Julius Caesar.

C. Iulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum. Caesar's Commentaries: the Gallic war, books I-Iv, with selections from books V-VII and from the civil war; online

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the lurking foe.

6. confecto: 'cleared.' iam. . . tengrentur: ' were already in
our hands.' pecus: 'cattle.' 13, f. extrgma impedimenta:
'the rear of their baggage-train.' 152, a.

7. ipsi: the people themselves, as distinguished from their posses-
sions ; as Caesar cut his way through the woods, they retreated further
and further into the forest fastnesses. 238, a.



in, 29] Expedition against Morini and Menapii 231

opus necessario intermitteretur et continuatione imbrium
diutius sub pellibus milites continerl non possent.

Itaque vastatls omnibus eorum agrls, vicis aedificilsque
incensis, Caesar exercitum reduxit et in Aulercis Lexoviis-
que, reliquls item civitatibus, quae proxime bellum fecerant,
in hibernis collocavit.

9. continuatione: i continuation. ' 135, a, and 81. imbrium:
'rainstorms.' 15, c.

10. sub pellibus: 'intents. 1 How lit.? 335, a.

12. Aulercis, etc.: see Map 9. Lexoviis: chap. 11, 11. 10-12.

13. reliquls civitatibus: Venetans (chapters 12-16), Venellans
(17-19), and Sotiates (20-27).



COMMENTARIUS QUARTUS



Destruction of the Usipetes and Tencteri. 1-15

Pressed by the Suebi, the Usipetes and Tencteri enter Gaul.

1. Ea, quae secuta est, 'hieme, qui fuit annus Cn. Pom-
peio, M. Crasso consulibus, Usipetes German! et item
Tencteri magna cum multitudine hominum fiumen Rhenum
transierunt, non longe a marl, quo Rhenus influit. Causa
s transeundi fuit, quod, ab Suebis complures annos exagitati,
bell5 premebantur et agrl cultura prohibebantur.

Customs, hardihood, and prowess of the Suebi.

Sueborum gens est longe maxima et bellicosissima Ger-
manorum omnium. Hi centum pagos habere dicuntur, ex

1. r. hieme: 12, a, and 147, a. qui: in agreement not with
the antecedent hieme, but with the predicate noun annus. 164, *«
B. 250, 3 ; A. 306; H. 396, 2. annus : 55 B.C. ; Pompey and Cras-
sus entered upon their consulship January 1 of that year. The winter
of 56-55 B.C., according to the calendar in use, fell wholly in 55 B.C. ;
for the old Roman calendar, which was still used, had fallen so far be-
hind, that January I of the official year came on November 30 of the
solar year. A corrected calendar was introduced later by Julius Caesar.

2. consulibus: 240, a. Germain: appositive of both Usipetes
and Tencteri. ^

4. quo : =: in quod. The horde of Usipetes and Tencteri is thought
to have crossed the Rhine near Xanten or Emmerich, below Cologne,
in the region where the Rhine receives the Lippe as tributary. (Map
11, and Fig. 101.)

5. transeundi: 68, b. Sugbis : ancestors of the modern Swa-
bians ; see Map at the end of this volume. annos : / /,S\ a.

6. premgbantur: force of Imperfect? 175, a. cultura: 127, a.

232



MAP II
Operations of 55 and 54 B.C.



Books IV, V.



To face page 232




SCALE OF TNGLISH MILES



SCALE OF ROMAN MILES.



EXPLANATION



MAP 11



I, 2. Winter quarters, 56-55 B.C. (III. 29).

3. Expedition into Germany, 55 B.C.
(IV. 19).

4. March into Britain, 54 B.C. (V. 21).



MAP 11, A

Heavy broken red line, route of main
fleet in 55 B.C. (IV. 23).

Light broken red lines, route of transports
with cavalry, part driven back, part driven
down the channel (IV. 28).

Unbroken red line, route of fleet in 54
B.C. (V. 8).



y a in




( -> heal




J * '"\ / :




f «r \\ l jW/




£ Dovery ;L^ //




Up U \








x&,^




_T Calais


rtus Ulterior


JFw


4/


Por#* ItlifcL




(pfc)».n


<b .



