Julius Caesar.

C. Iulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum. Caesar's Commentaries: the Gallic war, books I-Iv, with selections from books V-VII and from the civil war; online

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13. D. : 19, a. class!: 'fleet,' built on the Loire (chap. 9,
11. 2-5). Gallicis navibus: used as supply ships.



206



Caesar's Gallic War



[B.C. 56



ex Pictonibus et Santonis reliquisque pacatis regionibus con-
is venire iusserat, praeficit et, cum prlmum possit, in Venetos
proficiscl iubet. Ipse eo pedestribus copils contendit.

The capture of strongholds of the Venetans proves fruitless.

12. Erant eius modi fere situs oppid5rum, ut, posita in
extremis lingulls promunturiisque, neque pedibus aditum
haberent, cum ex alto se aestus incitavisset (quod bis




Figure 95. — A tongue of land, on the Venetan coast.

This tongue of land, projecting westward, is seen across the inlet as one looks northward
from Le Croisic (Map 10).



15. possit: Indicative in the direct form.

16. eo: in Venetos. copils: 137,6.

12. 1. eius modi . . . ut: 'of such a character that. 1 100, b,
and 197, b. situs : 'locations. 1

2. extremis, etc.: 'at the ends of tongues of land, 1 relatively
low, 'and promontories, 1 high points of land, projecting into the sea.
( Fi g- 95)- 152 i a - pedibus: 'by land. 1 How lit.? 131, a.
aditum : i.e. for an attacking army.

3. cum, etc. : ' when the tide had rushed in from the deep. 1 How
lit. ? quod : ' which, 1 referring to the preceding clause ; hence
neuter. bis, etc.: On July 1 in Quiberon Bay the sun rises at 4.12
and sets at 7.48, while the tide reaches high-water mark at 5 a.m.
and 5.25 p.m. ; there are thus two tides in the one day. The interval
between the forenoon and afternoon tides, in general, is less than the
length of the summer days when Caesar was in this region ; hence



in, 12] Campaign against the Venetans 207

accidit semper horarum xn spatio), neque navibus, quod,
rursus minuente aestu, naves in vadis affile tarentur. s

Ita utraque re oppidorum oppugnatio impediebatur ; ac
si quando, magnitudine operis forte superati, extruso mari
aggere ac molibus atque his oppidi fnoenibus adaequatis,
suls fortunls desperare coeperant, magno numero navium
appulsd, cuius rel summam facultatem habebant, omnia sua 10

Caesar's form of statement, as Professor Oliphant has shown (American
Journal of Philology, 1916, p. 297).

4. accidit: 'happened.' horarum: the long ' hours,' of the
summer days. 242, a. spatio : ' within the period.' 147, c.
rursus minuente aestu: 'at ebb tide.' How lit.?

5. afflictarentur : l would be stranded,' in case they should be
over the shallow places when the tide went out.

6. utraque re : 'by both conditions,' both the rising and the ebb-
ing of the tide. How lit.?

7— II. Explanation: Starting from the nearest point of land which at
high tide remained above water, the Romans prolonged toward the town two
massive parallel embankments, or dikes, working whenever the tide would
allow, since at high tide the inclosed space would be under water. Having
prolonged their dikes almost to the city, quickly, when the tide was low, they
filled in the last stretch and shut out the water from both sides, thus giving a
dry avenue of approach between the dikes from the adjacent country to the
town. But by the time they were ready to attack, using each embankment
as an agger (341), the townspeople had already taken ship and departed
" bag and baggage." See Map 10, A.

7. quando : 'at any time.' operis : = munitionum, explained by
what follows. superati : agrees with oppidani, understood as subject
of coeperant. extruso marl : ' when the sea had been shut out.' 144,
b, (2).

8. aggere ac molibus: 'by massive dikes'; hendiadys. How
lit. ? 238, d. B. 374, 4 ; A. 640 ; H. 751, 3, N. 1. his, etc. : ' when
these had been built up to a level with the walls.' moenibus:
107, a.

