Julius Caesar.

C. Iulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum. Caesar's Commentaries: the Gallic war, books I-Iv, with selections from books V-VII and from the civil war; online

. (page 26 of 73)
Online LibraryJulius CaesarC. Iulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum. Caesar's Commentaries: the Gallic war, books I-Iv, with selections from books V-VII and from the civil war; → online text (page 26 of 73)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


5. hiemi, etc.: 'that the voyage ought to run the risk of stormy
weather.' How lit.?

8. eosdem portus : probably Boulogne and Ambleteuse.

9. reliquae : ' as the rest ' ; sc. naves ceperunt. capere : ' make.'
paulo infra: i.e. southwest. Whether the two transports made some
harbor, or were stranded on the beach, Caesar does not say.

37. 1. Quibus navibus : 'these vessels,' the two transports men-
tioned in 1. 8 of the preceding chapter. essent expositi: 'had
been landed.'

2. ccc: trecentt, averaging about 150 men to a ship. castra:
probably constructed by Publius Sulpicius Rufus (or the protection of



284 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 65

Britanniam proficiscens, pacatos reliquerat, spe praedae

adducti primo non ita magno suorum numero circumste-

s terunt ac, si sese interfici nollent, arma ponere iusserunt.

Cum ill!, orbe facto, sese defenderent, celeriter ad clamorem

hominum circiter milia vi convenerunt. Qua re nuntiata,

Caesar omnem ex castris equitatum suis auxilio mlsit.

Interim nostri milites impetum hostium sustinuerunt atque

10 amplius horls quattuor fortissime pugnaverunt ; et, paucis

vulneribus acceptis, complures ex his occiderunt. Postea

vero quam equitatus noster in conspectum venit, hostes,

abiectis armis, terga verterunt magnusque e5rum numerus

est occlsus.

the harbor at portius /tins, Boulogne; cf. chap. 22, 11. 23-24.
Morini, etc. : belonging to the part of the Morini who had given
hostages to Caesar just before he sailed for Britain ; cf. chap. 22, 11. 1-12.

4. non ita magno : * not very large. 1 circumstetgrunt : sc. eos,
'the three hundred. 1

5. si . . . nollent, ponere: in the direct form, si . . . non vultis,
ponite. ponere : here = deponere, ' lay down. 1

6. orbe facto: 'formed a circle and 1 ; how lit.? 144, b> (2).
The i circle ? formed by soldiers for defense was hollow and corre-
sponded with our "hollow square. 11 338. ad clamorem: 'on
(hearing) the shouting ? of the attacking Morini. In Gaul news was
transmitted quickly by shouting across the country (VII, 3, 11. 8-13).

7. hominum: i.e. Morinorum ; dependent on milia. 98, a. vi :
sex. The number is probably exaggerated ; in any case it evidences a
much denser population in this region than is implied for the regions
penetrated in the expedition against the Morini and Menapii the
previous year; cf. Ill, chap. 28-29.

8. omnem equitatum : including probably the cavalry that had
embarked in the 18 transports but had failed to reach Britain (chap.
22, 11. 16-19), as we H as the contingent left with Sulpicius (chap. 22,
11. 23-24) ; the rest must have gone with Titurius Sabinus and Cotta.
(chap. 22, 11. 20-22).

12. Postea quam: 188, a. vfiro : 236, a.



iv. 381 First Expedition to Britain 285

Caesar inflicts punishment upon the Morini and Menapii.

38. Caesar postero die T. Labienum legatum cum els
legionibus, quas ex Britannia reduxerat, in Morinos, qui
rebellionem fecerant, misit. Qui cum propter siccitates
paludum, qu5 se reciperent, non haberent (quo perfugio
superiore anno fuerant usl), omnes fere in potestatem 5
Labieni pervenerunt.

At Q. Titurius et L. Cotta legati, qui in Menapiorum
fines legiones duxerant, omnibus eorum agris vastatis, fru-
mentis succisis, aedificiis incensis, quod Menapii se omnes
in densissimas silvas abdiderant, sead Caesarem receperunt 10

Winter quarters in Belgium. Thanksgiving decreed at Rome.

Caesar in Belgis omnium legion um hiberna constituit.
Eo duae omnino civitates ex Britannia obsides miserunt,
reliquae neglexerunt.

38. 1. T. Labienum: he had probably accompanied Caesar to
Britain. ,

3. Qui cum : * And since they.' 184, a. siccitates: plural be-
cause there was dryness in a number of marshes; trans, 'dryness. 1
92, c.

4. quo, etc. : ' (a place) to which they might escape.' 194, a.
quo perfugio: i.e. fterfugium, quo,
'the refuge which.' 165, b.

5. superiore anno: 56 B.C. ; cf. Ill,
chap. 28-29.

