Julius Caesar.

C. Iulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum. Caesar's Commentaries: the Gallic war, books I-Iv, with selections from books V-VII and from the civil war; online

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ficiscatur, 'and that no later than the following night Sabinus would
stealthily lead,' etc. 201, b. B. 298 ; A. 558 ; H. 595, 1.

1 1 . occasionem, etc : ' the chance to score a notable success. 1
How lit.?

12. iri, etc. : ' that they ought to attack the camp. 1 How lit. ? 68,
d, and 73, d. B. 138, iv; A. 208, d\ H. 302, 6.



218 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 56

Multae res ad hoc consilium Gallos hortabantur : superi-
5rum dierum Sabini cunctatio, perfugae confirmatio, inopia

is cibariorum, cui rei parum diligenter ab els erat provisum,
spes Venetici belli, et quod fere libenter homines id, quod
volunt, credunt.

His rebus adducti, non prius Viridovlcem reliquosque
duces ex concilio dimittunt, quam ab his sit concessum,

20 arma uti capiant et ad castra contendant. Qua re concessa,
laeti, ut explorata victoria, sarmentis virgultisque collectis,
quibus fossas Romanorum compleant, ad castra pergunt.

He surjwises them, and wins a decisive victory.

19. Locus erat castr5rum editus et paulatim ab imo
acclivis circiter passus mille. 'Hue magno cursu contende-
runt, ut quam minimum spatii ad se colligendos armandos-
que Romanis daretur, exanimatique pervenerunt.

14. superiorum : 'preceding.' cunctatio: 'inaction.' 91, a,
and 74, b. confirmatio : l the assurance.'

16. quod . . . credunt: appositive of res. 198, b, and 175, c.
ferg : 'as a rule.' Caesar's keen insight into human nature was an
important factor in his success.

18. prius quam sit concessum : 'until permission had

been granted.' 189, b. B. 292 ; H. 605, 1.

21. laeti: 'joyfully.' 151. ut explorata victoria : 'as if victory
were (already) assured.' sarmentis: -brushwood,' cut from trees,
virgultis : ' fascines,' bundles of shoots and bushes tied together for
convenience in handling. collgctis : 'they gathered and.' How
lit?

22. quibus . . . compleant : trans, as if nt efs . . . compleant.
193, a, and 181. <i.

19. 1. Locus: 's'te.' ab Imo: - from the bottom ' of the hill.
154, a.

2. passus: 118, a. Hue: up the slope to the camp. magno
cursu: 'at full speed.'

3. quam minimum spatii: 'as little time as possible.' 97, b, and
153, c.



in, 19] Expedition of Sabinus against the Venelli 219

Sabinus, suos hortatus, cupientibus signum dat. Im-s
peditls hostibus propter ea, quae ferebant, onera, subito
duabus portls eruptionem fieri iubet. Factum est oppor-
tunitate loci, hostium inscientia ac defatigatione, virtute
militum et superiorum pugnarum exercitati5ne, ut ne unum
quidem nostrorum impetum ferrent ac statim terga ver-io
terent. Quos impeditSs integris viribus milites nostrl con-
secutl, magnum numerum eorum occiderunt ; reliquos
equites c5nsectati, paucos, qui ex fuga evaserant, relique-
runt.

Sic, uno tempore, et de naval! pugna Sabinus et de 15
Sabini victoria Caesar certior factus est, civitatesque
omnes se statim Titurio dediderunt. Nam ut ad bella
suscipienda Gallorum alacer ac promptus est animus, sic
mollis ac minime resistens ad calamitates perferendas
mens eorum est. 2 °

5. hortatus : n. tq I, 25, 1. 3. 226, c. cupientibus : sc. eu.

7. duabus portis : sc. castrorum ; probably the gates on the right
and left sides of the camp. 334, a, and 134, a. Factum est : i the
result was. 1 How lit. ? opportunitate : 135, a.

8. inscientia: 'lack of skill. 1 defatigatione: 'exhaustion. 1
10. ferrent : sc. hostes. 203, (1). a^'but. 1 234,6.
n. viribus: 135, a, and 18, a. consecuti : 226, c.

