occurrere et auxilium ferre ; sed hoc superari, quod
diuturnitate pugnae hostes defessi proelio excedebant, alii
iointegris viribus succedebant. Quarum rerum a nostris
propter paucitatem fieri nihil poterat, ac non modo defesso
ex pugna excedendi, sed ne saucio quidem eius loci, ubi
constiterat, relinquendi ac sul recipiendl facultas dabatur.

The Romans, forced to extremities, resolve upon a sally.

5. Cum iam amplius horis sex continenter pugnaretur

ac non solum vires, sed etiam tela nostros deficerent, atque

hostes acrius instarent languidioribusque nostris vallum

scindere et fossas complere coepissent, resque esset iam

sad extremum perducta casum, P. Sextius Baculus, prim!

7. dSfgnaoribus : 127, a, and 74, a.

8. e6 : = in earn partem ; i to that part they rushed.' ferre :
182. hoc superarl : 4 on this account they were at a disadvantage.'
How lit. ? 135, a.

9. defessi: i (when) exhausted.' proelio: 127, a. alii:
1 (and) others.' 238, a.

10. viribus: 143, a. succSdSbant : < were taking their places.'
rfirum \ dependent on nihil. 97, a.

ii. n6n modo: trans, as if non modo non ; 'not only not to one
(who was) exhausted,' i.e. one on the Roman side. 236, d, and 154,
a. B. 343, 2, a\ A. 288; H. 495.

12. excfidendl: dependent on facultas. saucio: 'to one (who
was) wounded.' 154, a, and 237, c. loci — relinquendi : £30, ( 1 ) .

13. sul recipiendl: < of looking after himself.'

5. 1. Cum iam — pugnarStur: 'When fighting had been going
on.' 175, f, and 73, d. h6rls : 129, a.

3. acrius : 34, a. languidiSribus nostris : < as our men be-
came weaker.' How lit.? 144, b,($). vallum scindere :' to de-
stroy the rampart' by pulling up the palisades along the outer edge.'

4. fossas : plural because the parts of the moat on the four sides
are thought of as separate trenches.

5. ad extremum casum: 'to the last crisis.' P. Sextius
Baculus, prlml pill centurid : II, 25, 1. 8, and Note. 315, b.

in, 6] Operations in the Alps 197

pill centurio, quern Nervic5 proelio compluribus confectum
vulneribus diximus, et item C. Volusenus, tribunus militum,
vir et c5nsilil magnl et virtutis, ad Galbam accurrunt atque
unam esse spem salutis docent, si, eruptione facta, extre-
mum auxilium experirentur. ic

Itaque, convocatls centurionibus,celeriter milites certiores
facit, paulisper intermitterent proelium ac tantum modo
tela missa exciperent seque ex labore reficerent; post, dato
signo, ex castrls erumperent atque omnera spem salutis in
virtute ponerent. is

The Romans win; but Galba withdraws to the Province.

6. Quod iussi sunt, faciunt, ac subito, omnibus portis
eruptione facta, neque cognoscendl, quid fieret, neque sul

6. proelio: 147, b. Nervico : 'with the Nervians,' we should
say. The battle had taken place not long before this time; see II,
chapters 19-28.

7. Volusenus : the suggestion was evidently made first by Bacu-
lus to his ranking officer, Volusenus, who hurried with him to Galba.
tribunus : 31 4.

8. consilii magnl : ' of excellent judgment.' 100, a.

9. unam spem : 'that the only hope. 1 facta: ' by making, 1 etc.
144y b, (6). extremum auxilium : 'the last resource. 1

11. centurionibus : how many ordinarily in 8 cohorts? 315, b.
milites certiores facit : i he directed the soldiers, 1 through the cen-

12. intermitterent proelium: 'to stop fighting. 1 216. B. 316;
A. 588: H. 642. tantum modo, etc. :' only to parry, 1 with their
shields, 'the missiles hurled 1 by the enemy, in order to save their
strength for the sortie.

14. erumperent : 'to burst forth, 1 suddenly assuming the offensive.

6. 1. Quod, etc.: id, quod facer e iussi sunt, faciunt. 160, c.
portis : 134, a, and 334, a. B. 218, 9 ; A. 429, a ; H. 476.

2. sul colligendi: 'of collecting their forces, 1 scattered on all
sides of the camp, in order to resist the four mass attacks launched from
the four gates. 154, b. B. 339, 5 ; A. 504, c ; H. 626, 3.

