Julius Caesar.

C. Iulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum. Caesar's Commentaries: the Gallic war, books I-Iv, with selections from books V-VII and from the civil war; online

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angles with the direction of the current. 92, b, and 144, b, (6) . con-
texebantur : 'were joined.' As the bridge was designed to carry a
moving load of cavalry and draft animals as well as infantry, and was
obviously built hastily of rough timbers, with a wide margin of safety, we
may suppose that the length of the girders between the sills was not more
than 25 English feet, possibly not more than 20 feet ; the number of piers
was probably between sixty and seventy. longuriis : 'joists,' laid on
the girders, in the direction of the current ; marked h on the Plates.

25. cratibus: * wickerwork,' woven of supple branches, laid over
the joists and taking the place of the planks on a modern bridge ;
marked i on the Plates. consternSbantur : ' were covered.' ni-
hilo setius: ' nevertheless,' in order still further to assure the safety
of the bridge. 140. et:'also.'

26. ad, etc.: 'on the down-stream side.' How lit.? oblique
agebantur : < were driven with a slant ' ; these piles, slanting upstream,
braced the piers against the force of the current ; marked e on the
Plates. quae: ' in order that they.' 193, a.

27. pro ariete subiectae: ' set below as props.' 10, e. How lit. ?

258 Caesar's Gallic War [B.c 55

exciperent; et aliae item supra pontem mediocri spatio, ut,
si arborum trunci sive naves deiciendi operis causa essent
33 a barbaris missae, his def ensoribus earum rerum vis minu-
eretur, neu pontl nocerent.

Entering Germany, he finds some tribes submissive ; but the
Sugambrians flee.

18. Diebus x, quibus materia coepta erat comportari,
omnI opere effecto, exercitus traducitur. Caesar, ad utram-
que partem pontis firmo praesidio relictd, in fines Sugam-
brorum contendit.
s Interim a compluribus clvitatibus ad eum legati veniunt ;
quibus, pacem atque amicitiam petentibus, liberaliter re-
spondit obsidesque ad se adduci iubet. At Sugambri ex

28. aliae : aliae sublicae agebantur, marked f f on the Plates.
These vertical piles protected the bridge against floating logs or other
objects in the current liable to damage it. mediocri spatio : ' a
short distance.' 140.

29. trunci: 'tree-trunks. 1 81. navgs : barges loaded with stones
or earth are probably meant. operis: 'the structure. 1 230, (i).
essent missae : 220.

30. his defensoribus : ablative absolute, = his defendentibus. his
being personified ; trans, 'by these defenses. 1 earum rgrum : tree-
trunks and weighted barges.

31. neu: 'and not 1 ; lit. 'or not. 1 196, b.

18. 1. Diebus x, quibus: 'Within ten days after. 1 ltf. a.
comportari : 72, c. The rapidity and skill with which the bridge w.is
built bear witness to Caesar's genius in practical affairs as well as to
the efficiency of his engineers and mechanics. 310, b.

3. partem: we should say 'end. 1 praesidio relicto : 'having
left, 1 etc. 144, b, (2). Plate VI, g. Sugambrorum : the German
end of the bridge led into the country of the Ubians ; north of the
Ubians were the Sugambrians. See Map at the end of the volume.

6. quibus : dative. liberaliter respondit ; ' be returned a gra-
cious answer. 1 How lit.? 175, b.

7. At: 236, a. ex: • imm diately after. 1

iv, 19] First Expedition into Germany 259

eo tempore, quo pons Institui coeptus est, fuga comparata,
hortantibus eis, quos ex Tencteris atque Usipetibus apud
se habebant, finibus suis excesserant suaque omnia expor- 10
taverant seque in s5litudinem ac silvas abdiderant.

He ravages the country of the Sugambrians, encourages the
Ubians, and returns to Gaul.