MAP 11, A

Detail of Caesar's crossings to
Britain.



iv, i] Destruction of the Usipetes and Tencteri 233

quibus quotannls singula milia armat5rum bellandi causa
ex finibus educunt. ReliquI, qui domi manserunt, se atque 10
illos alunt ; hi rursus in vicem anno post in armis sunt, ill!
domi remanent. Sic neque agrl cultura nee ratio atque
usus belli intermittitur. Sed privati ac separati agri apud
eos nihil est, neque longius anno remanere un5 in loc5
colendl causa licet. ts




Figure 101. — A typical landscape on the Lower Rhine.

9. singula milia : ' a thousand each ' ; if each clan furnished a
thousand warriors, the armed force of the Swabians must have reached
a total of 100,000 men. bellandi: 230, (1).

10. ex finibus educunt : invasion of neighboring territory is im-
plied, qui domi manserunt : * who (each year) have remained at
home. 1

11. illos: 'the others,' those in the field. hi, 1111 : ' the latter, 1
'the former. 1 161, b. in vicem: 'in turn. 1 anno: I4O1

12. ratio . . . belli: 'the pursuit of war in theory and practice.'
How lit.?

13. intermittitur: 173, a. privati ac separati: 'assigned to
an individual and marked off 1 by boundaries ; the land was held in
common. agri nihil : ' no land. 1 97, a.

14. anno : 129, a. remanere : 222, a.

15. colendi causa :' in order to till the soil. 1 How lit.? Changes



234 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 55

Neque multum frumento, sed maximam partem lacte
atque pecore vivunt, multumque sunt in venationibus ;
quae res, et cibi genere et cotidiana exercitatione et liber-
tate vltae, quod, a pueris nullo officio aut disciplina assue-

2ofacti, nihil omnlno contra voluntatem faciunt, et vires alit
et immani corporum magnitudine homines efficit. Atque
in earn se consuetudinem adduxerunt, ut, locis frlgidissimis,
neque vestitus praeter pelles habeant quicquam, quarum
propter exiguitatem magna est corporis pars aperta, et

25 laventur in fluminibus.

2. Mercatoribus est aditus magis eo, ut, quae bello
ceperint, quibus vendant, habeant, quam quo ullam rem ad

of location were doubtless made each year in order to obtain the best
results from the primitive farming.

16. frumento: ablative of means ; trans, with vivunt, ' they live
on grain.' How lit.? partem: 118, c. lacte: ' milk.' 10, g.

17. pecore: 13, f. multum sunt in: 'devote much time to. 1
How lit. ? venationibus : < hunting,' we should say. 92, a.

18. quae res: * this circumstance,' their devotion to hunting.

et cibi genere : i both by reason of the kind of food ' obtained by
hunting. 135, a.

19. a pueris : 'from childhood.' How lit.? officio: ablative;
'habituated to no obligation or training.' How lit.? 139.

20. et . . . et: 233, a. vires: 18, a.

21. immani: 'huge.' homines: predicate accusative, with eos
understood as object of efficit. Cf. I, 39, 1. 4 and N.

22. in, etc. : ' they have trained themselves to.' How lit.? locis
frlgidissimis : ' (even) in the coldest places.' Ili5, c.

23. neque vestitus — quicquam: 'no clothing.' How lit.?
neque.. . . et: 233, d. habeant: 203, (4). quicquam: 49, a.

25. laventur: 'to bathe.' How lit. ? 174-

2. 1. Mercatoribus, etc.: Mercatoribus est aditus (ad Suibds)
magis eo ('on this account'), ut (eos) habeant quibus vendant (ea),
quae bello ceperint, quam, etc.

2. cSperint: 220. [eos] quibus vendant : ( those to whom they
may sell ' ; purchasers for their booty are meant. 194 f a- quam
quo : = quam eo quod, 'than for the reason that/ 183, c.