12. reliquos: 'the rest 1 of the Gauls not slain by the legionaries.

13. equites : — equites nostrl. paucos : ' (only) a few. 1 154, a.

17. Titurio: for the full name see chap. 11, 1. 10. 19, b. ut:
'just as. 1 The subjugation of these states was now complete ; the sub-
mission reported the previous year (II. 34) had been only nominal.

18. alacer: 'impetuous. 1 24- promptus: 'ready. 1 animus:
' temperament. 1

19. mollis: 'yielding. 1 resistens: adjective; with minimi, 'not
at all capable of resistance. 1 Caesar again comments on the fickleness
of the Gauls (cf. III. 8,11. io-u,and 10, 11. 7-8; IV, 5, 11. 5-13). 'At
the beginning of a battle,' says Livy, k the fighting of the Gauls is more
than that of men ; at the end, less than that of women. 1

20. mens: 'character. 1



220



Caesar's Gallic War



[B.C. 66



Conquest of Aquitania by Crassus. 20-27

Crassus, entering Aquitaniu, meets a force of the Sotiates.

20. Eodem fere tempore P. Crassus, cum in Aqultaniam
pervenisset, quae, ut ante dictum est, tertia pars Galliae
est, cum intellegeret, in els locis sibi bellum gerendum, ubi
paucis ante annis L. Valerius Praeconmus legatus, exercitu
5 pulso, interfectus esset, atque unde L. Manlius proconsul,
impedlmentis amissis, profugisset, non mediocrem sibi
diligentiam adhibendam intellegebat.

Itaque re frumentaria provisa, auxiliis equitatuque com-

20. 1. P. Crassus : with twelve cohorts and a large body of cavalry

(chap. 11, 11. 6-9). The
cavalry would have been of no
use to Caesar in the campaign
against the Venetans, but
could be employed by Crassus
to advantage in the moun-
tainous regions of Aquitania
(Fig. 98).

3. cum: 184, #• ge-
rendum : sc. esse. ubi :
= in q nib us.

4. paucis ante annis :
twenty-two years before, in
78 B.C. In that year Prae-
coninus, mentioned only here,
and Lucius Manlius, pro-
consul of the Province, were
routed by Hirtuleius, the
quaestor of Sertorius. Cf.
chap. 23, 1. 11, and N. 140.

5. unde : = e quibus.
L. : /.".</.

Figure 98. — Cavalryman. 6. non mediocrem: 'no

This cavalryman has helmet and spear ; his ordinary. 1 239, g. sibi :

sword is not shown. 110.




in, 21] Conquest of Aquitania by Crassus 221

parato, multls praeterea viris fortibus Tolosa et Carcasone
et Narbone, quae sunt civitates Galliae provinciae finitimae 10
his regionibus, nominatim evocatis, in Sotiatium fines
exercitum introduxit. Cuius adventu cognit5 Sotiates,
magnis copiis coactis, equitatuque, quo plurimum valebant,
in itinere agmen nostrum adorti, primum equestre proelium
commiserunt ; deinde, equitatu suo pulso atque insequenti- is
bus nostris, subit5 pedestres copias, quas in convalle in
Tnsidiis collocaverant, ostenderunt. Hi, nostros disiectos
adorti, proelium renovarunt.

' In a fierce fight he defeats them and captures their city.

21. Pugnatum est diu atque acriter, cum Sotiates,
superioribus victoriis fret!, in sua virtute totius Aquitaniae
salutem positam putarent, nostri autem, quid sine impera-
tore et sine reliquis legionibus, adulescentulo duce, efficere
possent, perspici cuperent; tandem confecti vulneribuss
hostes terga yerterunt. Quorum magno numero interfecto,

9. viris fortibus : soldiers who, having served their time (20 years),
were living in the Province. 307, a. Tolosa ; 127,. a, and 293, a.

