Julius Caesar.

C. Iulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum. Caesar's Commentaries: the Gallic war, books I-Iv, with selections from books V-VII and from the civil war; online

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which derive their propelling force from explosives. The i torst'oners" 1
used on the galleys were probably small catapults, which Caesar else-
where calls 'scorpions 1 (34$, a).

6. quaergs: ' and this manoeuver/ usui: 11J,6.

j. figura: the galleys were relatively long, narrow, and low.

8. paulum modo : 'just a little,' from the water's edge.

io. altitudinem : the sailing vessels which had been run aground
on the sandy bottom formed a line, irregular because of the variation in
depth, at least two thirds of a mile long ; the water where the bows
were driven into the sand was probably up to the soldiers' necks.

1 1 . qui : as antecedent sc. is, subject of inquit. aquilam :

'eagle. 1 32 %, b, (i). obtestatus, etc. : ' praying the gods that his
effort might turn out fortunately for the legion.' 199, a.

13. commilitongs : 'fellow-soldiers.' 93. vultis: 71.

14. ego: 87, b. certS : 'at any rate.'

15. praestitero: 176, c.



iv, 26] First Expedition to Britain 271

H5c cum voce magna dixisset, se ex navi proiecit atque
in hostes aquilam ferre coepit. Turn nostrl, cohortati inter
se, ne tantum dedecus admitteretur, universl ex navi
desiluerunt. Hos item ex proximis primi navibus cum
conspexisoent, subsecuti hostibus appropinquarunt. . 20

Finally the Romans force the enemy back, and land.

26. Pugnatum est ab utrisque acriter. Nostrl tamen,
quod neque ordines servare neque flrmiter insistere neque
sign a subsequi poterant, atque alius alia ex navi, quibus-
cumque signis occurrerat, se aggregabat, magnopere per-
turbabantur ; hostes vero, notis omnibus vadis, ubi ex 5
litore aliquos singulares ex navi egredientes conspexerant,
incitatis equis impedltos adoriebantur, plures pauc5s cir-
cumsistebant, alii ab latere aperto in universos tela con-
iciebant.

16. cum: 185, c. voce: 136, b. magna: 'loud.'

17. cohortati inter se : 159 and 226, c.

18. dedecus : ' disgrace,' the loss of the eagle of the legjon. 13, f.
universl: 'all together.'

20. subsecuti: * they followed and.' How lit.? 228, a. appro-
pinquarunt: 64, a, (1).

26. 1 . Pugnatum, etc. : ' sharp fighting was kept up by both sides. 7
How lit.? utrisque : 51.

2. ordines servare: 'to keep the ranks.' flrmiter Insistere:
' to get a firm footing.'

3. signa: 324, b, (2). alius, etc. : 'one from this ship, another
from that.' 171, c. quibuscumque . . . aggregabat: ' they were
joining any standards that they had fallen in with.' How lit.? 50, a.

6. singulares : ' one by one.' conspexerant : 188, d.

7. incitatis equis : 'urging their horses forward.' 144, b, (2).
adoriebantur: 'they would attack.' 175, d. plures paucos :
plures hostes paucos Romanos.

8. ab latere aperto : 'on the exposed flank,' the right side, unpro-
tected by a shield. universos : 'groups of soldiers,' contrasted with
the individuals referred to in 1. 6.



272 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 55

10 Quod cum animadvertisset Caesar, scaphas longarum
navium, item speculatoria navigia, militibus compleri iussit
et, quos laborantes conspexerat, his subsidia summittebat.
Nostri, simul in arido constiterunt, suis omnibus consecutis,
in hostes impetum fecerunt atque eos in fugam dederunt ;

is neque longius prosequi potuerunt, quod equites cursum
tenere atque insulam capere non potuerant. Hoc unum
ad pristinam fortunam Caesari defuit.

The Britons offer to submit, and return Commius to Caesar.