9. fortunls : dative. 109, a.

10. appulso: ' having brought up ' to the threatened town. How
lit. ? cuius rei : instead of qndrum ; we should say, ' of which they
had the greatest abundance.' How lit.?



208 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 56

deportabant seque in proxima oppida recipiebant ; ibi se
rursus isdem opportunitatibus loci defendebant.

Haec eo facilius magnam partem aestatis faciebant, quod
nostrae naves tempestatibus detinebantur, summaque erat
is vast5 atque aperto mari, magnis aestibus, raris ac prope
nQllis portibus, difficultas navigandi.

Advantages of the sea-going Venetan ships over Roman galleys.

13. Namque ipsorum naves ad hunc modum factae
armataeque erant : carinae aliquanto planiores quam no-
strarum navium, quo facilius vada ac decessum aestus exci-
pere possent; prorae admodum erectae, atque item puppes,

s ad magnitudinem fluctuum tempestatumque accommodatae ;
naves totae factae ex robore ad quamvis vim et contumeliam

1 1. dSportabant : repeated action, ' they would carry off.' 175, d.

12. Isdem: J+5. opportunitatibus: 'advantages.' d€fen-
dgbant: 175, d.

14. tempestatibus detinebantur : ' were held back,' in the Loire
(chap. 9, 11. 1-4), 'by storms.' sum ma . . . difficultas: 353, d.

15. vasto, etc. : l/ t ^, b, (3). There is an implied contrast with the
more sheltered and almost tideless waters of the Mediterranean,
raris ac prope nullls : ' infrequent, in fact, almost entirely lacking.'
How lit. ?

13. 1. Namque ipsorum: closely connected with the preceding:
x And (the Venetans have not the same difficulty in navigating these
waters) for their.' hunc : ' the following.'

2. armatae : 'equipped.' cariuae : 'keels'; sc. crant. ali-
quanto planiores : < considerably flatter,' so that the ships were more
flat-bottomed than the Roman galleys. quam : 'than (those).'

3. quo: 193, b. decessum: 'the ebbing.'

4. prorae. etc. : 'the prows were very high'; sc. erant in this and
the following clauses. puppes: 'sterns.'

5. fluctuum: ' of sea- waves.' accommodatae: 'adapted.'

6. t6tae :' wholly.' 151. robore : 'oak.' 13, f. quamvis:
' no matter how great,' lit. ' any you please.' 49, a. vim et contu-
m61iam : ' violence and buffeting.' 230, (3).



MAP 10
Sea-fight with the Venetans



Book III, 7-16



To face page 208




SCALE OF ENGLISH MILES



SCALE OF ROMAN MILES



6 5 Io J5 2o 6 5 To S fa

EXPLANATION

Caesar's fleet was built on the Loire (Liger, chap. 9, 11. 2-4), and placed
in command of Brutus. From the mouth of the Loire it followed a north-
erly course till it met the Venetan fleet
(chap. 14).



MAP 10, A

Operations against a Venetan Town
(HI, 12)

a. Mainland.

b. Stronghold, oppidum, surrounded by
water at high tide.

C. Parallel dikes over land submerged
except at low tide. The dikes, or embank-
ments, were high enough to keep out the
water at high tide.




SCALE OF MILES

A A & i & in
MAP 10, A



in, 13] Campaign against the Venetans 209

perferendam ; transtra, ex pedalibus in altitudinem trabibus,
confixa clavis ferrels digitl pollicis crassitudine ; ancorae
pro funibus ferrels catenis revinctae ; pelles pro veils alu-
taeque tenuiter confectae, slve propter lini inopiam atque 10
eius usus Inscientiam, sive eo, quod est magis verl simile,
quod tantas tempestates Ocean! tant5sque impetus ven-
tdrum sustineri ac tanta onera navium regl veils non satis
commode posse arbitrabantur.