L98 Caesar's Gallic War [bc.57

colligendi hostibus facultatem relinquunt. Ita, commutata
fortuna, cos, qui in spem potiundorum castrorum venerant,

s undique circumventos intercipiunt ; et ex hominum mllibus
amplius xxx, quern numerum barbarorum ad castra venisse
constabat, plus tcrtia parte interfecta, reliquos perterritos in
fugam coniciunt ac ne in locis quidem superidribus consis-
tere patiuntur. Sic, omnibus hostium copiis f usls armlsque

ioexutis, se in castra munitionesque suas recipiunt.

Quo proelio fact5, quod saepius fortunam temptare Galba
nolebat, atque alio se in hiberna consilio venisse memine-
rat, aliis occurrisse rebus viderat, maxime frumenti com-
meatusque inopia perm5tus, postero die, omnibus eius vici

4. c6b — circumventos intercipiunt : * they surrounded and slew
those.' 228, a. potiundorum: $4, b.

5. eac, etc.; i.e. plus tertid parte, ex amplius trigintd hominum
milihus. Humeri barbarorum ('of natives') quern ad castra venisse
constabat, inter feet a. ex : 97, d.

6. amplius, plus: 129, b. numerum: 165, b. It seems
hardly credible that a force of more than 30,000 men, attacking under
conditions very favorable to themselves, could have been beaten off
even by a Roman force less than one tenth as large ; perhaps the esti-
mate of the number of the enemy was exaggerated.

7. plus tertia parte interfecta ; on this basis the Roman soldiers
on the average accounted for three to five Gauls apiece.

8. locis superioribus : the heights round about ; see chap. 1, 1. 15.

9. fusls: * routed.' armlsque exutis : <and bereft of their
arms,' which they dropped in their hasty flight. armis : 127, a.

1 1 . Quo proelio facto : i After this battle.' How lit. ? saepius :
'too often.' / .', .;. ,,.

12. ali6 — c6nsili6: 'with one design,' stated in chap. 1, li. 5-8.
lSS,and 171, C.

13. aliis occurrisse rfibus : '(but) that he had found conditions
different, 1 Implying (be impossibility of carrying out the original design
with the force at his <lispos.il.

14. eius vici : Octodurus, of which the part assigned to the natives,
as \\( II as th.it occupied by the Romans (chap. 1, U. 15-18), was now

MAP 9.

Operations of the Year 56 B.C.

Book III, 7^27 To face page 198

1. Base whence Caesar sent Sabinus north and Crassus south. 2. Sea-fight

with the Venetans (chap. 13-15). 3- Battle of Sabinus (17-19). 4. Battle
of Crassus with the Sotiates (20-22). 5. Final victory of Crassus (23-26).

in, 7] Campaign against the Venetans 199

aedificils incensis, in provinciam revert! contendit, ac, nullo 15
hoste prohibente aut iter demorante, incolumem legionem
in Nantuates, inde in Allobroges, perduxit, ibique hiemavit.

Campaign against the Venetans. 7-16

Crassus, wintering near the Ocean, sends to the nearest states

for grain.

7. His rebus gestis, cum omnibus de causis Caesar
pacatam Galliam exlstimaret, superatis Belgis, expulsis
Germanis, victis in Alpibus Sedunis, atque ita inita hieme
in Illyricum profectus esset, quod eas quoque nationes
adire et regi5nes cognoscere volebat, subitum bellum in s
Gallia coortum est.

Eius belli haec fuit causa. P. Crassus adulescens cum
legione vn proximus mare Oceanum in Andibus hiemabat.
Is, quod in his locis inopia frumentl erat, praefectos
tribunosque mllitum complures in flnitimas civitates fru-10
menti commeatusque petendi causa dimisit; quoin numero

16. iter demorante: 'delaying his march.' 61, a, (1). in-

columem: predicative, * in safety.'

7. 1. cum: 'although.' 187. omnibus de causis: with

exlstimaret, ' had every reason to think.' How lit. ?

2. pacatam : sc. esse. Galliam : 287, b. superatis Bel-
gis : II, chapters 1-33. expulsis Germanis: I, chapters 30-54.

3. Sedunis: of the Alpine tribes the Seduni, as the most impor-
tant, are alone mentioned. inita hieme : ' at the beginning of
winter/ How lit. ? 68, b, and 1U, b, (1).