19. Caesar, paucos dies in eorum finibus moratus, omni-
bus vlcls aedificilsque incensis frumentisque succlsls, se in
fines Ubiorum recepit ; atque his auxilium suum pollicitus,
si ab Suebis premerentur, haec ab eis cognovit :

Suebos, posted quam per expldrdtores pontem fieri compe- s
rissent, more suo concilio habito, nuntios in ornnes partes di-
misisse, Jiti de oppidls demigrdrent, libcros, uxores sua que
omnia in silvls deponerent, atque omnes, qui anna ferre
possent, unum in locum convenlrent ; hunc esse delectum

8. eo: 'the.' 160, 'd. fuga comparata: 'taking to flight.'
How lit. ?

9. hortantibus eis: < at the instigation of those. 1 From chap. 15,
11. 1-6, it might be inferred that few of the Tencteri and the Usipetes
escaped besides cavalry (chap. 16, 11. 7—1 1) .

11. exportaverant : 'had carried away. 1 in: cf. N. to I, 12,

1. 11 ; 'into the recesses of the forests. 1

19. 1. eorum: Sugambrorum. moratus: 226, c.

2. vicis, etc. : cf. I, 5, 11. 4-5 and Notes. frumentis succlsls:
'cut down the standing grain and. 1 How lit.? 144> b, (2).

4. si . . . premerentur: indirect, from the idea of "saying 11 in
pollicitus-, future indicative in the direct form. 213, b.

5. postea quam : with the indicative in the direct form. 188, a.

6. more: 136, c. nuntios : 'messengers. 1

7. uti, etc. : ' (directing the people) to move away from the strong-
holds, 1 etc. ; the substantive clauses give the gist of the instructions
conveyed by the messengers. 199, a.

9. hunc : predicative after delectum esse, with which locum is to be
supplied as subject; 'that there had been chosen, as this (mustering
point), a place. 1

260 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 56

10 medium fere regionum edrum, quds Suebl obtinercnt ; Jilc
Romdnorum advent 'um exspectdre at que ibi decertdre con-

Quod ubi Caesar comperit, omnibus eis rebus confectis,
quarum rerum causa traducere exercitum constituerat, ut

is Germanis metum iniceret, ut Sugambros ulcisceretur, ut
Ubios obsidione liberaret, diebus omnino xvm trans Rhe-
num consumptis, satis et ad laudem et ad utilitatem pro-
fectum arbitratus, se in Galliam recepit pontemque rescidit.

First Expedition to Britain. 20-38

Caesar resolves to invade Britain; he lacks information.

20. Exigua parte aestatis reliqua, Caesar, etsi in his
locls, quod omnis Gallia ad septentriones vergit, maturae
sunt hiemes, tamen in Britanniam proficTsci contendit, quod,

10. medium fere : ' nearly (at) the center.' regionum : 102.
n. exspectare : sc. eos (Suebos). ibi': 'at that point.'

13. Quod: ' this fact. 1 167. eis rebus confectis: 'Having
accomplished the objects,' explained by the appositive ^/-clauses follow-
ing. 144, b, (3). In reality Caesar accomplished very little by the
march into Germany. The formal enumeration which follows seems
intended to justify an expedition barren of tangible results.

14. rgrum : 165, a. ut, etc. : 199, a.

16. obsidione : ' from oppression ' ; the Ubii had been forced to pay
tribute to the Swabians (chap. 3, 11. 1 1-14). 127, a. ut . . . libe-
raret : < to free.' xvm : 38, b, and 36.

17. profectum [esse] : the subject is satis. 57, b.

20. 1 Exigua . . . reliqua : ablative absolute ; * As a small part,'
etc. ; it was now near the end of July.

2. omnis Gallia: cf. I, I, 1. 1, and N. ad . . . vergit: 'lies
toward the north,' in relation to the latitude of Italy ; cf. Map 12.