Cum his navibus nostrae class! eius modi congressus is
erat, ut una celeritate et pulsu remorum praestaret ; reliqua
pro loci natura, pro vi tempestatum illis essent aptiora et

7. transtra, etc. : 'the cross-timbers, (made) of beams a foot
thick ' (lit. ' in height '), were ' fastened (to the sides) with iron bolts of
the thickness of a thumb. 1 trabibus : 17, c.

8. crassitudine: 143, a. ancorae :' anchors,' like those in use
to-day.

9. pro: ' instead of.' funibus: < ropes.' As the Romans used
only cables of rope, the chain cables of the Venetans seemed note-
worthy, revinctae: were 'held.' pelles: 'hides.' veils:
'sails' of canvas.

10. alutae tenuiter confectae: 'leather dressed thin.' sive
. . . sive: 235, a, b. lini: 'flax.'

n. eius: lint. eo: 'on this account,' explained by quod (1. 12)

. . . arbitrabantur . 135, a. quod : relative, refers to the thought

of the following guod-cla.use. veri: 108, b.

12. impetus: 'gusts.'

13. tanta onera navium: trans, 'so heavy vessels.' How lit.?
onera: 13, e. regl: 'be managed.' veils : 'with (canvas)
sails.'

15. nostrae class! congressus: 'the encounter of our fleet.'
How lit,? 111. eius modi: 'such.' How lit.? 100, b.

16. erat: 'would be.' una: 'only.' pulsu remorum: 'pro-
pulsion by oars,' which gave to the galley a rapidity and freedom of
movement comparable with that of a modern steamship. reliqua :
'other conditions.' 154, a.

17. pro: ' in regard to.' illis : the Venetan ships. aptiora:
'better suited. '



210 Caesar's Gallic War [B.a £6

accommodatiora. Neque enim his nostrae rostro nocere
poterant (tanta in eis erat firmitudo), neque propter altitu-

2odinem facile telum adigebatur, et eadem de causa minus
commode copulis continebantur.

Accedebat, ut, cum saevire ventus coepisset et se vento
dedissent, et tempestatem ferrent facilius et in vadis con-
sisterent tutius et, ab aestu relictae, nihil saxa et cautes

25 timerent; quarum rerum omnium nostris navibus casus
erat extimescendus.

Caesar's fleet, commanded by Brutus, arrives ; desperate sea-
fight.

14. Compluribus expugnatis oppidis, Caesar, ubi intel-
lexit, frustra tantum laborem sumi, neque hostium fugam,
captis oppidis, reprimi neque eis noceri posse, statuit ex-
spectandam classem.

18. his: 105. nostrae: sc. naves. rostro : 'by ramming,'
lit. ' with the beak.' 346, c, and 347. nocSre : 'do injury.'

19. firmitudo: 'solidity. 1

20. telum adigebatur : « could a missile be thrown up ' on to them.
The galleys were built relatively low, and light.

21. copulis continebantur: * could they be held with grappling
hooks,' thrown out from a galley to catch and hold a hostile ship so
that the Romans could board it. 347.

22. Accedebat, ut: 'There was the further advantage, that.'
203, (1). saevire: 'to blow a gale.' How lit.? sS vento de-
dissent : 'they ran before the wind.' 220. How lit.?

23. ferrent : ' they would weather.' consisterent : * would ride.'

24. tutius : 34, b. aestu : personified, hence with ab. 126, b.
relictae : the Venetan ships, being flat-bottomed, when left by the
tide settled easily and safely on the ground. nihil : = emphatic
nan. US, c. li. 176, 2, b\ A. 390, d, and N. 2 ; H. 416, 2.

25. navibus: 110, and 239, h. B. 189, 1; A. 374; H. 431.
cSsus, etc. : ' the occurrence was greatly to be feared.' 22!K c.

14. 3. captis, etc. : ' could be checked by taking the towns.' 144,
b, (6). eis nocgri posse: 'harm could be done them.' 106, b,
and 105. exspectandam : in full, sibi exspectamiam esse.



