Julius Caesar.

C. Iulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum. Caesar's Commentaries: the Gallic war, books I-Iv, with selections from books V-VII and from the civil war; online

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the Treverans; where it approaches the Ocean it divides up into several
branches, forming many large islands. Of these (islands) a considerable
portion are inhabited by wild and savage tribes, some of whom are believed
to live on fish and birds' eggs. (The Rhine) flows into the Ocean through
many mouths.'



iv, ii] Destruction of the Usipetes and Tencteri 245

The parleying, Caesar concludes, is continued merely to gain time.

11. Caesar cum ab hoste non amplius passuum xn mlli-
bus abesset, ut erat constitutum, ad eum legati revertuntur ;
qui in itinere congressl magnopere, ne longius progredere-
tur, orabant. Cum. id non impetrassent, petebant, uti ad
eos equites, qui agmen antecessissent, praemitteret eosque s
pugna prohiberet, sibique ut potestatem faceret in Ubios
legatos mittendi ; quorum si principes ac senatus sibi iure
iurando fidem fecisset, ea condicione, quae a Caesare ferre-
tur, se usiiros ostendebant; ad has res conficiendas sibi
tridul spatium daret. ic

Haec omnia Caesar eodem illo pertinere arbitrabatur, ut,
tridul mora interposita, equites eorum, qui abessent, rever-
terentur ; tamen sese non longius mllibus passuum mi,
aqudtionis causa } processurum eo die dixit ; hue postero die

11. i. cum ab hoste, etc.: after denying the request of the Ger-
mans (chap. 9, 1. 3), Caesar evidently had marched toward them.
XII : 38, b, and 86. mllibus : 129, a.

2. ut erat constitutum : the agreement was that the envoys
should return in three days (chap. 9, 1. 2). 73, d.

3. congressl: sc. cum eo, 'meeting him.' 57, c, and 226, c.
progrederetur : 199, a.

5. antecessissent: 220, and 328. praemitteret: here without
an object ; with ad eos equites, ' that he send forward to,' etc.

6. pugna : 127, a. sibi, etc. : < that he would give them permis-
sion to send.' How lit.?

8. iure iurando fidem fecisset: ' should have bound themselves
by an oath. 1 13, h. How lit.? fecisset: agrees with the nearer
subject. 172, b. ea, etc.: ' that they would accept the terms pro-
posed by Caesar.' 131, c. How lit. ?

10. daret : da in the direct form. 216.

11. eodem illo pertinere: 'had the same end in view.' How
lit.? ut, etc. : explaining eodem illo. 199, a.

12. abessent: 220. Cf. chap. 9, 11. 4-8.

14. aquationis causa: 'in order to get water.' 94, b. hue: to
the place where he was at the time of the conference.



246 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 55

is quam frequentissimi convenirent, lit de edrum postulatis
cognosceret.

Interim ad praefectos, qui cum omnI equitatu antecesse-
rant, mittit, qui nuntiarent, ne hostes proelio lacesserent et,
si ipsi lacesserentur, sustinerent, quoad ipse cum exercitu

20 propius accessisset.

The German cavalry surprises and routs the cavalry of Ca<<s<>r.

12. At hostes, ubi primum nostros equites conspexerunt,
quorum erat v milium numerus, cum ipsi non amplius dCcc
equites haberent, quod el, qui frumentandi causa erant
trans Mosam profecti, nondum redierant, nihil timentibus
s nostrls, quod legati eorum paulo ante a Caesare discesse-
rant atque is dies indutils erat ab his petitus, impetu facto
celeriter nostros perturbaverunt ; rursus his resistentibus,
consuetudine sua ad pedes desiluerunt, subfossisque equis

15. quam frequentissimi: l in as great numbers as possible. 1
153, c. convenirent: convenite in the direct form. 216.

17. praefectos: 309, c. equitatu: 137, a.

18. qui nuntiarent : < (men) to convey the order.' 193, a.