27. Hostes proelio superati, simul atque se ex fuga
receperunt, statim ad Caesarem legatos de pace mise-
runt ; obsides sese daturos, quaeque imperasset, facturos
polliciti sunt. Una cum his legatis Commius Atrebas
svenit, quern supra demonstraveram a Caesare in Britan-
niam praemissum. Hunc illi e navi egressum, cum ad
eos oratoris modo Caesaris mandata deferret, comprehen-
derant atque in vincula coniecerant; turn, proelio facto,

io. scaphas: ' small boats, 1 carried on the galleys.

ii. speculatoria navigia: ' scouting vessels,' smaller and lighter
than the galleys, without a beak, and designed for rapid movement.

13. in arido: 'on dry ground.' 15J h a. constiterunt :

188, a.

15. neque: 'but . . . not.' equites: still at Ambleteuse (chap.
23,1.4).

16. insulam capere : 'to make the island. 1 Hoc, etc. : • in this
respect only was Caesar's usual good fortune incomplete. 1 How lit.?

27. 2. recgpgrunt : 188, a. statim : 77. lSgatos : 'envoys. 1
3. daturos : 89, c. quaeque, etc. : i.e. ct ea, quae impcravissct.

facturos esse . 214, a.

5. supra: chap. 21,11. 14-20. dSmonstraveram : cf. II. 1, 1. 2,

and N.

7. oratoris modo : ' in the character of an envoy, 1 lit. ' of a pleader.'
80, b.

8. proelio facto : i.e. post hoc proelium. 1^4, b, {2).



IV, 27]



First Expedition to Britain



273



remiserunt. In petenda pace eius rel culpam in multitu-
dinem contulerunt et, propter imprudentiam ut ignoscere- 10
tur, petlverunt.

Caesar questus, quod, cum ultro, in continentem legatis
missis, pacem ab se petlssent, bellum sine causa intulissent,
ignoscere se imprudentiae dixit obsidesque imperavit;




Figure 110. — Cliffs on the English coast, north of Dover.



9. remiserunt : sc. eum. eius rel : i.e. quod Commius, orator
Caesar is, comprehensus at que in vincula coniectus erat.

10. imprudentiam: Mack of knowledge.' ignosceretur : sc.
sibi, 'that pardon be granted them.' 199, a, and 106, b.

12. questus: 226, c. quod . . . intulissent: 'because (as
he said) they had,' etc. 183, a. B. 286, 1 ; A. 540 ; H. 588, 11. con-
tinentem : ' the continent,' Gaul.

13. petlssent : 187. sine causa : from the Roman point of view ;
but the Romans would have considered the defence of the shores of
Italy against an armed force a most noble action. Thus conditions
alter opinions. In 1916 many Mexicans considered the presence of the
American punitive expedition in Mexico as a hostile invasion.

14. ignoscere se : * that he would pardon.' imprudentiae : 105.



274 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 55

is quorum illi partem statim dederunt, partem, ex longinqui-
5ribus locis arcessitam, paucis diebus sese daturos dixerunt.
Interea suos remigrare in agros iusserunt, principesque
undique convenire et se civitatesque suas Caesar! commen-
dare coeperunt.

The ships with the cavalry are prevented from landing by a storm.

28. His rebus pace confirmata, post diem quartum,
quam est in Britanniam ventum, naves xvm, de quibus
supra demonstratum est, quae equites sustulerant, ex
superiore portu leni vento solverunt.
5 Quae cum appropinquarent Britanniae et ex castris vide-
rentur, tanta tempestas subito coorta est, ut nulla earum
cursum tenere posset, sed aliae eodem, unde erant pro-
fectae, referrentur, aliae ad Inferiorem partem insulae, quae

16. arcessitam : i.e. cum ea {pars) arcesslta esset. 227, a, (1).

17. suos: i their people'; the demobilization of the British host
was ordered. iusserunt : sc. ei, the British envoys.