11. nominatim: requests to reenter the service were sent to the
veterans individually. gvocatis : < called out. 1 Sotiatium: see
Map 9. 19, e.

13. equitatu: with adorti. 131, a. quo: 142, a. plurimum:
118, b.

15. equitatu, etc. : apparently the flight of the cavalry was a ruse,
to draw the pursuing Romans into the valley {convalle) where the in-
fantry of the Sotiates was in ambush.

17. HI: referring to pedestres copias of 1. 16. Why masculine ? .

21. 2. victoriis : 131, e. B. 218, 3 ; A. 431, a ; H. 476, 1. freti:
' relying on.'

3. putarent: 184, &• quid . . . possent: subject of perspici.
204, (2).

4. adulescentulo duce: 'with a youth as leader/ referring to
Crassus. 144, b, (2).



222



Caesar's Gallic War



[B.r. 56



Crassus ex itinere oppidum Sotiatium oppugnare coepit.
Quibus fortiter resistentibus, vineas turresque egit.

IllI, alias eruptiSne temptata, alias cuniculis ad aggerem

10 vlneasque actis (cuius re! sunt longe peritissiml Aquitani,
propterea quod multis locis apud eos aerariae secturaeque
sunt), ubi diligentia nostrorum nihil his rebus proficl posse
intellexerunt, legat5s ad Crassum mittunt, seque in dediti-
onem ut recipiat, petunt. Qua re impetrata, arma tradere

15 iussi faciunt.

Adiatunnus with a devoted band makes a sortie, is captured.

22. Atque inea re omnium nostrorum intentis animis,
alia ex parte oppidl Adiatunnus, qui summam imperii tene-



7. ex itinere: Vocab. under iter. oppidum: identified with Sos,
the name of which is derived from Sotidtes. oppugnare : Crassus
tried to take the town by sudden storming. 340.

8. Quibus: 167. vineas, turres : appliances for besieging.
842, a and b.

9. alias . . . alias : i at one time ... at another. 1 cuniculis :
' tunnels, 1 underground passageways from which the Roman works could
be undermined, so that they would fall in, or could be set on fire.

10. cuius rei: 'an operation, 1 the driving of tunnels, 'in which. 1
102, and 165, b.

11. locis : 145, c. aerariae: 'copper mines. 1 sectQrae :
probably open cuts from which iron ore was taken, as

distinguished from the more elaborate tun-
nels of the copper mines. Remains of
ancient copper and iron mines have been
found in the region of the Sotiates. and
mining operations are still carried on there.

12. Bunt: 90,a. diligentia :1 35, a.
his rgbus : ' by these devices.' 131. a.

22. 1. in: 'upon. 1 intentis ani-

mis : ' while the attention was fixed. 1
How lit.? 144,6, (2).
2. Adiatunnus : a coin has been found bearing his name (Fig. 99)
in Roman letters ; the spelling of the name is not the same as that



excavations,




Figure 99. — Coin of the

Sotiates.
Bronze, struck by Adiatunnus.
Obverse, rex adietuanus ef ; re-
verse, wolf with the word, sotiota.



in, 23] Conquest of Aquitania by Crassus 223

bat, cum dc dev5tis, quos ill! ' soldurios ' appellant — quo-
rum haec est conditio, uti omnibus in vita commodls una
cum els fruantur, quorum se amicitiae dediderint ; si quid s
his per vim accidat, aut eundem casum una ferant aut sibi
mortem cdnsclscant (neque adhuc hominum memoria reper-
tus est quisquam, qui, ed interfect5, cuius se amicitiae
devovisset, mortem recusaret) — cum his Adiatunnus erup-
tionem facere c5natus, clamore ab ea parte munltionis i°
sublato, cum ad arma milites concurrissent vehementerque
ibi pugnatum esset, repulsus in oppidum tamen, uti eadem
deditionis condicione uteretur, a Crasso impetravit.

Proceeding further, Crassus finds a formidable army.