19. sustingrent : sc. ut. 200, a. The Roman cavalry were ordered
to act on the defensive.

20. accessisset: subjunctive also in the direct form. 190, c.
B. 293, in, 2 ; A. SS3 ; H. 603, 11, 2.

12. I. ubi primum: 188, c. nostros equites: the Roman
cavalry had apparently advanced in the direction of the German camp.

2. V milium : 309, b, and 100, a. cum : 187. DCCC : octin-
gentos. 38, b, and 36.

3. equites: 129, b. el . . . profecti: chap. 9, 11. 4-8.

6. indutils: 'for a truce.' 112, a. Caesar explains why his cav-
alry were caught off their guard. impetu facto: 'charged and.'
How lit.? lU,b,(2).

7. his : the Roman cavalry.

8. consuetudine: 136, c. sua: 157, b. ad pedes : 'to the
ground,' we should say. 10, b. desiluerunt : from their horses,
subfossis . . . deiectis : 'stabbed the horses (of our cavalry) under-
neath and dismounted quite a number of our men and.' How lit.?



iv, 12] Destruction of the Usipetes and Tencteri 247

compluribusque nostfls deiectls, reliquos in fugam coniece-
runt atque ita perterritos egerunt, ut non prius fuga desis- 10
terent, quam in conspectum agminis nostri venissent.

Bravery of the Aquitanian, Piso, in the skirmish.
In eo proelio ex equitibus nostris interficiuntur mi et lxx,
in his vir fortissimus, Piso Aquitanus, amplissimo genere
natus, cuius avus in civitate sua regnum obtinuerat, amicus




Figure 105. — The slopes of the Rhine Valley.



9. reliquos : sc. nostros. fugam : the flight of the Gallic cav-
alry, as in a previous instance (I, 18, 11. 27-31), may have been stimu-
lated by treachery among the native leaders.

1 1 . agminis : the main force. venissent : subjunctive by attrac-
tion. 189, a, and 220.

12. ex equitibus: 97, d. IIII et LXX: quattuor et septua-
ginta. 88, b. The result of the skirmish showed the superiority of the
German over the Gallic cavalry. Caesar afterwards hired German
horsemen, and made much use of them (VII, 80, 1. 20 and n.).

13. Piso : a Roman name, probably conferred on some Aquitanian
with the Roman citizenship; cf. I, chap. 47, 1. 13 and N. genere:
128, a. B. 215 ; A. 403, 2, a ; H. 469, 2.

14. amicus : cf. I, 3, 1. 13 and N. 88, a.



248 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 55

is a senatu nostro appellatus. Hie cum fratri, intercluso ab
hostibus, auxilium ferret, ilium ex periculo eripuit, ipse, equo
vulnerato, deiectus, quoad potuit, fortissime restitit ; cum
circumventus, multis vulneribus acceptis, cecidisset, atque
id frater, qui iam proelio excesserat, procul animadvertisset,

2oincitato equo se hostibus obtulit atque interfectus est.

The German leaders come to offer apology ; Caesar detains them.

# 13. Hoc facto proelio Caesar neque iam sibi legatos
audiend5s neque condiciones accipiendas arbitrabatur ab
eis, qui per dolum atque Insidias, petita pace, ultro bellum
intulissent ; exspectare vero, dum hostium copiae augeren-
5 tur equitatusque reverteretur, suramae (Jementiae esse iudi-
cabat ; et, cognita Gallorum inflrmitate, quantum iam apud
eos hostes uno proelio auctoritatis essent consecuti, sentiebat ;
quibus ad consilia capienda nihil spatii dandum existimabat.

17. dgiectus: 'although thrown ' from his horse, he continued to
fight on foot. 007, a, (3). potuit: 190, c.

19. id: 'that (mishap).' proelio: 127, a.

20. incitato equo: 'urging his horse forward.' How lit.? se
hostibus obtulit: 'he hurled himself upon the enemy.' Many in-
stances of individual bravery and devotion are recorded by Caesar.