18. convenire: ad Caesar em. Caesari commendare : 'to put
under Caesar's protection. 1

28. 1 . His rebus : the giving of hostages, the demobilization of
the British host, and the presence of British leaders in Caesar's camp.
post — quam : = quarto die postquam, 4 three days after' by our reck-
oning ; cf. chap. 9, 1. 2, and N.
* 2. est ventum: 73, d.

3. supra: chap. 22, 11. 16-19 sustulerant: 'had taken on
board. 1

4. superiore portu : Ambleteuse. leni vento : * with a light
breeze, 1 blowing north or northeast. 13S. solverunt: ' sailed.'

5. ex castris: Caesars camp was on rising ground, not far from
the shore, so that it commanded a wide view of the sea. vidgren-
tur : trans, as passive.

6. tempestas : 'storm, 1 a northeaster. Cf. n. to chap. 23, 1. 2.

7. aliae . . . aliae: 171, b. eodem, etc. : Ambleteuse.

8. referrentur : sc. ///. ad . . . occasum : southwest from
Caesar's landing-place. See Map II, A.



iv, 29] First Expedition to Britain 275

est propius s5lis occasum, magn5 suo cum periculo deice-
rentur; quae, tamen ancoris iactis, cum fluctibus comple-i«
rentur, necessario adversa nocte in altum provectae conti-
nentem petierunt.

The fleet on the British shore is wrecked by a high tide.

29. Eadem nocte accidit, ut esset luna plena, qui dies
maritim5s aestus maximos in Oceano efficere consuevit,
nostrisque id erat incognitum. Ita uno tempore et longas
naves, quibus Caesar exercitum transportandum curaverat,
quasque in aridum subduxerat, aestus complebat, et one- s
rarias, quae ad ancoras erant deligatae, tempestas afflicta-
bat, neque ulla nostris facultas aut administrandl aut
auxiliandi dabatur.

Compluribus navibus fractls, reliquae cum essent — funi-

9. propius: 123, b. B. 141,3; A. 432, a\ H. 420, 5. suo: * to
themselves. 1 How lit. ? deicerentur : < were driven. 1 57, b.

10. quae . . . cum: ' nevertheless they anchored and when they. 1
How lit. ? 167, and 144, b, (2).

1 1. adversa nocte : ' in the face of the night, 1 a form of expression
transferred from space (as adverso colle, 134, a) to time. in altum
provectae : * they put out to sea and. 1 How lit. ? 226, c, and 228, a.

29. 1 . eadem nocte : the night of August 30, as determined by
astronomical calculations. accidit . . . plena : ' it happened to be
full moon. 1 How lit.? qui dies: 'and this date. 1

2. aestus . . . incognitum: the rise and fall of the tide in the
Mediterranean, as in our Great Lakes, is hardly perceptible. Caesars
men had learned of the existence of tides in the Ocean the previous
year (III, chap. 12) ; what they had failed to notice was the coinci-
dence of the highest tides with the time of the full moon. At Dover
the highest tide rises about 19 feet ; at Boulogne, 25 feet.

4. exercitum, etc. : < had had the army brought over. 1 229, b.

7. administrandl: 'of managing 1 the vessels, the crews being on
shore.

8. auxiliandi: by getting men on to the ships.

9. funibus . . . amissls: 'on account of the loss of, 1 etc. 144,
*>, (3).



276 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 55

iobus, ancoris reliqulsque armamentis amissis — ad navigan-
dum inutiles, magna, id quod necesse erat accidere, totlus
exercitus perturbatio facta est. Neque enim naves erant
aliae, quibus reportari possent, et omnia deerant, quae ad
reficiendas naves erant usui, et quod omnibus constabat,

15 hiemarl in Gallia oportere, frumentum in his locis in
hiemem provisum non erat.

The Britons, learning of the disaster, secretly plan a revolt.