IV, 2] Destruction of the Usipetes and Tencteri 235

se importari desiderent. Quin etiam iumentis, quibus
maxime Galli delectantur quaeque impenso parant pretio,
GermanI importatis non utuntur, sed quae sunt apud eos 5
nata, parva atque deformia, haec cotidiana exercitatione,
summl ut sint laboris, efficiunt.

Equestribus proeliis saepe ex equis desiliunt ac pedibus
proeliantur, equosque eodem remanere vestigio assuefe-
cerunt, ad qu5s se celeriter, cum usus est, recipiunt ; neque io
eorum moribus turpius quicquam aut inertius habetur, quam
ephipphs uti. Itaque ad quemvis numerum ephippiatorum
equitum quamvis paucl adlre audent.




3. desiderent: ' desire. 1 iumentis: with utuntur (131, c) ;
emphatic by position. Horses alone are meant. 353, d.

4. maxime delectantur : < have very great pleasure.' How lit. ?
impenso pretio: 'at an extravagant price. 1 141- parant: 'ob-
tain. 1 So great was the interest of the
Gauls in horses that they developed
choice breeds, and Gallic horses were
in demand in Rome. The horse
figures prominently on Gallic coins
(Fig. 102).

6. deformia: 'unsightly.'

7. summl laboris : '(capable) of
the greatest endurance. 1 100, b. B.
203, 5; A. 345; H. 447- sint:
203, (3).

8. desiliunt: 'leap down. 1 pedibus: 'on foot. 1 Why ablative?

9. eodem vestigio : ' on the same spot' where they have been left.
145, c.

10. cum usus est: ^hen it is necessary.' 186, a. neque —
quicquam : 168.

ii. oorum moribus :' according to their view.' How lit. ? 136, c.
inertius : ' more unmanly. 1 habetur : ' is regarded. 1

12. ephippiis : ' saddle-cloth j,' padded, spread over the horse's
back, and taking the place of our saddles. quemvis : 49 } a.
ephippiatorum: 'riding with saddle-cloths.'

13. quamvis paucT : 'however few ' In numb?'



Figure 102. — Coin of the
Treverans.

Gold. Fanciful design on the obverse.
Reverse: horse galloping, wheel, star;
above, the letter V.



236 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 55

Vlnum omnino ad se importarl non patiuntur, quod ea re
is ad laborem ferendum remollescere homines atque effe-
minarl arbitrantur.

3. Publice maximam putant esse laudem, quam latissime

a suis finibus vacare agros ; hac re significari, magnum

numerum civitatum suam vim sustinere non posse. Itaque

una ex parte a Suebis circiter milia passuum c agri vacare

s dicuntur.

Ad alteram partem succedunt Ubil, quorum fuit civitas
ampla atque florens, ut est captus Germanorum ; el paulo
sunt eiusdem generis ceteris humaniores, propterea quod
Rhenum attingunt, multumque ad e5s mercatores ventitant,
ioet ipsi propter propinquitatem Gallicis sunt moribus assue-
facti. Hos cum Suebl, multis saepe bellis expert!, propter

14. Vlnum, etc. : cf. II, 15, 11. 10-13. r§ : 135, a.

15. remollescere : i lose their vigor.'

3. 1. Publice: <for a people.' How lit.? laudem: 88, a.
quam : 153, c.

2. vacare agros : subject of esse. significari: the subject is the
infinitive clause following.

4. una ex parte : ' on one side.' The east side is meant, and the
country left vacant was probably Bohemia, from which the Boii had
withdrawn; cf. I, 5, 11. 12-14. The name Boii survives in "Bohemia."
Su6bis: 282. milia: 118, a. C: 88, b, and 36. agri :
nominative plural. 172, d.

6. Ad alteram partem : 'On the opposite side,' toward the Rhine.
How lit. ? fuit : the past t'ense implies that the condition described
no longer exists.

7. ut est captus Germanorum: i according to the German
standard.' How lit.?

8. eiusdem generis cgteris : i.e. than the rest of the Germans.
129, a. humaniores: ' more civilized.'