3. Britanniam: 294. quod . . . intelleggbat : the aid given
by the Britains to the Venetans (III, 9, 11. 30-31) and to the other
Gauls, as for example to refugees from the Bellovaci (II, 14, 11. 3-9),
seems to have been of slight account ; it furnished, however, a plausible
pretext for the invasion of Britain.

IV, 20]

First Expedition to Britain


omnibus fere Gallicis bellis, hostibus nostris inde summinis-
trata auxilia intellegebat et, si tempus annl ad bellum ge- 5
rendum deficeret, tamen magno sibi usul fore arbitrabatur,
si modo Insulam adisset, genus hominum perspexisset, loca,
portus, aditus cognovisset ; quae omnia fere Gallis erant
incognita. Neque enim temere, praeter mercatores, illo

Figure 107. — Foot of chalk cliffs north of Dover, at low tide.

4. bellis: 147, b. inde: e Britannia, sumministrata : sc.

6. deficeret: ; was insufficient. 1 sibi usul fore: 112, b. ar-
bitrabatur: 183, a.

7. adisset: adiret might have been expected; Caesar conceives of
the expedition as an accomplished fact. 218, (1), b.

8. aditus : ' approaches ' ; points, outside the regular harbors, where
a landing could be made. quae omnia fere: i for nearly all of
these things. 1 167, and 97, c.

9. incognita : the Venetans at least must have been informed about
Britain (III, 8, 11. 1-3), but they had been well-nigh exterminated ; and
it was not to be expected that Gauls having the knowledge desired by
Caesar would be free in imparting it to him. Neque enim —
quisquam: 'for no one. 1 168. temere: i without good reason 1 ;
only traders and students of Druidic theology (VI, 13, 11. 34-37) had
occasion to go to Britain. illo : adverb.

262 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 55

10 adit quisquam, neque eis ipsls quicquam praeter oram
maritimam atque eas regiones, quae sunt contra Gallias,
notum est.

Itaque vocatis ad se undique mercatoribus, neque quanta
esset insulae magnitudo, neque quae aut c uantae nationes

is incolerent, neque quern usum belli haberent aut quibus
Institutis uterentur, neque qui essent ad maiorem navium
multitudinem idonei portus, reperire poterat.

He sends Voluseyius to Britain and makes preparations ; he re-
ceives British envoys, and sends Commius also to Britain.

21. Ad haec cognoscenda, prius quam periculum face-
ret, idoneum esse arbitratus C. Volusenum cum navl longa
praemittit. Huic mandat, ut, expl5ratls omnibus rebus, ad
se quam primum revertatur.
5 Ipse cum omnibus copils in Morinos proficiscitur, quod
hide erat brevissimus in Britanniam traiectus. Hue naves

10. neque . . . quicquam: * and nothing.' els : 108, a.

11. Gallias: plural because referring to the different divisions; we
should say, ' the (several) parts of Gaul. 1

15. incolerent: sc. earn. 20^, (2) and (3). quern: 1^8, b.
usum belli : ' methods of warfare.' How lit.?

16. ad . . . multitudinem: i.e. for a fleet, whose requirements
were very different from those of trading vessels coming to port singly
or in small numbers.

21. 1. prius . . . faceret: ' before making the attempt.' 189. b.

2. idoneum: adj . in predicate ; trans. " a suitable person. 1 navl
longa : 346, a.

3. praemittit : sc. eum. ut, etc. : 199, a.

4. quam primum : 153, t.

6. inde : ' from their country.' How lit. ? See Map II. in Bri-
tanniam : after traiectus. 150, d. traiectus: 'passage.' Hue:
to the vicinity of modern Boulogne.

7. quam — classem : = earn classem, quam. 165, c. B. 251. 4, a ;

k. 307, <*; H. 399,3.

iv, 2i] First Expedition to Britain 263

undique ex finitimis regionibus et, quam superiore aestate
ad Veneticum bellum effecerat classem, iubet convenire.