4. Illyricum : 298, and 255. See II, 35, 1. 6.

6. coortum est : i broke out.' How lit. ? 61, b.

7. haec: 'as follows.' 161, a. adulescens: cf. I, 52, 1. i6>
and n., and Vocab. under Crassus, (2).

8. VII : septima. 38, b. proximus, etc. : ' very near the
Ocean' ; lit. ' very near the sea,' more specifically designated as ' the
Ocean' to distinguish it from the Mediterranean sea. 123, b.

9. praefectos: 'subsidiary officers' ; cf. I, 39, 1. 10, and N.
10. tribiinos militum : 214- complures : with civitates.

200 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 56

est T. Terrasidius missus in Esuvios, M. Trebius Gallus in
Coriosolitas, Q. Velanius cum T. Sllio in Venetos.

The Venetans detain his representatives and lead a revolt.

8. Huius est civitatis longe amplissima auctoritas omnis
orae maritimae regionum earum, quod et naves habent
Veneti plurimas, quibus in Britanniam navigare consuerunt,
et scientia atque usu rerum nauticarum reliqu5s antecedunt,
et in magno impetu maris atque aperto, paucis portibus in-
teriectis, qu5s tenent ipsi, omnes fere, qui eo marl uti
consuerunt, habent vectigales. Ab his fit initium retinendi
Silii atque Velanii, quod per e5s suos se obsides, quos
Crasso dedissent, recuperaturos existimabant.

13. Coriosolitas : 19, /., and 282. Locate, on Map 9, the peoples

8. 1 . Huius civitatis : of the Venetans. omnis orae, etc. :

trans, as if omnium rnu'/a/um orae maritimae ear um regionum.

2. et . . . et (1. 4) . . . et (1. 5) : 283, d.

3. in — navigare : 'to make the voyage to.' The Venetans
had developed an extensive carrying business between Gaul and
Britain ; Britain was less advanced than Gaul in most respects but was
regarded as the center of Druidism (VI, 13, 11. 34-37). Britanniam :
294. consuerunt: 6/+, a, (2), and 176, b.

4. scientia: lJ t 2, a. rerum nauticarum, * nautical matters.'
antecedunt : * excel.'

5. in, etc. : ' since the violence of the open sea is great, with harbors
few and far between.' How lit. ?

6. omn6s : object of habent. eo marl: the modern Bay of Bis-
cay. 16, b, and 131, c.

7. vectigalgs: 'subject to tribute'; predicative. 115, a, b. On
account of the violence of the sea, and the fewness of the harbors, navi-
gators were obliged to take refuge in the harbors of the Venetans, who
mulcted them in tolls. Ab his, etc : ' These took the first step by
detaining,' etc. How lit.?

8. pereos: as an exchange. 123, a. su8s, etc : se recuperaturos
[esse"] suos obsidis.

9. dedissent ; 21 > h a. recuperaturos [esse] : ' would get back.'

in, 8] Campaign against the Venetans


Horum auctoritate f Initimi adducti — ut sunt Gallorum 10
subita et repentlna consilia — eadem de causa Trebium
Terrasidiumque retinent; et celeriter, missis legatis, per
suos principes inter se coniurant, nihil, nisi communi c5n-
silio, acturos eundemque omnes fortunae exitum esse latu-
ros ; reliquasque civitates sollicitant, ut in ea libertate, quam 15
a maiSribus acceperint, permanere, quam Romanorum ser-
vitutem perferre malint. Omni ora maritima celeriter ad
suam sententiam perducta, communem legationem ad

Figure 94. — View of the Loire river, with the town of Decize and its
medieval castle.

io. Horum auctoritate: 'by their example. 1 ut, etc.: 'con-
sistently with the practice of the Gauls, to form plans suddenly and
without reflection. 1 How lit.? The fickleness of the Gauls is more
than once alluded to by Caesar; see N. to chap. 19, 1. 20.

nihil, etc. : se nihil acturos esse . . . laturos

exitum: 'issue. 1

ut . . . malint: 199, a, and 71.
quam : ' (rather) than. 1


inter se : 159.


213, b.


eundem : 45.


reliquas : 17 f, a


acceperint: 220

202 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 56

P. Crassum mittunt : it velit suds recuperdre, obsides sibi
20 remit tat.

Caesar orders ships built — the coast states prepare for war.