13. i. Hoc facto proelio: 'After this battle.' How lit.?

2. audiendos : 89, c. ab : 'from'; Caesar had arranged to take
up their proposals (chap, u, 11. 14-15) on the following day.

3. per dolum atque insidias: " craftily and treacherously.' How
lit.? ultro: 'without provocation.' How lit.? bellum intul-
issent: 'had made an attack.'

4. exspectare: subject of esse. 222, b. dum: ' until/ with the
subjunctive also in the direct form. 190, b. B. 293, in, 2 ; A. 553 ; H.
603, 11, 2.

5. summae dementiae esse: 'that it was the height of folly.'
How lit.? 100, b.

6. Inflrmitate: cf. chap. 5, 11. 1-3. quantum auctoritatis:
' how great prestige.' 97, b, and 204, (3)-

8. quibus: trans, as if et els. ad, etc. : 230, (3). nihil spatii 1
' no time.' 97, a.



iv, 13] Destruction of the Usipetes and Tencteri 249

His constitutis rebus et consilio cum legatis et quaes-
tore communicato, ne quem diem pugnae praetermitteret, 10
opportunissima res accidit, quod postridie eius die! mane,
eadem et simulatione et perfidia usl, German! frequentes,
omnibus prlncipibus maioribusque natu adhibitis, ad eum
in castra venerunt, simul, ut dicebatur, sui purgandi causa,
quod contra, atque esset dictum et ipsl petissent, proelium 15
prldie commisissent, simul ut, si quid possent, de indutiis
fallend5 impetrarent. Quos sibi Caesar oblatos gavisus,
illos retineri iussit ; ipse omnes cdpias castrls eduxit equita-
tumque, quod recent! proelio perterritum esse existimabat,
agmen subsequi iussit. 2 °

9. consilio : ' determination,' explained by the appositive clause
ne . . . praetermittet, 'not to let slip any chance to fight, 1 lit. 'any
day of battle/ cum — communicato : < after he had imparted
to.' How lit. ? 187, c. quaestore : 313, b.

1 1 . die! : 94, c. mane : i early in the morning. 1

12. eadem: < the same 1 as before. perfidia: 'treachery. 1 To
justify his own course Caesar accuses the Germans of bad faith. But
if they did not mean what they said, why did so many of them trust
themselves in Caesar's power? The collision on the previous day may
have been precipitated by hotheads, without the approval of the leaders
of the German host.

14 simul — simul: 'both — and. 1 sui purgandi causa: 'in

order to clear themselves. 1 154, b, and 230, (1). B. 339, 5 ; A. 504,
c\ H. 626, 3.

15. quod, etc. : 'because, contrary to what had been said. 1 con-
tra : adverb. atque : 233, c.

16. commisissent: '(as they admitted) they had started the
battle. 1 183, a. si quid possent: 'if in any degree possible. 1
How lit. ? 118, b. de : ' in the matter of. 1

17. fallendo: 'by playing false.' Quos: 167. oblatos [esse] :
69, b. gavisus : ' rejoicing.' 62, and 226, e.

20. agmen subsequi: 'to follow the main force,' i.e. to bring up
the rear, instead of leading the van, as the cavalry usually did. 328.



250 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 55

Surprising the leaderless German host, he utterty destroys it.

14. Acie triplici Instituta et celeriter vin milium itinere
confect5, prius ad hostium castra pervenit, quam, quid
ageretur, GermanI sentlre possent. Qui omnibus rebus
subito perterriti, et celeritate adventus nostri et discessu
s suorum, neque cdnsilii habendl neque arma capiendi spatio
dato, perturbantur, copiasne adversus hostem ducere, an
castra defendere, an fuga salutem petere praestaret.