Interim, consilio eius cognito et per mercatores perlat5
ad Britannos, a compluribus Insulae clvitatibus ad eum 10
legatl veniunt, qui polliceantur obsides dare atque imperio
populi Romani obtemperare. Quibus auditis, llberaliter
pollicitus hortatusque, ut in ea sententia permanerent, eos
domum remittit ; et cum els una Commium, quern ipse,
Atrebatibus superatis, regem ibi c5nstituerat, cuius et vir- i S
tutem et consilium probabat et quern sibi fidelem esse
arbitrabatur, cuiusque auctoritas in his regionibus magni
habebatur, mittit. Huic imperat, quas possit, adeat clvita-
tes horteturque, ut populi Romani fidem sequantur, seque
celeriter eo venturum nuntiet. 20

Volusenus, perspectls regionibus omnibus, quantum el
facultatis dari potuit, qui navi egredl ac se barbarls com-
mittere non auderet, qulnto die ad Caesarem revertitur,
quaeque ibi perspexisset, renuntiat.

8. ad Veneticum bellum: III, 11. 11. 13—16, and chaps. 14, 15.
11. polliceantur: 193, a. dare: i.e. se daturos esse. 17S.

imperio obtemperare : ' submit to the authority.' 105.

15. Atrebatibus : conquered in the battle at the Sambre, two years
previously (II, 23, 11. 1-8). regem: 115, a. ibi: among the
Atrebatians. virtiitem et consilium : i energy and discretion.'

16. probabat: ' he appreciated.' fidelem: ; loyal.' Afterwards
Commius was disloyal to Caesar; cf. VII, chap. 75, 11. 22-26.

17. magni habebatur: 'was considered great, 1 lit. 'of great
(value).' 101. B. 203, 3; A. 417; H. 448, 1.

18. possit: sc.adire. Why subjunctive? 220. adeat: 200, a.
B. 295,8; A. 565, a; H. 565,4.

19. populi . . . sequantur: 'fix their confidence in the Roman
people.' How lit. ? 199, a. se : Caesar.

21. quantum facultatis: ' so far as opportunity. 1 97, b.

22. qui: 'since he.' 194, c> navi : 14, b, and 127, a.

264 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 55

Opportunely he receives the submission of the Morini. He assem-
bles a fleet.

22. Dum in his locls Caesar navium paranciarum causa
moratur, ex magna parte Morinorum ad eum legati vene-
runt, qui se de superioris temporis consilio excusarent,
quod, homines barbari et nostrae consuetudinis imperiti,
sbellum populo R5mano fecissent, seque ea, quae impe-
rasset, facturos pollicerentur.

Hoc sibi Caesar satis opportune accidisse arbitratus,
quod neque post tergum hostem relinquere volebat neque
belli gerendi propter anni tempus facultatem habebat neque
iohas tantularum rerum occupationes Britanniae antep5nen-
das iudicabat, magnum els numerum obsidum imperat.
Quibus adductls, eos in fidem recepit.

Navibus circiter lxxx onerariis coactis contractlsque,

22. i. his locls : in the country of the Morini, probably in the
vicinity of modern Boulogne.

2. moratur: 190, a. B. 293, 1 ; A. 556; H. 533, 4.

3. qui sS . . . excusarent, pollicgrentur : 'to offer excuse, 1 lit.
i excuse themselves,' etc. 193, a. de . . . consilio : ' for their con-
duct the previous season, 1 56 B.C. (Ill, chap. 28).

4. quod . . . fgcissent : 'because (as they said) they had made. 1
183, a. homines barbari : < (being) uncivilized people.' 91, b.
consuStudinis : sing., but trans, 'usages'; the reference is particu-
larly to the Roman practice of treating with consideration peoples that
submitted to Roman rule. 102.

5. imperasset : 64, a, (1), and 214, «•

9. anni tempus: it was already August, too late in the season to
enter upon an extended campaign. neque, etc. : ' and he judged
that the exactions of so trivial affairs ought not to have precedence
over (the invasion of) Britain.' How lit.?