Hi, 14] Campaign against the Venetans



211



Quae ubi convenit ac primum ab hostibus visa est, 5
circiter ccxx naves eorum, paratissimae atque omni genere
armorum ornatissimae, profectae ex portu nostris adversae
constiterunt ; neque satis Bruto, qui class! praeerat, vel
tribunis militum centurionibusque, quibus singulae naves
erant attributae, constabat, quid agerent aut quam rationem 10
pugnae insisterent. Rostro enim nocerl n5n posse cogno-
verant ; turribus autem excitatis, tamen has altitudo pup-
pium ex barbaris navibus superabat, ut neque ex Inferiore



paratissimae :



5. Quae: 167. convenit: 'arrived.'

6. CCXX: ducentae et viginti. 38, b, and 36.
' fully ready.' 153, a. genere: 133.

7. armorum : 'of equipment,' including everything needed to make
a ship ready for action. ornatissimae : ' completely fitted out.'
ex portu, etc. : the sea-fight probably took

place in the bay of Quiberon, Caesar's army
being drawn up in sight on the heights of
St. Gildas. The courses of the fleets may
be traced on Map 10.

8. neque . . . constabat: 'and it was
not quite clear to Brutus,' etc. After the




Roman mint, struck a coin commemorating
Gallic victories (Fig. 96). 73, c.

9. tribunis, etc. : the legionaries on the
Roman galleys were under their regular
officers. How many galleys participated in
the battle we do not know.

10. quid agerent: 'what they were to
do.' 217, b. B. 315, 3 ; A. 587 ; H. 642, 3.

n. Rostro: as in chap. 13, 1. 18.
nocerl : sc. els, the enemy's ships.

12. turribus excitatis: 'even though
the towers had been erected ' on the Roman
ships. 144, b, (5), and 346, d.

13. ex: 'on.' 126, c. Inferiore loco: the decks and towers
of the Roman vessels.



Figure 96. — Coin of
Decimus Brutus.

Silver, denarius ; struck in
49 or 48 b.c. Oval Gallic
shield and round shield between
two Gallic war trumpets;
inscription, albinus bruti
f[ilius], 'Albinus, son of
Brutus.'

Decimus Brutus was named
Albinus after A. Postumius
Albinus, who adopted him.



212 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 56

loco satis commode tela adigi possent et missa a Gallis

15 gravius acciderent.

Una erat magno usui res praeparata a nostris, falces
praeacutae Insertae affixaeque longuriis, non absimili forma
muralium falcium. His cum funes, qui antemnas ad malos
destinabant, comprehensi adductique erant, navigio remis

aoincitato, praerumpebantur. Quibus abscisis, antemnae ne-
cessario concidebant ; ut, cum omnis Gallicls navibus spes
in veils armamentisque consisteret, his ereptis, omnis usus
navium uno tempore eriperetur.

Reliquum erat certamen positum in virtute, qua nostri

25 milites facile superabant, atque eo magis, quod in conspectu
Caesaris atque omnis exercitus res gerebatur, ut nullum

14. adigi possent : cf. chap. 13, !. 20, and n. missa: sc. tela.

15. gravius: < with greater force, 1 because thrown from a considera-
ble height down upon the decks of the galleys.

16. magno usui: 'very useful.' How lit.? 112, a. praepa-
rata: 'made ready beforehand. 1 falces. etc. : 'hooks sharpened at
the ends, let into (the ends of) long poles and fastened to (them). 1
falces : 17, c, and 91, a.

17. non, etc.: = forma non absimili fdrmae muralium falcium,
*of a shape not unlike that of wall hooks. 1 143, a, and 238, b.

18. muralium falcium: used on long poles to pull stones out of
walls. 842, c. His: 131, a. cum :' whenever. 1 186, a. B. 288,
B, 3 ; H. 601, 4. antemnas : ' sail-yards. 1 malos : ' masts. 1

19. dSstinabant: 'fastened. 1 adducti erant: 'had been
pulled taut.' navigio incitato : ' when the ship, 1 that had caught its
hook in the enemy^ rigging, 'was driven forward, 1 etc. 144i b, (2).