9. multum ventitant : ' freely come and go.' 78, a.

10. sunt, etc. : * have become familiar with,' etc. Caesar gives an
interesting comparison between Gallic and German customs later (VI,
chapters n-24). 189.

n. expert! : < although they had tried.' How lit.? 227, a, (3).



iv, 4] Destruction of the Usipetes and Tencteri 237

amplitudinem gravitatemque civitatis finibus expellere non
potuissent, tamen vectlgales sibi fecerunt ac multo humili-
ores infirmioresque redegerunt.

By strategy the Usipetes and Tencteri overcome the Menapii.

4. In eadem causa fuerunt Usipetes et Tencteri, quos
supra diximus, qui complures annos Sueborum vim sustinu-
erunt ; ad extremum tamen, agris expulsl et multis locis
Germaniae triennium vagati, ad Rhenum pervenerunt, quas
regiSnes Menapii incolebant. Hi ad utramque ripam s
fluminis agros, aedificia vicosque habebant ; sed, tantae
multitudinis aditu perterriti, ex eis aedificiis, quae trans
flumen habuerant, demigraverunt et cis Rhenum, dispositis
praesidiis, Germanos transire prohibebant.

Illi, omnia ex'perti, cum neque vi contendere propter io
inopiam navium neque clam transire propter custodias

12. gravitatem : here < power of resistance.' civitatis: of the
Ubii. finibus : 127, a.

13. vectlgales: predicate accusative; 'made (them) tributary.'
115, b. multo, etc.: 'caused them to become much less prominent
and powerful.' How lit.?

4. 1. eadem causa: 'the same condition' of subjection to the
Swabians.

2. supra: chap. 1, 11. 1-6. annos.: 118, a.

3. ad extremum: 'finally.' multis locis : 'over many parts.'
145, c.

4. triennium : used instead of tres annos. quas regiones : ' (to)
the districts which ' ; in full, ad eas regiones quas. 165, c.

6. aedificia, vicos : cf. Notes to I, 5, 11. 4, 5. tantae mul-
titudinis: reported as 430,000 (chap. 15, 1. 8).

7. trans flumen : on the east side of the Rhine ; Caesar writes from
the point of view of one in Gaul.

8. demigraverunt: 'they moved away.'

9. Germanos transire : ' the Germans from crossing.' 223, a, (3).

10. 111! : German!.- omnia expert!: ' having tried every expe-
dient.' How lit. ? vi contendere : ' to force a passage.'



238 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 55

Menapiorum possent, revertl se in suas sedes regionesque
simulaverunt et, tridul viam progress!, rursus reverterunt
atque, omnI h5c itinere una nocte equitatu confecto, inscios

is inopinantesque Menapios oppresserunt, qui, de Germa-
norum discessu per explorat5res certiores facti, sine metu
trans Rhenum in suos vicos remigraverant. His inter-
fectis navibusque eorum occupatls, prius quam ea pars
Menapiorum, quae citra Rhenum erat, certior fieret, fluraen

20 transierunt atque, omnibus eorum aedificils occupatis, reli-
quam partem hiemis se eorum copiis aluerunt.

Caesar fears the effect of this victory upon the fickle Oaids.

5. His de rebus Caesar certior factus et Infirmitatem
Gallorum veritus, quod sunt in consilils capiendis mobiles
et novis plerumque rebus student, nihil bis committendum
existimavit
5 Est enim hoc Gallicae consuetudinis, uti et viatores,
etiam invitos, consistere cogant et, quid quisque eorum de

13. tridtri : trans, as. if trium die} -urn. 100, a. viam: 117, b.

14. omni hoc itinere confecto: 'covered the entire distance —
and. 1 How lit.? 144- b, (2). equitatti : 181, a. inscios: 'be-
ing in ignorance 1 of what the Germans were doing.

17. trans : to the east side. remigraverant : ' had moved back. 1

19. fieret: 189, b. B. 292, \,b\ A. 551, b\ H. 605, 11.