30. Quibus rebus cognitls, principes Britanniae, qui post
proelium ad Caesarem convenerant, inter se collocuti, cum
equites et naves et frumentum RomanJs deesse intellege-
rent, et paucitatem mllitum ex castrorum exiguitate cognos-
s cerent, quae hoc erant etiam angustiora, quod sine impedi-
mentis Caesar legiones transportaverat, optimum factu
esse duxerunt, rebellione facta, frumentocommeatuque nos-
tros prohibere et rem in hiemem producere ; quod, his

1 1 . magna : with perturbatio ; emphatic. 358, d. id, etc. : as
was bound to happen. 1 How lit.? 160, c.

12. perturbatio: 'commotion.' Neque, etc.: 'for there were
no other ships.' 90, a. How lit. ?

13. reportari: 'be carried back.' possent: 194, a.

14. usui: trans, as if iitilia. 112, a. constabat, etc.: 'it was
clear that they would have to winter.' How lit. ?

15. his locis: in Britain. in hiemem: ' for the winter.' IB, a,
Rations had been taken for only a limited stay in Britain.

30. 2. inter s§ collocuti: 159. B. 245, 1 ; A. 301,/; H. 502, I,

5. quae erant: 'which was.' hoc etiam angustiora: 'even
smaller (than usual for two legions) for this reason,' explained by the
guod-c\a.use. impedimentis : left in Gaul. 311.

6. optimum factu esse : ' that the best thing to do was.' How
lit.? optimum: in predicate, after esse. 148, d. factu: -23-2.

7. duxerunt : ' decided ' ; the subject is principes in 1. 1 . rebel-
lione facta: 'renewing hostilities.' How lit? 144, b, (2). fru-
mento : 127, a.

8. rem : ' their operations.' his, etc. : ' if these (invaders) should
be,' etc. JiM,(4).



iv, 3i] First Expedition to Britain 277

superatis aut reditu interclusis, neminem postea belli Infe-
rendi causa in Britanniam transiturum conffdebant. 10

Itaque, rursus coniuratione facta, paulatim ex castris
discedere ac su5s clam ex agris deducere coeperunt.

Caesar, anticipating trouble, gathers supplies and hastens repairs
on the ships.

31. At Caesar, etsj nondum e5rum consilia cognoverat,
tamen et ex eventu navium suarum, et ex eo, quod obsides
dare intermiserant, fore id, quod accidit, suspicabatur.

Itaque ad omnes casus subsidia comparabat. Nam et
frumentum ex agris cotidie in castra conferebat et, quae 5
gravissime afflictae erant naves, earum materia atque aere
ad reliquas reficiendas utebatur et, quae ad eas res erant
usui, ex continent! comportari iubebat. Itaque, cum



9. reditu: < return.' 127, a. postea: ' in the future.'

ii. paulatim : one or two at a time. That the British leaders were

assembled in the Roman camp is

clear from 11. 1-2.

31. 1. cognoverat :< was familiar

with.' 176,6.

2. ex . . . suarum: 'from what

had happened to his ships.' How
lit. ? ex eo, quod : ' from the fact
that.' 198, b. Fi £ ure lu -~ British coin -

4. ad . . . comparabat : « he was Gold ' struck within a centur y after
.... , Caesar's invasions. Inscription, CAMU-

providing for every emergency.' [L0DUm]) cuno[belini]> . of Cunobe .

5. frumentum: from the new linus, at Camulodunum,' modem Col-
harvest. Later a head of wheat on Chester.

British coins became an appropriate , Cunobellnus was a British ruler, better

known under the name Cymbehne.
symbol of the island s staple crop

(Fig. in). quae . . . naves, earum: —earum navium, quae.

165, c.

7. quae : as antecedent sc. ea, subject-accusative with comportari.

ad eas r§s : ' for that purpose.'




278 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 66

summo studio a mllitibus administraretur, xn navibus
10 ^.missis, reliquls ut navigari commode posset, effecit.

The Britons make a treacherous attack, usi?ig war-chariots.