20. praerumpgbantur : ' they were severed. 1 abscisis : ' cut off. 1

21. concidgbant: 'fell down.' cum: 184, a. Gallicls na-
vibus: ' in the case of the Gallic ships ' ; dative. 109, a. B. 188, i,n. ;
A. 376; H. 425, 4, N.

22. armamentls: 'rigging 1 ; they had no oars. usus : 'control. 1

23. un5: trans, as Meodem.

24. Reliquum: emphatic position. 858, d. certamen: 'con-
test. 1 erat positum in: ' depended on. 1 How lit.?

26. r6s : 'the struggle. 1 gerSbatur : force of the imperfect?



in, 15] Campaign against the Venetans 213

paulo fortius factum latere posset; omnes enim colles ac
loca superiora, unde erat propinquus despectus in mare, .
ab exercitu tenebantur.

Roman courage, ingenuity, and good luck win the day.

15. Deiectis, ut diximus, antemnis, cum singulas binae
ac ternae naves circumsteterant, mllites summa vl tran-
scendere in hostium naves contendebant. Quod postquam
barbari fieri animadverterunt, expugnatis compluribus navi-
bus, cum el re! nullum reperlretur auxilium, fuga salutem 5
petere contenderunt.

Ac iam conversis in earn partem navibus, quo ventus

27. paulo fortius: 'unusually brave,' lit. 'a little braver (than
usual). 1 factum: ' deed. 1 latere: 'be unobserved. 1 colles,
etc. : heights of St. Gildas ; see Map 10.

28. despectus in mare: 'view over the sea, 1 de implying a view
from an elevation.

15. 1. cum : 186, a. singulas, etc.: 'two or 1 (lit. 'and 1 )

' three galleys had surrounded a single ship ? of the enemy. We are not
to suppose that Caesar's fleet outnumbered that of the Venetans ; the
Romans simply concentrated their forces on one vessel at a time, in-
stead of engaging the whole line of the enemy at once. singulas :
sc. naves. binae : 36.

3. transcendere in: 'to board, 1 in the nautical sense. con-

tendebant: 'would hasten. 1 175, d. B. 260, 2; A. 470; H. 534,3.
Quod : trans, as if et hoc.

5. ei auxilium: 'no remedy,' i.e. counter-tactic, 'was discovered
against this, 1 the boarding of their vessels by the legionaries.

5-6. Historical Significance : " Thus was this naval battle," says
Mommsen (History of Rome, Vol. V, p. 57) — "so far as historical knowl-
edge reaches, the earliest fought on the Atlantic Ocean — just like the en-
gagement at Mylae two hundred years before, notwithstanding the most
unfavorable circumstances, decided in favor of the Romans by a lucky inven-
tion suggested by necessity."

7. quo: trans, as if in quam. ventus ferebat: 'the wind was
blowing, 1 we should say.



214 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 56

ferebat, tanta subito malacia ac tranquillitas exstitit, ut se
ex loco movere non possent. Quae quidem res ad negotium
10 conficiendum maxime fuit opportuna ; nam singulas nostri
consectati expugnaverunt, ut perpaucae ex omni numero
noctis interventu ad terram pervenerint, cum ab hora fere
mi usque ad solis occasum pugnaretur.

TJie captive Vegetans are sold into slavery as a warning.

16. Quo proelio bellum Venetorum totiusque orae mari-
timae confectum est. Nam cum omnis iuventus, omnes
etiam gravioris aetatis, in quibus aliquid consilii aut digni-
tatis fuit, eo convenerant, turn, navium quod ublque fuerat,
sin unum locum coegerant; quibus amissis, reliqui neque
quo se reciperent, neque quem ad modum oppida de-

8. malacia ac tranquillitas: 'calm and stillness. 1 exstitit :
1 ensued ' ; in the latter part of summer a morning wind in these regions
is usually followed by a calm in the afternoon. 176, a, and 173, a.

9. non possent : relying entirely on sails, the Venetans were help-
less when the wind failed them. r§s : 'circumstance.'

10. singulas: 'one by one 1 ; sc. naves.