21. partem: 118, a. eorum: the iMenapii on the west side of
the Rhine. eorum copiis : ' with their supplies. 1

5. 1. infirmitatem : i fickleness. 1 Cf. Ill, 19, 11. 17-20, and Notes.

3. nihil his committendum [esse]: 'that no reliance whatever
ought to be placed on them. 1 73, e. nihil : = emphatic non. IIS, < .
B. 176, 2, b\ A. 390, d, n. 2 ; H. 416, 2.

5. Est . . . cogant: 'For it is a custom of the Gauls to compel, 1
etc. How lit. ? consugtudinis : 100, b. uti cogant. quaerant.
circumsistat, cogat : explain hoc. 203, (4). viatorfis : ' travel-
ers, 1 on country roads.

6. invitos : lhl. cogant : the subject is supplied in thought from
Gallicae, as if it were Gallorum. quid: 204,(2). eSruni : 97, a.



iv, 5] Destruction of the Usipetes and Tencteri 239



quaque re audierit aut cognoverit, quaerant, et mercatorcs
in oppidis vulgus circumsistat, quibusque ex regionibus
veniant quasque ibi res cognoverint, pronuntiare cogat.
His rebus atque audltionibus permoti, de sumrals saepe 10
rebus consilia ineunt, quorum eos in vestlgi5 paenitere
necesse est, cum incertis rumoribus serviant et plerique ad
voluntatem eorum ficta respondeant.




Figure 103. — Falls of the Rhine at Schaffhausen.

7. quaque: 49, a. audierit: #,£,#, (3).

8. vulgus : 6, b. quibusque : = quibus (4#, b) 4- -que.

9. quasque := quds + -que. 204,(2). pronuntiare : i (them)
to declare. 1

10. rebus atque audltionibus: 'reports and mere hearsay.'
How lit. ? summis: 'of the utmost importance.'

n. quorum: ; of which they must immediately repent.' How lit.?
103, c. B. 209, 1 ; A. 354, b\ H. 457. paenitere: subject of est.
73, a.

12. incertis: 'indefinite.' serviant: ' they subject themselves.'
184, a. plerique : ' most men,' when questioned. ad, etc. : ' make
up answers to gratify them.' How lit. ?



240 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 55

He resolves to fight the Usipetes and Tencteri.

6. Qua consuetudine cognita, Caesar, ne graviori bello
occurreret, maturius, quam consuerat, ad exercitum profi-
clscitur. Eo cum venisset, ea, quae fore suspicatus erat,
facta cognovit ; missas legationes ab non nullls clvitatibus

s ad Germanos invltatosque eos, utl ab Rheno discederent ;
omniaque, quae postulassent, ab se fore parata. Qua spe
adducti, German! latius iam vagabantur et in fines Eburo-
num et Condrusorum, qui sunt Trever5rum clientes, per-
venerant.

10 Principibus Galliae evocatis, Caesar ea, quae cognoverat,
dissimulanda sibi existimavlt eorumque animis permulsls et
confirmatis, equitatuque imperato, bellum cum Germanis
gerere constituit.

6. 1. graviori: 'quite serious,' in case the fickle Gauls and the
Germans should unite against him. 158, a. bello : 107, a.

2. maturius: 'earlier 1 in the spring, perhaps in the first part of
April. 84, a. exercitum: divided up for winter quarters, among
the Lexovii and other states, in the autumn of 56 B.C. (Ill, 29, 11. 12-
14) ; now probably brought together again, near the lower Seine, in
advance of Caesar's arrival.

3. E6 : ad exercitum . fore: 4 would take place.'

4. facta, missas, invitatos : sc. esse.

5. uti, etc. : i.e. to proceed toward the interior of Gaul in order to
help drive the Romans out.

6. omniaque: 'and (with the promise) that everything.' 218, b. t
postulassent : future perfect indicative in the direct form. 6^, a. ( 1 ).
fore parata : a substitute for the future infinitive passive. Qua sp6 :
'by this prospect. 1 1(>7.