32. Dum ea geruntur, legione ex consuetudine una
frumentatum missa, quae appellabatur vn, neque ulla ad id
tempus belli suspicione interposita, cum pars hominum in
agris remaneret, pars etiam in castra ventitaret, el, qui pro
sportls castrorum in statione erant, Caesarl nuntiaverunt,
pulverem maiorem, quam consuetudo ferret, in ea parte
videri, quam in partem legio iter fecisset. Caesar id, quod
erat, suspicatus, aliquid novi a barbarls initum consilii,
cohortes, quae in stationibus erant, secum in earn partem

9. summo studio: 'with the utmost enthusiasm. 1 administra-
retur: ' the work was carried on.' 184, a.

10. reliquls, etc. : sc. navibus (131, a); < he made it possible to
utilize the others fairly well for navigation.' How lit.? 203, (3).

32. 1. geruntur: 190, a. legione: with missa.

2. frumentatum: <to get grain,' from the fields. 231, a. VII :
septima. 38, a, and 36. neque, etc. : ' without any suspicion of
hostilities up to that time.' How lit.?

3. hominum : Britannorum . 98, a.

4. ventitaret : ' came frequently, 1 a frequentative from venio.. 78, a.
el : milites.

5. portis castrorum : 334, a. in statione: 'on^guard. 1 81.

6. pulverem : * (a cloud of) dust.' 13, g. quam, etc. : ' than
usual. 1 197, c. parte: < direction. 1

7. quam in partem : ' in which. 1 165, a. quod erat : < which
was actually the case. 1

8. suspicatus: 226, c. aliquid, etc.: 'some new scheme had
been worked up. 1 How lit.? aliquid : 168, and 4&> <*• initum :
sc. esse. 68, b and c. consilii : 97, b.

9. cohortSs : probably four in number, one at each of the four
gates of the camp. How many men? 807, c. in stationibus:
4 on guard 1 ; plural because each gate was thought of as a separate
post.



iv, 32] First Expedition to Britain 279

proficlsci, ex reliquis duas in stationem cohortes succedere, to
reliquas armarl et confestim sese subsequi iussit.

Cum paulo longius a castrls processisset, suos ab hosti-
bus preml atque aegre sustinere et, conferta legione, ex
omnibus partibus tela conic! animadvertit. Nam quod,
omni ex reliquis partibus demesso frumento, pars una erat 15
reliqua, suspicatl hostes, hue nostros esse venturos, noctu
in silvis delituerant; turn dispersos, depositis armls, in
metendo occupatos subito adorti, paucis interfectls reli-
quos, incertls ordinibus, perturbaverant, simul equitatu
atque essedis circumdederant. 20

10. reliquis: six cohorts, of the 10th legion. The four cohorts
on guard went with Caesar ; two stood guard in their place, and the
last four cohorts of the legion were ordered to arm and follow Caesar
as soon as they could. 307, c. in stationem succedere : * to re-
lieve guard.'

11. armari: 'to arm,' lit. 'to arm themselves.' 174- confes-
tim : 'with all haste.'

12. paulo longius: 'some little distance.' 153, a. suos: the
men of the 7th legion.

13. aegre sustinere: 'were holding their own with difficulty.'
conferta legione : ' since the legion was crowded together.' 1 44, b, (3) .
The more closely the men stood the more effective were the missiles of
the enemy surrounding them.

14. conici : sc. in earn. 57, b.

15. demesso: 'cut.' 144, b. (3). una: 'only one.'

17. delituerant: 'had hidden.' dispersos, occupatos: sc.
eos (= nostros of 1. 16), object of adorti. depositis armis : 'hav-
ing laid aside their weapons.'

18. in metendo: 'in reaping.' 230,(4). adorti: 226, c.

19. incertls ordinibus: 'since their ranks were in disorder,' a
proper formation being impossible under the circumstances.

20. essedis: 'with war chariots.' Scythed war chariots, with a
long sharp blade projecting from each end of the axle, were in use in
Oriental countries, but the British chariots to which Caesar refers were
apparently without scythes. Remains of chariot wheels have been found
in the graves of warriors.