Quorum timor cum fremitu et concursu significaretur,
milites nostri, prlstini diel perfidia incitati, in castra irrupe-
io runt. Quo loco, qui celeriter arma capere potuerunt, pau-
lisper nostrls restiterunt atque inter carros impedimentaque
proelium commiserunt; at reliqua multitudo puerorum
mulierumque (nam cum omnibus suis domo excesserant

14. i. Aci§ triplici: 387, a. VIII: 38, b. itinere: the army
probably marched in three parallel columns, which deployed as they
neared the camp ©f the enemy. The country must have been open and
fairly level to admit of the rapid execution of the movement.

2. prius . . . quam . . . possent: 189, b. B. 292, \,b\ A. 551,
b\ H. 605, 11. hostium castra: a corral protected by carts, like
that of the Helvetians (I, 26, 1. 8).

4. et — et: 'both — and.' 233, a.

5. suorum : the German leaders who had gone to Caesar and were
held by him under guard. consilii . . . capiendi : gerundive and
gerund in coordinate construction ; trans. i for, 1 etc. 230, (1). spa-
tio : tempore.

6. perturbantur: 'were (too) confused (to decide).' ne . . .
an . . . an: 'whether . . . or . . . or.' 204, (1). ducere: 222, a.

8. Quorum: 167. cum: 185, c.

9. pristini dig! : * of the previous day.' irruperunt : ' burst into. 1

10. Quo loco : castrls Germ&ndrum.

11. restiterunt: sc. cf, antecedent of qui. inter carros, etc.:
cf. I, 26, 11. 7-1 1.

12. at: 236, a. reliqua, etc: 'the rest of the host (consisting)
of women and children. 1 98, a.

13. cum: n. to 1,1,1- 13- excesserant: i.e. Usipetes et Tencterl.



iv, 15] Destruction of the Usipetes and Tencteri 251



Rhenumque transierant) passim fugere coepit ; ad quos
consectandos Caesar equitatum misit. 15

15. German!, post tergum clamore audito, cum suos in-
terfici viderent, armis abiectls signlsque mllitaribus relictls,
se ex castris eiecerunt, et cum ad confluentem Mosae et







mm


M ■"■


- -




'S%=j$*^'"






~^~~







Figure 106. — The Moselle at Beilstein ; ruins of the castle at the right.

14. quos: the antecedent is multitude. 164, d. Caesar's conduct
in detaining the German leaders, who had come to him under a flag of
truce, and then attacking and pursuing the leaderless host without
mercy, seems treacherous and unlike his ordinary procedure. When
afterwards his friends proposed, in the Roman senate, a thanksgiving
for the victory, Cato urged that Caesar be delivered up to those whom
he had treacherously entrapped, as an atonement for the wrong. Not
much weight should be attached to this as a judgment on Caesar's course,
however, for debates in the Roman senate, as in our own, were colored
by political and personal antagonisms.

15. 1. Germain: the warriors who armed for defense when the camp
was attacked (chap. 14, 1. 10). clamore: ' the shrieking' of the
women and children, part of whom were cut down by the legionaries
entering the camp, part by the cavalry after they had fled from the camp.

3. confluentem: ' confluence.' Mosae: probably the Moselle
(Fig. 106) is here meant, not the Meuse; Mosellae may have been



252 Caesars Gallic War [B.C. 55

RhenI pervenissent, reliqua fuga desperata, magno numero
sinterfecto, reliqul se in flumen praecipitaverunt atque ibi
timore, lassitudine, vi fluminis oppressl perierunt. Nostri
ad iinum omnes incolumes, perpaucis vulneratis, ex tantl
belli timore, cum hostium numerus capitum ccccxxx mi-
' Hum fuisset, se in castra receperunt.

10 Caesar els, quos in castris retinuerat, discedendi potesta-
tem fecit. Illi, supplicia cruciatusque Gallorum veriti,
quorum agros vexaverant, remanere se apud eum velle
dlxerunt. His Caesar llbertatem concessit.

First Expedition into Germany. 16-19

Caesar resolves to cross the Rhine and enter Germany.