8. Eburonum, Condrusorum, etc. : see Map at the end of the
volume.

11. dissimulanda [esse] : 'ought to be kept secret.' permul-
sls : ' having soothed.' How lit. ?

13. constituit: here not ' determined, 1 but 'announced his inten-
tion ' ; he had previously made up his mind.



iv, 7] Destruction of the Usipetes and Tencteri 241

He marches near; the Germans parley, assert their rights in
Gaul, and request lands.

7. Re frumentaria comparata equitibusque delectis, iter
in ea loca facere coepit, quibus in locis esse German5s
audiebat. A quibus cum paucorum dierum iter abesset,
legati ab his venerunt, quorum haec fuit oratio :

Germdnos neque priores populo Romdnd be Hum inferre, $
neque tamcn recusdre, si lacessantur, quin armis contendant,
qaod Germanorum consuetudo sit a maioribus trddita, qui-
cumqite bellum inferant, resistere neque deprecdri.

Haec tamen dicere, venisse invitos, eiectos domo ; si suam
grdtiam Romani velint, posse els utiles esse amicos ; velic
sibi agros attribuant vel patiantur eos tenere, quos armis
possederint : sese unis Suebis co?icedere, quibus ne di quidem



7. 2. iter facere : < to march.' locis : 165, a.

3. quibus: 'these (places). 1 167. digrum : 100, a. iter:
118, a, and 243, c.

4. quorum, etc. : i whose plea was as follows.' 161, a.

5. G-ermanos, etc.: 'that the Germans did not take the lead in
making war . . . and that, nevertheless, they would not refuse to fight.'
How lit. ? priores : 152, b.

6. lacessantur : present, used for greater vividness, where a past
tense might have been expected. 218, (1), a. contendant: sub-
junctive also in the direct form. 201, a.

8. quicumque : 5b, a. resistere: sc. els (1 05), as antecedent of
qiticutnque. 79, d. neque deprecari : i and not to beg for mercy.'

9-14. Direct form : Haec tamen duimus, (nos) venisse invitos, eiect5s
dom5; si (vos Rdmdni) nostram gratiam vultis, possumus vobis utiles esse
amicos; vel nobis agros attribuite (216) vel paliminl (nos) eos (agros)
tenere, qu5s armis possedimus ; unis Suebis concedimus, quibus ne di quidem
immortales pares esse possint (194, «) 5 rdiquus quidem in terrls est nemo,
quern n5n superare possimus.

9. dicere, venisse, posse, tenere (1. 11) : sc. se. 215. giectos :
'because they had been driven forth.' 227, a, (1). domo: 127, a.

12. possederint: from possldo. unis : 'alone. 1 23, a. di:
8, d, and 237, c. concedere : ' admitted inferiority.'



242 Caesar's Gallic War [b<

immortdles pares esse possent ; reliquitm quidem in terris
esse neminem, quern non superdre possint.

Caesar insists that they go back to Germany; parleying continues.

8. Ad haec Caesar, quae visum est, respondit ; sed exitus
fuit orationis :

Sibi nullam cum his amicitiam esse posse, si in Gallia
remanerent ; neque verum esse, qui suds fines tuerl non
spotuerint, alienos occupdre ; neque ullos in Gallia vacare
agrds, qui darl, tantae praesertim multitudinl, sine iuiurid
possint ; sed licere, si velint, in Ubiorum flnibus consider e,
quorum sint legdtl apud se et de Sueborum iniurils qucrau-
tur et a se auxilium petant ; hoc se Ubils imperdturum.

9. Legati haec se ad suos relaturos dixerunt et, re deli-
berata, post diem tertium ad Caesarem reversuros ; interea
ne propius se castra moveret, petierunt. Ne id quidem

13. reliquum lieminem : ' no one else.' 12, d. in terris : • on
earth ' ; why is terris plural ?

8. 1. visum est: sc. respondere. Caesar does not give the whole
of his answer, which perhaps followed the same line of argument as his
statement to Ariovistus (I, chap. 45).