9. Quibus de rebus Caesar a Crasso certior factus, quod
ipse aberat longius, naves interim longas aedificari in
flumine Ligeri, quod Influit in Oceanum, remiges ex pro-
vincial institui, nautas gubernatoresque compararf iubet.
s His rebus celeriter administratis, ipse, cum primum per
anni tempus potuit, ad exercitum contendit.

Veneti reliquaeque item civitates, cognit? Caesaris ad-
ventu, simul quod, quantum in se facinus admisissent,
intellegebant, legatos — quod nomen ad omnes nationes
10 sanctum inviolatumque semper fuisset — retentos ab se et
in vincula coniectos, pro magnitudine periculi bellum
parare et maxime ea, quae ad usum navium pertinent,

19. si, etc. : in the direct form, si vis tuos recuperdre, obsides nobis
remitte. 218, (1), a, and 216.

9. 2. longius: * too far away.' Caesar was probably in Cisalpine
Gaul ; for the revolt of the Venetans came to a head in the early spring,
and in April of 56 B.C. Caesar met Pompey and Crassus at Luca. 256,
and 153, a. navgs longas : 'galleys.' 3^6, a. interim: 'mean-
while,' pending his return to the army. aedificari : • be built.'

3. Ligeri: 18, e. See Maps 9 and 10. quod, etc.: explains
why, although the Venetans were strong on the ocean, the ships were
ordered built on the Loire (Fig. 94). remiges : < rowers.'

4. nautas : ' sailors.' gubernatores : ' steersmen,' who managed
the rudders. 346, b, and 84. The fighting on these ships was to be
done by legionaries (chap. 14, 1. 9).

5. cum, etc. : 'as soon as the season of the year permitted.' How
lit.? 185, b. Caesar probably rejoined the army in M.i\ .

8. In s6 . . . admisissent : ' they had committed' ; si refers to the
subject of admisissent. How lit. ? 204, (3).

9. legatos . . . coniectos [esse] : explains quantum . . . admi-
sissent ; ' in that envoys had been,' etc. quod nomen : ' a title
which, 1 the title of envoy or ambassador. 165, b. ad : » among.'

10. sanctum inviolatumque: « sacred and inviolable.'

in, 9] Campaign against the Venetans 203

providere Instituimt, hoc maiore spe, quod multum natura
loci confidebant.

Pedestria esse itinera concisa aestuariis, navigationem is
impeditam propter Inscientiam locorum paucitatemque
portuum sciebant, neque nostr5s exercitus propter inopiam
frumentl diutius apud se morari posse confidebant; ac iam
lit omnia contra opinionem acciderent, tamen se plurimum
ndvibus posse, Romanos neque ullam facultatem habere nd- 20
vium, neque eorum locorum, ubi bellnm gesturl essent, vada,
portus, insulas novisse ; ac longe aliam esse navigationem
in concluso marl atque in vastissimo atque apertissimo
Ocean5 perspiciebant.

His initis consiliis, oppida muniunt, frumenta ex agrls in 25
oppida comportant, naves in Venetiam, ubi Caesarem prl-
mum esse bellum gesturum constabat, quam plurimas

13. Instituunt: 175, b. hoc: * on this account.' spe: 138.

multum confidebant: 'had much confidence.' 118, b. natura:
135, a.

15. Pedestria, etc. : 'that the land routes were cut by inlets of the
sea, 1 making progress of an army difficult; see Map 10. naviga-
tionem: i navigation,' by the Romans ; sc. esse. 81.

16. inscientiam locorum : ' lack of knowledge of the country.'

17. neque: trans, asif^/ . . . non.

18. ac . . . novisse: a brief summary in indirect discourse; 'and
(they believed) that,' etc. 212, c, (6).

19. ut : with iam, ' even granting that.' acciderent : subjunc-
tive also in direct discourse. 191, b. B. 308; A. 527, a) H. 586, II.
plurimum posse : cf. I, 3, 1. 21 and N.

21. ubi : = in quibus. gesturl essent : 63.

22. insulas: 'islands.' longe aliam . . .atque: < far different
. . . from what it was.' 233, c.

23. in concluso marl : ' on a land-locked sea,' referring to the
Mediterranean. vastissimo, apertissimo: 'illimitable, unconfined.'
How lit. ?

25. frumenta: unthreshed 'grain,' just ripening in the fields,
hurriedly cut and transported into the towns; N. to I, 16, 1. 3. The
time was near the beginning of July.