7. Menapiorum: n. to III, 28, 1. 3,
and Fig. 113.

10. in, etc. : cf. I, 12,1/11 and n. Figure 113. — Coin of the

13. reliquae neglexerunt: obsides Menapii.

mittere. The expedition to Britain, as Gold - of vei T crude workmanship.
that into Germany, was followed by no The^attributton to the Menapii is not
tangible results ; but great fame was

thereby won by the daring general for having opened up to his fellow-
countrymen new and extensive regions. Hence the thanksgiving




286 Caesar's Gallic War [B.<

His rebus gestis, ex litterls Caesaris dierum xx sup-
i5plicatio a senatu decreta est.

decreed at Rome, obtained by his friends for Caesar in the face of all
the opposition that his enemies could stir up (n. to chap. 14, 1. 14).

14. supplicatio : cf. II, 35, 11. 10-12. This 'thanksgiving' was
to be 5 days longer than the one decreed at the end of 57 B.C.,
though that was the longest known up to that time.



Plate VII



Military Devices




i. Timbered Shed, testudo, with Battering Ram. 2. Fire-signal Tower.

3. Tent, tabemaculum. 4. Order of Battle. 5. Wall Hook, falx muralis.

6. Turtle-shell roof, testudo. 7. Onager. 8. Ballista.

9. Glansfusili ex argilla (V. 43). 10. Turtle-shell shed, testudo.



COMMENTARIUS QUINTUS



Second Expedition to Britain. 1-23

Caesar orders ships built, and quiets disturbances in Illyricum.

1. L. Domitio, Ap. Claudio consulibus, discedens ab
hlbernis Caesar in Italiam, ut quotannis facere consuerat,
legatis imperat, quos legionibus praefecerat, uti, quam
plurimas possent, hieme naves aedificandas veteresque
reficiendas curarent. s




Figure 114. — View across Belgium's fertile fields.
Caesar usually chose the site of his winter quarters with reference to the grain supply.

1. I. L. Domitio, Ap. Claudio consulibus : 54 B.C. 240, a, and



234, a



2. hibernis: in Belgium (IV, chap. 38). Italiam: 283, b.

287



288 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 64

Earum modum formamque demonstrat. Ad celeritatem
onerandi subductionesque paulo facit humiliores, quam
quibus in nostro marl uti consuevimus, atque id eo magis,
quod propter crebras com mutation es aestuum minus
iomagnos ibi fluctus fieri cognoverat ; ad onera ac multi-
tudinem iumentorum transportandam paulo latiores, quam
quibus in reliquis utimur maribus. Has omnes actuaries
imperat fieri, quam ad rem humilitas multum adiuvat.
Ea, quae sunt usui ad armandas naves, ex Hispania ap-
is portari iubet.

Ipse, conventibus Galliae citeri5ris peractis, in Illyricum
proficiscitur, quod a Pirustis finitimam partem provinciae
incursionibus vastari audiebat. E5 cum venisset, civita-
tibus milites imperat certumque in locum convenire iubet.
20 Qua re nuntiata, Pirustae legatos ad eum mittunt, qui do-
ceant, nihil earum rerum publico factum consilio, seseque
paratos esse demonstrant omnibus rationibus de iniuriis
satisfacere. Percepta oratione e5rum, Caesar obsides
imperat eosque ad certam diem adduci iubet ; nisi ita fe-
25 cerint, sese bello civitatem persecuturum demonstrat. Eis
ad diem adductis, ut imperaverat, arbitros inter civitates
dat, qui litem aestiment poenamque c5nstituant.

7. onerandi: 'of lending. 1 subductiones : 'beaching.' 92, a.
humiliores: 'shallowei. 1 quam quibus: i.e. quam eae [naves]
sunt, quibus.

9. commutationes aestuum s df. IV, 29, 1. 2, and N.

11. latiores: predicative; sc. eas facit.

12. actuarias : predicative, 'for rapid movement,' with the use of
oars as well as sails.

13. humilitas : 'lowness ' of the deck above the water.

14. Hispania: 296. apportari : 'be brought.'
16. peractis: 'finished..' illyricum: 298.

18. incursionibus: 'raids.'

26. arbitros : ' referees.' 7, c, and 80, b.

27. litem: ' the (matter of) damages.'



v, 3] Second Expedition to Britain 289

Proceeding to Gaul he finds ships ready, visits the Treverans.

2. His confectis rebus conventibusque peractis, in ci-
teriorem Galliam revertitur atque inde ad exercitum profi-
ciscitur. Eo cum venisset, circumitis omnibus hlbernis,
singular! militum studio in summa omnium rerum inopia
circiter dc eius generis, cuius supra demonstravimus, naves, 5
et longas xxvm, invenit Instructas, neque multum abesse
ab eo, quin paucis diebus deduct possint. Collaudatis
militibus atque els, qui negotid praefuerant, quid fieri velit,
ostendit, atque omnes ad portum Itium convenire iubet,
quo ex portu commodissimum in Britanniam traiectum io
esse cogn5verat, circiter milium passuum xxx a continent!;
huic rei, quod satis esse visum est militum, reliquit.