16. Germanico bello confecto, multis de causls Caesar
statuit sibi Rhenum esse transeundum ; quarum ilia fuit

written and changed to Mosae in copying. It seems probable that the
German camp was south of the Moselle and that the fleeing warriors
came to the region of Coblenz, which lies in the angle formed by the
Moselle as it enters the Rhine.

4. reliqua, etc. : i abandoning hope of further flight. 1 How lit. ?

5. flumen: the Rhine, at Coblenz.

6. lassitudine : in consequence of the fighting and running.

7. ad unum : i to a man. 1 incolumes : ' in safety. 1 ex . . .
cum : ' notwithstanding (their) apprehension of a hard campaign,
since. 1 184, a. How lit.?

8. capitum . . . fuisset : * had amounted to 430,000 ' : cf. n. to I,
29, 1. 6. 100, b. CCCCXXX: = quadringento) um trfginfd. 38, b,
and 36. If, as among the Helvetians, one fourth were fighting-men,
the Usipetes and Tencteri mustered an army of more than 130,000.
The number seems greatly exaggerated.

n. veriti: 61, a, (2), and 226, c.

13. llbertatem: 'leave 1 to stay. They probably entered his ser-
vice as mercenaries.

16. 2. quarum : 97, a. ilia : 161, a.



iv, 16] First Expedition into Germany 253

iustissima, quod, cum videret Germanos tarn facile impelll,
ut in Galliam venlrent, suis quoque rebus eos timere voluit,
jzum intellegerent, et posse et audere popull Roman! exer- 5
citum Rhenum translre.

Accessit etiam, quod ilia pars equitatus Usipetum et
Tencterorum, quam supra commemoravi praedandi fru-
mentandique causa Mosam transisse neque proelio inter-
fuisse, post f ugam suorum se trans Rhenum in fines 10
Sugambrorum receperat seque cum els coniunxerat. Ad
quos cum Caesar nuntios misisset, qui postularent, eos,
qui sibi Galliaeque bellum intulissent, sibi dederent,
responderunt : ; #

Popull Romdnl imperium Rhenum finire ; si, se invito, 15
Germanos in Galliam translre non aequum exlstimaret, cur
sul quicquam esse imperii aut potestdtis trans Rhenum
postularet ?

3. iustissima: 'the most weighty.' quod . . . voluit: ex-
plains ilia [causa'] .

4. ut . . . venlrent : l to come.' 199, a. suis quoque rebus :
* for their own interests also. 1

5 . cum : cum temporal has here a conditional force also ; * in
case. 1

7. Accessit etiam quod: 'There was the further reason that.'
198, a, and b.

8. supra: chap. 9, 11. 4-8. commemoravi: cf. demonstravi-
mus, II, 1, 1. 2, and N.

12. quos: SugamSros. postularent: 193, a.

13. dederent: 200, a. B. 295, 8 ; A. 565, a ; H. 562, 1, N.

15. imperium Rhenum finire : i.e. Rhenum (subject accusative)
esse finem ('limit 1 ) imperii. se invito : N. to I, 8, 1. 7.

16. aequum: 'right 1 ; in predicate, neuter, accusative, in agree-
ment with the infinitive clause Germanos translre, which stands as
object of exlstimaret.

17. sul, etc.: 'that anything beyond the Rhine was under his
authority or power. 1 94, d.

18. postularet : with cur, ' why should he claim.' 217, a.



254 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 66

Ubii autem, qui unl ex Transrhenanis ad Caesarem
aolegatos miserant, amicitiam fecerant, obsides dederant,

magnopere orabant, ut sibi auxilium ferret, quod graviter

ab Suebis premerentur :

Vel, si id faccrc ocaipationibus ret publicae prohiberetur,

exercitum modo Rhenum trdnsportdret ; id sibi ad auxilium
25 spemque reliqui temporis satis futurum. Tantum esse

nomen atque opinionem eius exercitus, Ariovisto pulso et

hoc novissimo proelio facto, etiam ad ultimas Gertndn&rum

nationes, ittl oplnione et amicitia populi Romani tuti esse

possint.
30 # Navium magnam copiam ad transportandum exercitum

pollicebantur.