280



Caesar's Gallic War



[B.C. 55



The way the Britons use war-chariots in battle.

33. Genus hoc est ex essedis pugnae :

Prlmo per omnes partes perequitant^et tela coniciunt,
atque ipso terrore equ5rum et strepitu rotarum ordines ple-
rumque perturbant ; et cum se inter equitum turmas insi-
s nuaverunt, ex essedis desiliunt et pedibus proeliantur.

Aurigae interim paulatim ex proelio excedunt, atque ita
currus collocant, ut, si illi a multitudine hostium premantur,
expeditum ad suos receptum habeant.



33. i. ex essedis: with pugnae. 150, d. B. 353, 5, n.

2. per . . . perequitant: sc. essedaril ; 'they' (the chariot-
fighters) 'ride everywhere.' Each chariot (Fig. 112) carried a driver

and one fighter. As the drivers
dashed against the enemy, the
men in the chariots sprang out
and fought on foot. The chariots
meanwhile withdrew a little
from the thick of the fight, so
that the drivers could see how
the battle was going. If they
saw their warriors defeated in
any part of the line they swiftly
drove thither, took on board
those hard pressed, and quickly
passed beyond the reach of
Figure 112. — British war chariot. danger.

3. terrore equorum : < fright caused by the horses'; subjective
genitive. 95. ordings : i the ranks ' of the enemy.

4. s§ . . . Insinuav grunt : 'they have penetrated'; the British
cavalry were so deployed as to leave spaces through which the chariots
could be driven against the 'enemy.

5. pedibus: « on foot.' 131, a.

6. Aurigae : the drivers.' ita . . . ut : 197, b.

7. Illi: the chariot-fighters. premantur: 220.

8. ad suos: * to their own lines,' we should say. receptum: <a
retreat,'




iv, 34] First Expedition to Britain 281

Ita mobilitatem equitum, stabilitatem peditum in proeliis
praestant ; ac tantum usu cotidiano et exercitatione efficiunt, 10
uti in declivi ac praecipiti loco incitatos equos sustinere
et brevi moderarl ac flectere, et per temonem percurrere et
in iugo insistere, et se inde in currus citissime recipere con-
sul erint.

Caesar brings aid; the Britons prepare to attack the camp.

34. Quibus rebus perturbatis nostris, novitate pugnae,
tempore opportunissimo Caesar auxilium tulit ; namque eius
adventu hostes constiterunt, nostri se ex timore receperunt.
Quo facto, ad lacessendum hostem et ad committendum
proelium alienum esse tempus arbitratus, suo se loco con- 5
tinuit et, brevi tempore intermisso, in castra legiones reduxit.

Dum haec geruntur, nostris omnibus occupatis, qui erant
in agris reliqui, discesserunt. Secutae sunt continuos com-

9. stabilitatem: 'steadiness.' peditum: 10, d.

10. praestant : ' exhibit ' ; sc. essedaril. tantum . . . efficiunt :
'they become so expert.' How lit. ?

1 1 . incitatos equos sustinere : { to keep control of their horses
at full gallop.' How lit. ?

12. brevi: for brevi tempore, 'in an instant.' moderarl: 'to
check.' flectere: 'to turn.' per, etc.: 'to run along the
pole. 1

13. iugo : yokes were used with horses as well as cattle ; see Fig. 29,
p. 8. citissime: 'with the utmost quickness.' 34, b.

34. 1. rebus: ablative of means. nostris: dative after tulit.
154, a. novitate: 'strangeness.' 135, a.

4. Quo facto : ' Though this had been accomplished,' referring
to the effects of Caesar's arrival. 144y b, (5).

5. alienum: 'unfavorable.' suo: ' favorable,' to himself. How
lit.?

7. nostris, etc. : while the Romans were busy repairing ships and
strengthening their defenses, the Britons ' withdrew ' from the open
country, gathering for attack. qui: as antecedent, sc. el as subject
of discesserunt.