10. has: 160, d. tantularum: 76, c. Britanniae: 107. a.
13. Navibus onerariis: 'transports'; these were sailing vessels,

while the galleys were propelled by oars. 846, a. LXXX : OCtdgmtM.
38, b. coactis contractlsque : ' pressed into service and brought
together 1 in a single harbor.

iv, 22] First Expedition to Britain 265

quot satis esse ad duas transportandas legiones existimabat,
quod praeterea navium longarum habebat, quaestori, lega- i S
tis praefectisque distribuit. Hue accedebant xvm onera-
riae naves, quae ex eo loco a mllibus passuum vin vento
tenebantur, quo minus in eundem portum venire possent;
has equitibus distribuit.

Reliquum exercitum Q. Titurio Sabino et L. Auruncu- 20
leio Cottae legatis in Menapi5s atque in eos pagos Mori-
norum, a quibus ad eum legati non venerant, ducendum
dedit; P. Sulpicium Rufum legatum cum eo praesidio,
quod satis esse arbitrabatur, portum tenere iussit.

14. quot: ' as many as.' duas legiones: the 7th and the 10th.
The smallness of the force is consistent with Caesar's statement that
the purpose of the expedition was not conquest but the obtaining of
information. If the two legions, after three years of hard fighting, con-
tained each about 3600 men (307, b) fit for service, the total of 7200
men divided up among the 80 transports would have averaged 90 men
to a ship. The vessels were not large; and the supplies, not merely
provisions but tents and other equipment, must have taken up much room.

15. quod navium longarum: 'the galleys which ' ; lit. ' what of
long ships.' 97, b. quaestori: 313, b.

16. praefectis : 'subsidiary officers..'' The galleys seem also to
have carried slingers, bowmen, and artillery (chap. 25). Hue ac- .
cedebant : ' In addition to this number there were.' How lit. ? 90, b.

17. eo loco: portus Itius, now Boulogne; see Map II. a: 'off.'
The small harbor eight Roman miles up the coast, where the 18 trans-
ports were detained, is now called Ambleteuse. Map 1 1 A.

18. quo minus: 'so that . . . not. 1 201, a. eundem portum:
portus Itius.

19. equitibus : the cavalry contingents of the two legions, 500 or
600 horsemen in all. 309, a. equitibus distribuit : the horsemen
could more easily go across the country to the smaller harbor (chap.

20. Reliquum exercitum : five legions, if we assume that one
legion was assigned to duty at the harbor ; for Caesar had eight legions
in all, and only two were required for the expedition.

21. in — ducendum : 'for operations against.' How lit. ? 229, b.
23. eo praesidio, quod: = tanto praesidio, quantum.

2G6 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 55

Caesar sails to Britain, and makes preparation to land.

23. His c5nstitutis rebus, nactus idoneam ad navigan-
dum tempestatem, tertia fere vigilia solvit equitesque in
ulteriorem portum progredi et naves conscendere et se
sequi iussit. A quibus cum paulo tardius esset adminis-

stratum, ipse hora diei circiter quarta cum primis navibus
Britanniam attigit, atque ibi in omnibus collibus expositas
hostium c5pias armatas conspexit.

Cuius loci haec erat natura, atque ita montibus angustis
mare continebatur, uti ex locis superioribus in lltus telum

ioadigl posset. Hunc ad egrediendum nequaquam idoneum

23. i. nactus : 61, a, (3), and 226, c.

2. tempestatem : ' weather.' As might be inferred from its deri-
vation from tempus, ' time, 1 tempestas may imply good or bad weather
according to the connection. We use "time" similarly in "a good
time, 1 ' " a bad time.' 1 tertia fere vigilia : i about the third watch ' :
indefinite because the embarkation must have taken two or three hours.
242, c. solvit: sc. naves, 'got underway, 1 from Boulogne. The
date was probably August 26.