He builds a bridge across the Rhine.

17. Caesar his de causis, quas commemoravl, Rhenum
transire decreverat; sed navibus transire neque satis tu-
tum esse arbitrabatur, neque suae neque populi Romani

19. unl: ' alone.' 23, a. ex Transrhenanis: 'of the peoples
across the Rhine. 1 97, d.

20. miserant, fecerant, dederant : 234, <*, and 238, a.

21. quod . . . premerentur: 183, a.

23. Vel: 213, b, and 235, a. id facere : 'from doing that/
223, a, (3). occupationibus rei publicae: ' by the requirements
of public, business. 1

24. exercitum, Rhgnum : ll/ t ,a. transportaret : 216. id:
'that (movement). 1 ad . . . temporis: 'for (present) help and
(for) hope in respect to the future. 1 How lit.?

26. opinionem : ' reputation. 1 eius : i his, 1 i.e. Caesun's. Ario-
visto pulso : \ in consequence of the defeat of Ariovistus, 1 related in
Book I. How lit.? lM,t,(3)-

17. 2. transire: 222, b. tutum : predicative. 1^8, d. Caesar
was always careful to have the country in the rear of his army well
secured, not only for the transportation of supplies but also to make a
retreat safe in case of necessity.

3. suae, populi: 157, d.



IV, 17] First Expedition into Germany 255

dignitatis esse statuebat. Itaque, etsi summa difficultas
faciendi pontis proponebatur propter latitudinem, rapidita-s
tern altitudinemque fluminis, tamen id sibi contendendum,
aut aliter non traducendum exercitum, existimabat.

Rationem pontis hanc mstituit :

Tigna blna sesquipedalia, paulum ab imo praeacuta,
dimensa ad altitudinem fluminis, intervallo pedum duorum 10
inter se iungebat. Haec cum, machinationibus immissa
in flumen, defixerat fistucisque adegerat, non sublicae modo

4. dignitatis, etc. : ' would be inconsistent with the prestige.' 94, d.
How lit? etsi: 191, a.

5. latitudinem: between 1300 and 1600 feet in the region where
Caesar built the bridge, that is, hear Neuwied, between Coblenz and An-
dernach (Map 11, facing p. 232). rapiditatem : 'swiftness.' 76, a.

6. id, etc. : sc. esse, ' that he ought to make every effort (to accom-
plish) this.'

7. aut : 235, a.

8. Rationem, etc.: 'the plan of the bridge (which) he devised
(was) as follows.' 161, a. How lit.?

9. Tigna bina : 'a pair of logs,' to be driven into the river bed and
used as posts to support the bridge ; see Plates V and VI, a a. 36.
sesquipedalia : i a foot and a half thick.' 79, b. ab Imo : * at the
lower end.' 154, a, and 126, c.

10. dimensa: passive; with ad, etc., ' measured off to correspond
with the depth of the river,' the longer piles for use near the middle,
the shorter for driving nearer the banks. How lit. ? 59,6. inter-
vallo, etc. : ' two feet apart.' How lit. ? 138.

11. inter se : 'together.' 159. iungebat: sc. Caesar; the ob-
ject is Tigna. The two logs of each pair were apparently fastened
together on the bank, before they were driven into the river bed.
machinationibus immissa : 'had let down by mechanical appliances,'
rafts equipped with suitable tackle. How lit. ? 228, a.

12. defixerat, etc.: 'had planted these firmly and driven [them]
home with pile-drivers,' in the case of each pair ; the pluperfect with
cum implies repeated action. 186, a. B. 288, 3; H. 539, 2. non
sublicae modo : ' not like an (ordinary) pile,' because ordinarily piles
are driven in perpendicularly, while these pairs were driven with a slant.
How lit. ?