11. consectati: 'pursuing. 1 226, c. numero: 97, d.

12. interventu: 'because of the coming. 1 135, a. cum:
'although. 1 187. hora quarts : a little before ten o'clock by our
reckoning ; the battle took place toward the end of summer, before the
autumnal equinox. 242, a, and b.

16. 2. cum . . . turn: 186, b. B. 290, 2 ; H. 657, 4, n. i.

3. gravioris: 'more advanced. 1 aliquid . . . dignitatis:
'any weight of judgment or influence. 1 97, b.

4. fuit: 90, a. eo : to the country of the Venetans. navium
quod: i.e. id navium, quod els ttbique fuerat, 'all the ships that they
had had anywhere. 1 97, b.

5. quibus: including men as well as ships. reliqui: 'those
who survived. 1 How lit.? neque, etc.: 'had (in mind) neither a
place to which they might make their escape, nor any means by which
they might defend, 1 etc. How lit. ?

6. reciperent, etc. : indirect question ; it would have the subjunctive
also as a direct question. 217, b.



in. 17] Expedition of Sabinus against the Venelli 215

fenderent, habebant. Itaque se suaque omnia Caesarl
dediderunt.

In quos eo gravius Caesar vindicandum statuit, quo
diligentius in reliquum tempus a barbaris ius legatorum 10
conservaretur. Itaque, omni senatu necato, reliquos sub
corona vendidit.

Expedition of Sabinus against the Venellans. 17-19
Sabinus encamps in the country of the Venelli and pretends fear.

17. Dum haec in Venetis geruntur, Q. Titurius Sabinus
cum eis copiis, quas a Caesare acceperat, in fines Venel-
lorum pervenit.

His praeerat Viridovix ac summam imperii tenebat



V



7. suaque omnia: ' and all they had. 1 How lit

9. eo . . . .quo : ' on this account ... in ordei Nthat.' 193, b.
gravius vindicandum [esse] : ' that a severer punishment ought to
be inflicted.' How lit. ?

10. in reliquum tempus: 'for the future.' ius legatorum:
'the rights of ambassadors,' whose persons, from the beginning of
civilized life, have been considered inviolable.

11. omni, etc. : 'killed all the senate and.' How lit. ? 144, b, (2),
and 289, b. sub corona : ' into slavery ' ; lit. ' under the wreath,' re-
ferring to the wreath placed on the heads of captives sold at auction.
We can hardly suppose that the entire population was sold into slavery ;

yet these maritime states were so re-
duced in strength that they afterwards
gave Caesar no trouble.

17. 1 . Venetis : 282. geruntur :
trans, by a past tense. 190, a.

2. eis copiis : three legions, as
Figure 97. — Venellan coin. related in chap. *n, 11. 10-12. in

Gold ; reverse, fanciful lion turning its fines Venellorum : the probable route
head toward a wheel. of Sabinus is shown on Map g m

4. Viridovix: 19, d. summam imperii : ' the chief command.'
How lit. ? Viridovix not only commanded the forces of the Venellans
(Fig. 97) but was commander in chief of all the forces raised by the
revolting states.




216 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 56

searum omnium civitatum, quae defecerant, ex quibus exer-
citum magnasque copias coegerat ; atque his paucis diebus
Aulerci Eburovices Lexoviique, senatu suo interfecto, quod
auctores belli esse nolebant, portas clauserunt seque cum
Viridovice coniunxerunt ; magnaque praeterea multitudo

ioundique ex Gallia perditorum hominum latronumque con-
venerat, quos spes praedandi studiumque bellandi ab agrl
cultura et cotidian5 labore sevocabat.

Sabinus idoneo omnibus rebus loco castris sese tenebat,
cum Viridovix contra eum duorum milium spatio consedis-

is set cotidieque, productis copiis, pugnandi potestatem face-
ret, ut iam non solum hostibus in contemptionem Sabinus
venlret, sed etiam nostrorum militum vocibus non nihil
carperetur; ti ^ .anque opinionem timoris praebuit, ut iam



5. exerc' am: 'an army, 1 trained and equipped, as distinguished
from copias, ' forces ' hastily levied and organized.