204 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 56

possunt, cogunt. Socios sibi ad id bellum Osismos, Lexo-
vios, Namnetes, Ambiliatos, Morinos, Diablintes, Menapios
3 o asciscunt ; auxilia ex Britannia, quae contra eas regiones
posita est, arcessunt.

Caesar considers it equally important to check this uprising
and to distribute his forces so as to prevent revolts elsewhere.

10. Erant hae difficulties belli gerendl, quas supra
ostendimus, sed multa tamen Caesarem ad id bellum inci-
tabant: iniuria retentorum equitum Romanorum, rebellio
facta post dediti5nem, defecti5 datis obsidibus, tot civita-
s turn coniuratio, in primis ne, hac parte neglecta, reliquae
nationes sibi idem licere arbitrarentur.

Itaque cum intellegeret, omnes fere Gallos novls rebus
studere et ad bellum mobiliter celeriterque excitari, omnes
autem homines natura libertati studere et condici5nem ser-

28. Socios: *as allies.' 115, a. Osismos, etc.: locate these
states on the Map at the end of this volume.

30. auxilia, etc. : help furnished to his enemies by the Britons
gave Caesar a pretext later for invading the island (IV, chap. 20).

10. 1. Erant: 90, a. supr5: chap. 9.

3. iniuria, etc.: 'the wrong done by the detention of Roman
knights,' referring to the envoys (chap. 8, 11. 7-12), who, as the other
tribunes in Caesar's army, had the rank of equites. 228, b. B. 337, 6 ;
A. 497 ; H. 636, 4. equitum : 96. rebellio : ' renewal of war.'

4. defectio: i revolting.' datis obsidibus: ll^^b, (5).

5. n5 . . . arbitrfirentur : the clause is in the same construction
as iniuria, rebellio, etc., in apposition with multa ; '(the fear) that,' etc.
202. hSc parte neglScta : ' if this part (of Gaul),' etc. 1U, b, (4).

6. idem: subject accusative with licere; 'the same course.'
licSre: 73, b.

7. cum: I84, a. novls rebus studSre : 'were eager for a
change of rule.' 105.

8. mobiliter: 'easily.' eaccitSri: ' were stirred. 1

9. natarfi libertati studSre : 'have a natural desire for liberty.'
How lit. ?

in, ii] Campaign against the Venetans 205

vitutis 5disse, prius quam plures clvitates conspirarent, 10
partiendum sibi ac latius distribuendum exercitum putavit.

11. Itaque T. Labienum legatum in Treveros, qui proximi
flumini Rhend sunt, cum equitatu mittit. Huic mandat,
Remos reliquosque Belgas adeat atque in officio contineat,
Germanosque, qui auxilio a Belgis arcessiti dicebantur, si
per vim navibus flumen translre conentur, prohibeat. 5

P. Crassum, cum cohortibus legionariis xn et magn5
numero equitatus, in Aquitaniam proficisci iubet, ne ex his
nationibus auxilia in Galliam mittantur ac tantae nationes

Q. Titurium Sabinum legatum cum legionibus tribus in 10
Venellos, Coriosolitas Lexoviosque mittit, qui earn manum
distinendam curet.

D. Brutum adulescentem class! Gallicisque navibus, quas

10. odisse: 72, b, and 176, b. prius quam: with the subjunc-
tive also in direct discourse. 189, b. conspirarent : ; should
league together.'

ir. partiendum [esse], etc. : 'that he ought to divide up his army
and distribute (it) more widely,' in order to hold all parts of the coun-
try in check. 73, e.

11. i. Treveros: see Map at the end of the volume. 282.
proximi : here followed by the dative. 108, a.

3. adeat : sc. tit. 200, a, and 199, a. in officio : ' in allegiance.'

4. auxilio: 112, a. arcessiti [esse] : 148, e.

5. conentur: 220. B. 324; A. 593; H. 652.

6. XII : duodecim ; Crassus had a legion and two cohorts of infantry.

7. Aquitaniam : 287, c.

8. Galliam: Celtic Gaul. 287, b. As the Aquitanians were of
different stock, their relations with their Celtic neighbors seem ordi-
narily not to have been intimate.

11. qui . . . curet: 'in order to keep their forces at a distance.'
How lit. ? 193, a.

12. distinendam : 79, d, and 229, b. B. 337, 8, b, 2 ; H. 622.

Online LibraryJulius CaesarC. Iulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum. Caesar's Commentaries: the Gallic war, books I-Iv, with selections from books V-VII and from the civil war; → online text (page 19 of 73)