23. Armis obsidibusque . acceptls, Crassus in fines
Vocatium et Tarusatium profectus est. Turn vero barbarl,
commotl, quod oppidum et natura loci et manu munltum

paucls diebus, quibus eo ventum erat, expugnatum cogn5-



given by Caesar, and e f at the end may be for e — F[ilius], in imi-
tation of Roman usage. summam imperii : chap. 17, 1. 4, and N.

3. DC: sescentis. 38, b. devotis : < faithful followers.' sol-
durios : ' the vow-beholden. 1 quorum, etc. : ' the terms of whose
association are these.' How lit. ?

4. uti . . . fruantur: 203, (4). commodls : 131, c. B. 218?
1; A. 410; H. 477, 1.

5. amicitiae: dative. dediderint : 220. si quid, etc. : cf.
I, 18, 1. 24, and N.

6. vim : i violence.' eundem casum una ; ' the same fate at the
same time.' ferant : sc. ut. sibi, etc. : cf. I, 4, 1. 12, and N.

7. adhuc : 'up to this time.' memoria : 147, b.

9. recusaret: 194, a. B. 283,2 ; A. 535, a; H. 591, 1. his : = de-
votis in 1. 3, resuming the narrative interrupted by the long explanation.

12. uti, etc. : 199, a. eadem : i the same ' as the rest.

23. 3. oppidum : oppidum Sotiatium, chap. 21, 1. 7. manu: the
natural defenses of the town had been strengthened by fortifications.

4. quibus: < after,' lit. ' within which.' 147 f a. ventum erat:
73, d. expugnatum : sc. esse.



224 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 56

5 verant, legatos quoque versus dimittere, coniurare, obsides

inter se dare, copias parare coeperunt. Mittuntur etiam

ad eas civitates legati, quae surrt citerioris Hispaniae fi-

nitimae Aquitaniae; inde auxilia ducesque arcessuntur.

Qu5rum adventu magna cum auctoritate et magna

iohominum multitudine bellum gerere conantur. Duces
vero el deliguntur, qui una cum Q. Sertorio omnes annos
fuerant summamque scientiam rei militaris habere existi-
mabantur. Hi consuetudine popull Roman! loca capere,
castra munire, commeatibus nostros intercludere instituunt.

is Quod ubi Crassus animadvertit, suas copias propter
exiguitatem non facile diduci, hostem et vagari et vias
obsidere et castris satis praesidii relinquere, ob earn causam
minus commode frumentum commeatumque sibi suppor-



5. quoque versus: < in all directions.'

7. citerioris Hispaniae : 94 d, and 296. finitimae : agrees
with quae.

9. adventu: 147, b. magna, etc.: to be taken closely with
adventu. auctoritate : ' prestige. 1

10. hominum: 98, a. Duces: In predicate. 88, a.

11. Q. Sertorio : a military leader of the popular party in the first
Civil War at Rome, the war between Marius and Sulla. After the
death of Marius, and Sulla's return to Rome, Sertorius organized an
army in Spain, and held his own against the government for ten years,
till at length he was treacherously assassinated, in 72 B.C. omnSs
annos : ' during all (those) years, 1 82-72 B.C., when Sertorius had an
army in the field.

13. loca capere : 'to choose locations 1 for encampment. The
Aquitanians were in this respect in advance of the Gauls, who did not
begin to fortify their camps till four years later (VII, 29, 11. 16-18).

15. Quod: 'Now — this (fact), 1 explained by the following infini-
tive clauses.

16. diduci : 'spread out, 1 so as to cope at all points with the
numerically superior enemy. hostem, etc. : ' (but) that the enemy
both roamed, 1 at will 'and. 1

17. et: 'and (still). 1 castris: of the enemy. praesidii:
97,6.



in, 24] Conquest of Aquitania by Crassus 225

tari, in dies hostium numerum augeri, non cunctandum
existimavit, quin pugna decertaret. Hac re ad consilium 20
delata, ubi omnes idem sentlre intellexit, posterum diem
pugnae constituit.

Forming battle order, he waits, then attacks the enemy's camp.