3. Sibi, etc. : in the direct form, Mihi nulla cum v&bfs antic Hi a esse
potest, i I can have no friendly relations with you.' Ill, and 212, c, (1).

4. verum : consistent with what is true, ' a fair thing. 1 qui : for
antecedent supply eos as subject-accusative with onitpare.

5. alignos : sc. fines ; ' of others.'

7. possint, etc. : the present tense is used for the sake of vividmss.
licere : sc. ets. 73, a, b.

8. apud s§ : * with him.' SuSborum iniurils : chap. 3. 11. 6-14.

9. hoc, etc.: 'that he would order the Ubii (to allow them to do)
this,' lit. 'he would command this to the Ubii.' Caesar could 'order'
the Ubii because he held hostages from that people (chap. 16. 11. 19-20).

9. 2. post diem tertium: 'in three days.* I.e. 'the next day but
one'; in such expressions the Romans included the days with which a
period began and ended.

3. propius s6: 123, b. movgret : 199, a.



iv, 9] Destruction of the Usipetes and Tencteri 243

Caesar ab se impetrari posse dixit. Cognoverat enim,
magnam partem equitatus ab els, aliquot diebus ante, prae- 5
dandl frumentandlque causa ad Ambivarit5s trans Mosam
missam ; hos exspectarl equites atque eius rei.-pausa moram
interponl arbitratur.




Figure 104. — Along the Meuse, below Namur.
Women are unloading clay from a canal boat.



4. ab: 'from.''

5. diebus: lJfi. B. 223; A. 424,/; H. 488, 1.

6. frumentandi causa : ' to forage. 1 How lit. ? trafts : ' across '
to the west side of the Meuse (Fig. 104) ; the main body, and Caesar,
were on the east side, between the Meuse and the Rhine.

7. hos exspectarl, etc. : in order that an attack with all their
forces might be made upon the Romans. rei: the return of the
cavalry.



244 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 55

Description of the Rhine region.

[10. Mosa profluit ex monte Vosego, qui est in finibus
Lingonum, et parte quadam ex Rheno recepta, quae appel-
lator Vacalu* Insulam efficit Batavorum, neque longius ab
eo mllibus passuum lxxx in Oceanum Influit.

s Rhenus autem oritur ex Lepontiis, qui Alpes incolunt,
et longo spatio per fines Nantuatium, Helvetiorum, Se-
quanorum, Mediomatricorum, Tribocorum, Treverorum cita-
tus fertur et, ubi Oceano appropinquavit, in plures diffluit
partes, multis ingentibusque Insulis effectls, quarum pars

io magna a feris barbarisque nationibus incolitur (ex quibus
sunt, qui piscibus atque ovls avium vivere existimantur),
multisque capitibus in Oceanum Influit.]

10. 1-12. On account of certain difficulties and inconsistencies in
this chapter many think that it was not written by Caesar, but added
later by some one who wished to supply a geographical background for
this part of the narrative ; the Meuse, for example, does not rise in the
Vosges mountains, and the Rhine could hardly have flowed through
the country of the Nantuates. Nevertheless the rapid current of the
Rhine is referred to, which is particularly noticeable in the upper part
of its course, as at Schaffhausen (Fig. 103) ; and we cannot assume that
Caesar had accurate knowledge of regions so far from those which he
himself had visited.

If the chapter is omitted, there is an easy transition from chap. 9 to
chap. 11. Translation: —

'The Meuse rises in the Vosges mountains, which are in the country of the
Lingones; receiving from the Rhine an affluent, which is called the Waal, it
forms (with this) the island of the Batavians, and not further from this than
eighty miles it flows into the Ocean.

'The Rhine, moreover, rises in the country of the Lepontii, who dwell in
the Alps, and in a long course flows rapidly through the territories of the
Nantuates, the Helvetians, the Sequanians, the Mediomatrici, the Triboei.and



Online LibraryJulius CaesarC. Iulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum. Caesar's Commentaries: the Gallic war, books I-Iv, with selections from books V-VII and from the civil war; → online text (page 22 of 73)