3. ulteriorem portum : Ambleteuse, northeast of Boulogne (chap.
22, 1. 17). progredi: i.e. by land. naves conscendere: 'to
embark. 1

4. quibus: Mhem, 1 the cavalry. 167. paulo tardius: ' with a
little too much delay, 1 probably due to the difficulty of getting the horses
aboard. 158, a. esset administratum : ' the orders were carried
out. 1 How lit. ? 73, d.

5. hora quarta: the beginning of 'the fourth hour 1 on August 26
in the latitude of Dover by Roman reckoning was about 8.30 a.m. by
our time. 242, b.

6. Britanniam attigit : < reached Britain, 1 near Dover ; see Map
11. expositas: 'arrayed. 1

8. haec: 'such. 1 ita, etc : 'the sea was so closely bordered by
abrupt cliffs '; angustis* lit. 'narrow, 1 implies sharp outlines, as seen
from the sea, and an abrupt descent. The chalk cliffs near Dover run
almost straight up from the water's edge. (See Figures 107, 108, no,
and Plate VIII.)

9. locis superioribus : the top of the cliffs. lltus : < shore. 1 13,/,

iv, 23] First Expedition to Britain 267

locum arbitratus, dum reliquae naves ed convenirent, ad
horam nonam in ancoris exspectavit.

Interim legatis tribunisque militum convocatis, et quae
ex Volusen5 cognovisset, et quae fieri vellet, ostendit, mo-
nuitque, ut rei militaris ratio, maxime ut maritimae res 15
postularent, ut, cum celerem atque instabilem motum
haberent, ad nutum et ad tempus oranes res ab eis admi-

Figure 108. — St. Margaret's Bay, passed by Caesar in his search for a

landing place.

ii. convenirent : 190, b. B. 293, ill, 2 ; A. 553 ; H. 603, 11, 2.

12. horam nonam : the beginning of the ninth hour was about
2.20 p.m. by our time. 242, b. in ancoris: 'at anchor. 1 The an-
cient anchors were like those of to-day.

13. tribunls militum: 311+. et . . . et : 233, a. quae:
204, (2). The information derived from Volusenus was probably to
the effect that there was a good landing place further up the coast.

15. ut . . . postularent: 'as military practice, above all, as marine
service required.' 220. How lit. ?

16. ut . . . omnes, etc.: after monuit ; 'that all orders be exe-
cuted.' 199, a. cum, etc.: 'since (these conditions) involved
quick and unsteady movement.'

17. ad nutum: 'on the instant.' How lit.? ad tempus: 'at
the (right) time. 1

268 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 55

nistrarentur. His dimissls, et ventum et aestum uno tem-
pore nactus secundum, dat5 signo et sublatis ancoris,
2ocirciter milia passuum vn ab eo loco progressus, aperto
ac piano lltore naves constituit.

TJie legionaries attempt to land; the Britons resist fiercely.

24. At barbari, consilio Romanorum cognito, praemisso
equitatu et essedariis, quo plerumque genere in proeliis
uti consuerunt, reliquis copiis subsecutl, nostros navibus
s egredi prohibebant.

Erat ob has causas summa difficultas, quod naves propter
magnitudinem, nisi in alto, constitui non poterant ; militibus
autem, ign5tis locis, impeditls manibus, magno et gravi
onere armorum oppressis, simul et de navibus desiliendum
10 et in fluctibus consistendum et cum hostibus erat pugnan-
dum, cum illi, aut ex arido aut paulum in aquam progress!,

19. secundum : 'favorable, 1 both wind and tide bearing toward the

20. eo loco : Dover. progressus : 226, c. aperto ac piano
litore : between Walmer and Deal, about seven miles northeast of
Dover. 14S, c.

21. naves constituit : < he ran the ships aground.' How lit. ?
24. 2. essedariis: ' chariot-fighters,' described in chap. 33. quo

genere : < a type (of warrior) which. 1 165, b.