24. Prima luce productis omnibus copiis, duplici acie
Institute, auxilils in mediam aciem coniectis, quid hostes
consilii caperent, exspectabat. Illi, etsi propter multitu-
dinem et veterem belli gloriam paucitatemque nostrorum
se tuto dimicaturos existimabant, tamen tutius esse arbitra- 5
bantur, obsessis viis, commeatu interclus5, sine ullo vulnere
victdria potiri, et, si propter inopiam rei frumentariae
Roman! sese recipere coepissent, impeditos in agmine et



19. in dies: 'day by day. 1 non cunctandum [esse]: sc. sibi,
' that he ought not to delay.'

20. quin, etc. : ' to fight a decisive battle.'' How lit. ? 201, b.

21 . omnes idem sentlre : < that all held the same opinion.' 117, a.
24. 1. duplici acie : not so strong as the customary triple line, but

necessary here because the Roman force was so greatly outnumbered
by the enemy. 337. duplici : #£, a.

2. auxilils: the auxiliary troops were usually stationed upon the
wings ; in this instance they were placed at the middle of the line be-
cause Crassus did not have confidence in them (chap. 25, 11. 3-4).
quid consilii: 'what plan.' 97, b.

3. caperent: 'would adopt.' 20^, (2). exspectabat: 'was
waiting (to see).' multitudinem : estimated at 50,000 (chap. 26,
1. 16).

4. paucitatem: the whole force under the command of Crassus
(chap. 11, 11. 6-7; chap. 20, 11. 8-12) can hardly have amounted to
10,000 men.

5. tuto: 34, b. tutius: predicative with esse, of which the sub-
ject is potiri (1. 7). 222, b, and 148, d.

6. obsessis viis: 'having blocked the roads (and).' How lit.?
238, a.

8. sese recipere: 'to retreat.' impeditos: sc eos [Romanos].



226 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 56

sub sarcinis infirmiores animo adoriri cogitabant. Hoc
10 consilio probato ab ducibus, productis Romanorum copiis.

sese castris tenebant.

Hac re perspecta Crassus, cum sua cunctatione atque

opini5ne timoris hostes nostros milites alacriores ad pug-

nandum effecissent, atque omnium voces audirentur,
15 exspectdrl diutins non oportere, quin ad castra iretitr,

cohortatus su5s, omnibus cupientibus, ad hostium castra

contendit.

He learns that the enemy's rear gate is not well guarded.

25. Ibi cum alii fossas complerent, alii, multis tells

coniectis, defensores vallo munitionibusque depellerent,

auxiliaresque, quibus ad pugnam non multum Crassus

confidebat, lapidibus telisque sumministrandls et ad ag-

5 gerem caespitibus comportandls speciem atque opinionem

9. sarcinis: 330. infirmiores animo : 'less courageous.' How
lit.? 142, a. cogitabant: ' they were proposing. 1

13. opinione: 'impression.' hostgs : nominative.

14. omnium: i.e. omnium militum. voces: 'remarks. 1

15. exspectari, etc.: '(to the effect) that they ought not to delay
further to attack the camp.' How lit.? 213, b. iretur : 68, d,
73, d, and 201, b.

16. omnibus cupientibus : 144>b,(3). ad hostium castra: this
is the only attack of the Romans on a fortified camp recorded in the
Gallic War.

25. 1. alii . . alii: milites Romanl. 171, b. fossas: as in
chap. 5, 1. 4.

2. valid: constructed in the Roman fashion (chap. 23, 11. 13-14).
127, a, and 333.

3. auxiliargs: chap. 24, 1. 2 and N. quibus: dative. 105.

4- lapidibus . . . comportandls: 'by bringing, 1 etc, ablatives of
means. 230,(4) ad aggerem : sc. faciundnm. The rampart of

the enemy^ camp was so high that the Romans began to make a sloping
mound up to it. like the agger used in besieging a town.