6. his paucis diebus : ' within the few days ' after the arrival of
Sabinus. 147, a, and 160, d.

7. Aulerci Eburovicgs : one name ; see Map 9.

8. auctores :< favorers ' ; why nominative ? 221, b. nolSbant :
plural because senatu is thought of as senatoribus. 173, b. portas
clausgrunt : the shutting of city gates on the approach of an army
was a virtual declaration of war.

10. perditorum: 'desperate. 1 latronum : 'bandits. 1

12. agri cultura: 'farming. 1 sevocabat: lured away. How
lit. ? 79, d.

13. omnibus rgbus : ' in all respects. 1 142, a. loco: 145, c.
castris: 131, a. The camp of Sabinus was probably near the small
river Se'e, in the southern part of the Venellan territory (Map 9).

14. cum : 187. duorum, etc : ' (only) two miles away. 1
spatio : 147, c.

16. ut: 'so that. 1 hostibus: 'in the eyes of the enemy.'
109, a. B. 188, 1, N. ; A. 377 ; H. 425, 4, N. contemptionem :
'contempt. 1

17. non nihil :' rather sharply. 1 How lit.? 118, c.

18. carperStur: 'was criticized. 1 opinionem: 'impression. 1
81. praebuit: 'produced. 1



Plate IV



Weapons, Standards, and Roman Camp




I. Oval Shield, clipeus. 2, 2. Eagle of the Legion. 3. Oblong Shield, scutum.

4. Light Shield, parma. 5,5. Cavalry Helmet, cassis. 6. Fike, pi/um.

7. Bow, arcus ; Arrow, sagitta. 8. Shrine for the Eagle, sacellum.

9,9. Sword, gladius ; Scabbard, vagina. 10. Roman Camp.

11. Sling, funda.



in, 18] Expedition of Sabinus against the Venelli 217

ad vallum castrorum hostes accedere auderent. Id ea de
causa faciebat, quod cum tanta multitudine hostium, prae- 20
sertim eo absente, qui summam imperil teneret, nisi aequo
loco aut opportunitate aliqua data, legat5 dlmicandum non
existimabat.



By a ruse he leads the enemy to attack him.

18. Hac confirmata opinione timoris, idoneum quendam
hominem et callidum delegit, Galium, ex els, quos auxilii
causa secum habebat. Huic magnls praemiis pollicita-
tionibusque persuadet, uti ad hostes transeat, et, quid fieri
velit, edocet. 5

Qui ubi pro perfuga ad eos venit, timorem Romanorum
proponit ; quibus angustiis ipse Caesar a Venetis prematur,
docet, neque longius abesse, quin proxima nocte Sabinus
clam ex castris exercitum educat et ad Caesarem auxilii
ferendi causa proficiscatur. Quod ubi auditum est, con- 10
clamant omnes, occasionem neg5tii bene gerendi amit-
tendam n5n esse ; ad castra iri oportere.

19. Id : the holding of the Roman soldiers in camp.

21. eo absente, qui: 'in the absence of him (Caesar) who.'
144, b, (3). teneret: 214, &• nisi: i.e. nisi dimicaret.
aequo loco: ' advantageous position ' ; sc. dato. 144, b, (2).

22. dlmicandum [esse], etc. : 'a lieutenant ought not,' etc. 110.
18. 2. callidum: ' tactful.' ex els : 97, d.

5. velit, prematur (1. 7) : 204, (2)- edocet: ' explained. 1 175,6.

6. Qui, Quod (1. 10): 167. pro perfuga: <as if a deserter. 1
vgnit: 188, a.

8. neque, etc. : neque longius abesse proxima nocte, quin . . . pro-



Online LibraryJulius CaesarC. Iulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum. Caesar's Commentaries: the Gallic war, books I-Iv, with selections from books V-VII and from the civil war; → online text (page 20 of 73)