282 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 55

plures dies tempestates, quae et nostros in castris conti-

10 nerent et hostem a pugna prohiberent.

Interim barbari nuntios in omries partes dimiserunt pauci-
tatemque nostrorum militum suis praedicaverunt et, quanta
praedae faciendae atque in perpetuum sui liberandi facultas
daretur, si Romanos castris expulissent, demonstraverunt.

15 His rebus celeriter magna multitudine peditatus equitatus-
que coacta, ad castra venerunt.

Caesar repels the attack on the camp and pursues the Britons.

35. Caesar, etsi idem, quod superioribus diebus acciderat,
fore videbat, ut, si essent hostes pulsl, celeritate perlculum
effugerent, tamen nactus equites circiter xxx, quos Commius
Atrebas, de quo ante dictum est, secum transportaverat,
s legiones in acie pro castris constituit. Commisso proelio
diutius nostrorum militum impetum hostes ferre non potu-
erunt ac terga verterunt. Quos tant5 spatio secuti, quan-
tum cursu et^viribus efficere potuerunt, complures ex eis

9. quae . . . continerent : 194, a. B. 283 ; H. 591, 2.

13. praedae faciendae: ' of securing booty. 1 in perpetuum:
I forever. 1 sui: 154, b> B. 339, 5 ; A. 504, c\ H. 626, 3.

14. darg.tur: 204, (3). expulissent: 218, (1), b.

15. His rebus: k by means of these statements. 1 How lit.? equi-
tatus : apparently including also the csseddril, the close connection of
whom with the cavalry has already been noted.

35. 1. idem: subject of fore, explained by the appositive clause ///
. . . effugerent. 203, (4).

3. effugerent: 'they would escape from. 1 nactus: 61, a, (3),
ami 226, c. XXX : a squad {turma). 88, b< and 309, c.

4. ante : chap 21, 14-20. The 30 horsemen were too few to be of
service except in scouting or in following up a fleeing enemy.

6. diutius: 'very long/ 153, a.

7. ac : 'but. 1 234, b. tanto spatio, etc. : 'so far as their speed
and strength allowed. 1 How lit.? 147. <. secuti, etc.: sc
nostri.

8. complurgs : accusative, ex els: 97, d.



iv, 37] First Expedition to Britain 283

occiderunt; deinde, omnibus longe latequeaedificiisincensls,
se in castra receperunt. k

The Britons sue for peace. Caesar sails back to Gaul.

36. Eodem die legati, ab hostibus missi, ad Caesarem de
pace venerunt. His Caesar numerum obsidum, quern
ante imperaverat, duplicavit, eosque in continentem adduci
iussit, quod, propinqua die aequinoctii, Inflrmis navibus
hieml navigationem subiciendam non existimabat. s

Ipse, idoneam tempestatem nactus, paulo post mediam
noctem naves solvit ; quae omnes iricolumes ad continentem
pervenerunt, sed ex els onerariae duae eosdem portus, quos
reliquae, capere non potuerunt, et paulo infra delatae sunt.

Legionaries from two transports are attacked by the Morini.

37. Quibus ex navibus cum essent expositi mllites circiter
ccc atque in castra contenderent, Morini, quos Caesan, in

36. 2. His : with duplicavit; kind of dative? 109, a. quem, etc. :
see chap. 27, 11. 12-19.

3. duplicavit : < doubled.'

4. propinqua die aequinoctii : l since the season of the equinox
was near at hand,' a period when storms are unusually prevalent. 144?
b, (3 ) . The equinox fell on September 26, and Caesar probably left
Britain at least a week before that date. He had been on the island about
three weeks, and had hardly been able to go out of sight of the seashore.



Online LibraryJulius CaesarC. Iulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum. Caesar's Commentaries: the Gallic war, books I-Iv, with selections from books V-VII and from the civil war; → online text (page 25 of 73)