5. caespitibus: 'sods. 1 10, d. speciem . . - pugnantium :

'the appearance and impression of combatants. 1



in, 26] Conquest of Aquitania by Crassus 227

pugnantium praeberent; cum item ab hostibus constantcr
ac non timide pugnaretur telaque ex locd superiore missa
non frustra acciderent, equites, circumitis hostium castris,
Crasso renuntiaverunt, non eadem esse diligentia ab de-
cumana porta castra munita facilemque aditum habere. ia

Surprising the enemy by a rear attack, he routs them.

26. Crassus, equitum praefectos cohortatus, ut magnis
praemils pollicitationibusque suds excitarent, quid fieri
velit, ostendit.

Illi, ut erat imperatum, eductis els cohortibus, quae, prae-
sidio castris relictae, intrltae ab labore erant, et longiore 5
itinere circumductis, ne ex hostium castris conspicl possent,
omnium oculis mentibusque ad pugnam intentis, celeriter
ad eas, quas diximus, munitiones- pervenerunt, atque, his
prorutis, prius in hostium castris constiterunt, quam plane
ab his videri aut, quid rei gereretur, cognosci posset. x <

7. loco superiore : the top of the rampart of the camp ; the camp
lay in a plain (chap. 26, 1. 16).

8. circumitis hostium castris : ' having ridden about the enemy's
camp.' 334, a.

9. ab decumana porta : 'on the side ot the rear gate.' 126, c.
26. 1. equitum praefectos: 309, c. ut, etc. : 199, a.

2. suos : the cavalrymen, on whom the success of the surprise
depended.

4. Illi : the cavalry prefects, who guided cohorts of infantry to the
rear of the enemy's camp. It is possible that the cavalrymen took the
legionaries with them on their horses in order to transport them quickly
thither by a roundabout way. praesidio castris: 112, b.

5. intrltae: * unfatigued.' longiore : 153, a.

7. omnium: hostium. oculis, etc.: 11+1+, b, (2).

8. eas — munitiones: at the rear of the enemy's camp; chap. 25,
11. 9-10.

9. prorutis: * demolished.' prius — quam: 189, b. plane:
'clearly.'

10. videri: sc. possent, 'they could be seen.' quid, etc. : 'what
was going on.' How lit. ?



228 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 56

Turn vero, clamore ab ea parte audito, nostrl, redinte-
gratis viribus, quod plerumque in spe victoriae accidere
consuevit, acrius impugnare coeperunt. Hostes undique
circumvent!, desperatis omnibus rebus, se per munltiones
s deicere et f uga salutem petere contenderunt. Quos equi-
tatus apertissimis campis consectatus, ex milium l numero,
quae ex Aquitania Cantabrisque convenisse constabat, vix
quarta parte rellcta, multa nocte se in castra recepit.

Crassus receives the submission of other Aquitanian states.

27. Hac audita pugna, maxima pars Aquitaniae sese
Crasso dedidit obsidesque ultro misit ; quo in numer5
fuerunt Tarbelll, Bigerriones, Ptianil, Vocates, Tarusates,
Elusates, Gates, Ausci, Garumni, Sibusates, Cocosates ;
5 paucae ultimae nationes,'anni tempore confisae, quod hiems
suberat, h5c facere neglexerunt.

ii. clamore, etc. : from the shouting at the rear of the camp the
Romans fighting in front knew that the attack there was in progress,
and were inspired to greater efforts.

12. quod: relative, refers to the thought in redintegratls viribus;
trans., with plerumque, 'as generally.'

14. desperatis omnibus rebus: 'in utter despair.' How lit.?
per: 'over.'

16. apertissimis: 'wide and open. 1 Cf. 153, a. campis: 146, c
consectatus : 226, c.

17. quae: subject accusative of convenisse; the antecedent is
milium.

18. multa nocte: 'late at night.' 152, a.

27. 2. quo in numero: we should say 'in the number of whom.'
' among whom.'

3. Tarbelll, etc. : see Map 9. The Tarbelli have left a trace of their
name in modern Tarbes ; the Bigerriones, in Bagneres de Bigorre, a
watering-place in the Pyrenees; the Elusates, in Eauze ; the Ausci. in
Auch ; the Sibusates, in Saubusse.