3. copiis: the Britons followed by land, as near the shore as pos-
sible. 137, b. navibus Sgredi: 'from disembarking. 1 223, a, and
- 127, a.

5. Erat: 90, a. h5s : refers to what follows. 161, a.
"* 6. in alto: 'in deep (water). 1 154, a. constitui : 'be grounded, 1
• so as to remain firm. militibus . . . desiliendum [erat]: 'tin-
soldiers . . . had to jump down. 1 How lit.? 73, e, and 110.

7. ignotis locis: ' (being) on unfamiliar ground. 1 How lit. ? /

8. oppressis: agrees with militibus ; < weighed down. 1 et . . .
et . . . et: 238, f.

10. cum: 'while. 1 187. 110: Bnta/uu. ex 5rido : 'from
dry land. 1

IV, 25]

First Expedition to Britain


omnibus membrls expedltis, n5tissimls locis, audacter tela
conicerent et equos Insuefactos incitarent.v Quibus rebus
nostri perterriti, atque huius omnlno generis pugnae impe-
riti, non eadem alacritate ac studi5, quo in pedestribus uti
proeliis consuerant, utebantur. is

The standardrbearer of the Tenth leaps overboard, bidding the
others follow.

25. Quod ubi Caesar animadvertit, naves longas, quarum
et species erat barbaris inusitatior et motus ad usum ex-

ii. notissimis locis: 'thoroughly acquainted with the ground.
How lit.? 153, a, and 1U, b, (2).
audacter, etc. : the British were pro-
vided with weapons much like those
of the Gauls (Fig. 109).

12. insuefactos: < trained ' to go
into the water.

13. generis : with imperlti. 102.
B. 204, 1 ; A. 349, a; H. 451, 1.

163, c. pedestribus: i.e. terres-
tribus, 'on land.'

15. utebantur : 'were display-
ing. 1

25. 1. Quod: 'Now . . . this.'
167. animadvertit : 188, a.

2. species : 'appearance. 1 80, b.
inusitatior : ' less familiar. 1 Oar-
driven galleys were not so well
adapted to withstand the buffetings
of northern waters as solidly built
sailing vessels, such as those of the
Venetans (III, chap. 13-14). ad
usum: i.e. ad ndvigandum; 'the
movement was more easily con-
trolled. 1 How lit.? The galleys
could be driven faster, and in any

Figure 109. — British shield.

Of bronze, enamelled ; found in the

Thames, near London.

270 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 55

peditior, paulum removed ab onerarils navibus et remis
incitari et ad latus apertum hostium constitui, atque inde
5 fundis, sagittis, tormentls hostes propelli ac summoveri
iussit ; quae res magno usui nostris fuit. Nam, et navium
figura et rem5rum motu et inusitato genere tormentorum
permoti, barbari constiterunt ac paulum modo pedem rettu-

10 Atque nostris militibus cunctantibus, maxime propter alti-
tudinem maris, qui decimae legionis aquilam ferebat, obtes-
tatus deos, ut ea res legionl feliciter eveniret, ' Desili te,'
inquit, 'commIlit5nes, nisi vultis aquilam hostibus
prodere; ego certe meum rei publicae atque

isimperatori officium praestitero.'

4. ad latus apertum: 'over against the exposed flank,' the
right flank of the enemy. The galleys were to be placed parallel with
the shore. inde : = e navibus longis.

5. fundis: 'with slings,' which hurled slingshots of lead when this
material was available ; such slingshots were sometimes inscribed (n. to
II,i8,1.2.). sagittis: 'arrows.' 308. tormentls :» artillery ' ;
our word " artillery " was applied to engines 01 war, whose propelling
force was derived from tension, before it came to be restricted to cannon,

Online LibraryJulius CaesarC. Iulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum. Caesar's Commentaries: the Gallic war, books I-Iv, with selections from books V-VII and from the civil war; → online text (page 24 of 73)