256 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 55

derecte ad perpendiculum, sed prone ac fastigate, ut secun-
dum naturam fluminis procumberent, his item contraria

is duo ad eundem modum iuncta, intervallo pedum quadra-
genum ab Inferiore parte, contra vim atque impetum flu-
minis conversa, statuebat.

Haec utraque, insuper bipedalibus trabibus immissis,
quantum eorum tignorum iunctura distabat, binis utrimque

zofibulis ab extrema parte distinebantur; quibus disclusis

13. derecte: ' straight up and down.' ad perpendiculum:
'according to a plumb-line.' prone ac fastigate : 'leaning forward
with a decided slant.' How lit. ? secundum : ' in conformity with.'
122, a.

14. naturam fluminis: 'the direction of the current.' 74, d.
his contraria: 'opposite these.' 108, a. Plates V, VI, a' a'.

15. duo: sc. tigtia ; bina might have been used. ad eundem
modum: ' in the same manner.' 1+5 . quadragenum : 'forty 'Ro-
man feet in each case. 22, c. The distance must have been measured
on the surface of the water. Plate V, A.

16. ab inferiore parte: 'on the lower side,' i.e. downstream from
the first pair. contra, etc. : ' against the violent rushing of the cur-
rent.' How lit. ? As the first pair of posts slanted downstream, so the
second pair slanted upstream. Plate V, A, a a'.

18. Haec utraque . . . distinebantur: 'the two pairs' of posts
'were held apart.' 51. Insuper: 'above.' bipedalibus, etc.:
'after a beam having the thickness of two feet, corresponding with the
space between the posts ' (of each pair), ' had been let in.' How lit. ?
The heavy crossbeam, or sill, is marked, b b on Plates V, VI.

19. quantum: representing the idea of measure in bipedalibus; ac-
cusative. 118, a. binis . . . parte : ' by a pair of braces on each
side ' (i.e. with each pair of posts), ' at the very end ' of the sill. What
these 'pairs of braces' were it is not easy to understand. If of wood,
they may have been like those represented in the Plates V and VI, c c ;
for with such braces the greater the pressure the more closely the
structure would have been bound together. If the braces were of iron

— a less probable supposition because of the amount of iron required,

— the arrangement must have been altogether different. .

20. quibus . . . revinctls : i.e. OgHls ; * now that these' (the two
pairs of posts, one pair above and one below) ' were kept ' (.it tin- oroper



Plate V Caesar's Bridge Across the Rhine, Sections

Lib. IV, 17 ' A




A. Cross-section.

B. The Bridge seen from above.



iv, 17] First Expedition into Germany 257

atque in contrariam partem revinctis, tanta erat operis
firmitudo atque ea rerum natura, ut, quo maior vis aquae
se incitavisset, hoc artius illigata tenerentur.

Haec derecta materia iniecta contexebantur ac longuriis
cratibusque consternebantur ; ac nihilo setius sublicae et 25
ad inferiorem partem fluminis oblique agebantur, quae, pro
ariete subiectae et cum omni opere coniunctae, vim fluminis

distance) ' apart, and were braced in opposite directions,' the lower posts
slanting upstream, the upper posts slanting downstream. How lit. ?

22. ea rerum natura: 'such the character of the structure' as a
whole. How lit. ? quo, etc : i the greater the force of the water
rushing against it.' 220. How lit. ? quo . . . hoc : 140. B. 223;
A. 414, a; H. 471, 10.

23. hoc, etc. : 'the more closely they' (the opposite pairs of posts,
tigna) * were tied and held together.' illigata : 228, a.

24. Haec : ' These piers,' each pier formed by fastening the sill, two
feet thick, securely to the pair of posts at either end. derecta : ' in
the direction of the bridge.' How lit. ? materia iniecta : ' by lay-
ing timber,' i.e. girders, d on the Plates ; these were, of course, at right



Online LibraryJulius CaesarC. Iulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum. Caesar's Commentaries: the Gallic war, books I-Iv, with selections from books V-VII and from the civil war; → online text (page 23 of 73)