5. paucae ultimae nationes : i.e. paucae nations* , quae ultimae
erant ; 'a few remote peoples.' tempore: 135, a. B. 219, 1;
A. 431 ; H. 476, 3.



in, 28] Expedition against Morini and Menapii 229



Expedition of Caesar against the Morini and the
Menapii. 28, 29

Caesar proceeds against the Morini and the Menapii.

28. Eodem fere tempore Caesar, etsl prope exacta iam
aestas erat, tamen, quod, omnI Gallia pacata, Morini Mena-
piique supererant, qui in armls essent neque ad eum
umquam legatos de pace misissent, arbitratus id bellum
celeriter c5nfici posse, e5 exercitum duxit ; qui longe alia s
ratione ac reliqui Galli bellum gerere coeperunt. Nam
quod intellegebant, maximas nationes, quae proelid conten-
dissent, pulsas superatasque esse, continentesque silvas ac
paludes habebant, eo se suaque omnia contulerunt.



28. 1. Eodem fere tempore : 'About the same time 'that Crassus
completed the reduction of Aquitania, perhaps in the latter part
of August. The narrative of Caesar's own military operations, inter-
rupted at chap. 16, is here resumed. prope exacta: 'almost
over.'

2. omni Gallia: 'Gaul as a whole.'

3. supererant, etc. : 'were the only remaining (peoples) that were.'
The Morini and Menapii were more
backward than most of the Gauls,
but were good fighters (Fig. 100).
essent: 194, a - neque: trans,
as if et non.

4. arbitratus : 226, c.

5 . exercitum duxit : the distance
traversed in the march from the sea-
coast of the country of the Venetans




Figure 100. — Coin of the Morini.
Gold, but of rude workmanship, par-
have been less than ^ly in the fanciful representation of a
J horse appearing disjointed.

400 English miles. qui: 'but

they.' 167. longe, etc.: 'in away far different from that of the
rest of the Gauls.' How lit. ? 238, c.

8. continentgs : 'continuous.'

9. habebant: coordinate with intellegebant', sc. quod. eo : in
eas [silvas ac paludes~\ .



230 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 5t

co Ad quarum initium silvarum cum Caesar pervenisset
castraque munire instituisset, neque hostis interim visus
esset, dispersis in opere nostris, subito ex omnibus partibus
silvae evolaverunt et in nostros impetum fecerunt. Nostri
celeriter arma ceperunt e5sque in silvas reppulerunt et,

[5 compluribus interfectis, longius impeditioribus locis secuti,
paucos ex suis deperdiderunt.

Hiding in forests, favored by rains, they elude him.

29. ReliquTs deinceps diebus Caesar silvas caedere Tn-
stituit et, ne quis inermibus imprudentibusque militibus ab
latere impetus fieri posset, omnem earn materiam, quae
erat caesa, conversam ad hostem collocabat et pro vallo ad
5 utrumque latus exstruebat. Incredibili celeritate magno
spatio paucls diebus confecto, cum iam pecus atque ex-
trema impedimenta a nostris tenerentur, ipsi densiores
silvas peterent, eius modi sunt tempestates consecutae, uti

13. evolaverunt: ' rushed forth.' How lit.?

15. longius: ' too far.' 153, a. impeditioribus locis : i in places
(that were) much obstructed ' by trees and marshes.

29. 1. deinceps: 'without interruption.' caedere: 'to cut

down.'

2. quis: J+9, a. imprudentibus : ' off their guard.' 144t% (2).

3. materiam: i timber,' here used of untrimmed trees.

4. conversam, etc. : ' turned toward the enemy and laid in order
and built up as a rampart.' How lit.? As the Romans advanced they
felled trees, and placed them, with the tops outwards, at either side of
the space which they cleared, thus forming an effective defense against



Online LibraryJulius CaesarC. Iulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum. Caesar's Commentaries: the Gallic war, books I-Iv, with selections from books V-VII and from the civil war; → online text (page 21 of 73)