Ipse cum legionibus expeditis mi et equitibus dccc in
fines Treverorum proficiscitur, quod hi neque ad concilia
veniebant neque imperio parebant, German5sque Trans- is
rhenanos sollicitare dicebantur.

By means of hostages he binds Indutiomarus to keep the peace.

3. Haec civitas longe plurimum totius Galliae equitatu
valet magnasque habet copias peditum, Rhenumque, ut
supra demonstravimus, tangit.

In ea civitate duo de principatu inter se contendebant,
Indutiomarus et Cingetorix; e quibus alter, simul atque des
Caesaris legionumque adventu cognitum est, ad eum venit,
se suosque omnes in oflficio futuros neque ab amicitia

2. 5. DC : sescentas. cuius : cuius generis naves ; trans, cuius
as if quod. supra: in chap. 1.

6. longas: i.e. naves duodetriginta. 846, a. neque, etc.: 'and
that in a few days they would be about ready to launch.' How lit.?

7. Collaudatis : * warmly commending.' How lit. ?

1 2. huic rei : ' for this purpose.' quod militum : ' st> many
soldiers as.' 97, b.

3. 3. supra : III, 11, 11. 1-2. tangit : < extends to ' ; lit. ' touches. 1



290 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 54

populi Romani defecturos confirmavit, quaeque in Treveris
gererentur, ostendit.

10 At Indutiomarus equitatum peditatumque cogere, eisque,
qui per aetatem in armis esse n5n poterant, in silvam
Arduennam abditis, quae, ingenti magnitudine, per medios
fines Treverorum a flumine Rheno ad initium Remorum
pertinet, bellum parare Instituit. Sed postea quam non

isnulli principes ex ea civitate, et familiaritate Cingetorigis
adducti et adventu nostri exercitus perterriti, ad Caesarem
venerunt et de suls privatim rebus ab eo petere coeperunt,
quoniam civitati consulere n5n possent, veritus, ne ab
omnibus desereretur, Indutiomarus legatos ad Caesarem

20 mittit :

Sese idcirco ab suls discedere atqite ad eutn venire
nolirisse, quo facilius clvitatem in officio contineret, ne
omnis nobilitatis discessu plebs propter imprudeniiam labe-
retur ; itaque clvitatem in sua po testate esse, seque.sl Caesar

25 permittcrety ad eum in castra venturum, et suds civitatisque
fortunas eius fidel permissurum.

4. Caesar, etsl intellegebat, qua de causa ea dicerentur,
quaeque eum res ab Instituto consili5 deterreret, tamen, ne
aestatem in Treveris consumere cogeretur, omnibus ad
Britannicum bellum rebus comparatis, Indutiomarum ad

s se cum cc obsidibtis venire iussit. His adductis, in eis filio
propinquisque eius omnibus, quos nominatim evocaverat,
consolatus Indutiomarum hortatusque est, uti in ofncio

11. per aetatem: « by reason of age. 1 in armis esse: \jb.arma
ferre.

21. SSsS, etc.: • (saying) that he. 1 idcirco : 'on this account/

23. imprudentiam : Mack of foresight. 1 labergtur : ' fall away,'
becoming disloyal.

4. 2. ab instituto consilio : • from (carrying out) the plan (which
he had) formed. 1

6. §vocaverat : sc. Caesar.



v, 5] Second Expedition to Britain 291

maneret; nihilo tamen setius, prlncipibus Trever5rum ad
se convocatis, hos singillatim Cingetorlgl conciliavit ; quod
cum merito eius ab se fieri intellegebat, turn magnl interesse 10
arbitrabatur, eius auctoritatem inter suos quam plurimum
valere, cuius tarn egregiam in se voluntatem perspexisset.

Id factum graviter tulit Indutiomarus, suam gratiam
inter su5s minui, et, qui iam ante inimico in nos animd
fuisset, multo gravius h5c dolore exarsit. is

Caesar gathers his forces at portus Itius.

5. His rebus constitutis, Caesar ad portum Itium cum
legionibus pervenit.

Ibi cognoscit, lx naves, quae in Meldls factae erant,
tempestate reiectas cursum tenere non potuisse atque
eodem, unde erant prof ectae, revertisse ; reliquas paratas 5
ad navigandum atque omnibus rebus instructas invenit.

E5dem equitatus totius Galliae convenit, numer5 milium
quattuor, principesque ex omnibus civitatibus; ex quibus
perpaucos, quorum in se fidem perspexerat, relinquere in
Gallia, reliquos obsidum loc5 secum ducere decreverat, 10
quod, cum ipse abesset, motum Galliae verebatur.



9. quod cum, etc. : ' and not only did he understand that he was
doing this in accordance with what Cingetorix deserved. 1 How lit.?
186, b.

10. eius: Cingetorigis. 19, d. magni: 103, d.

14. qui: 'although he. 1 187. B. 283, 3, b\ H. 593, 2.

15. gravius . . . exarsit: 'on account of this grievance he became
much more indignant. 1 How lit.?

5. 3. naves, etc. : these vessels had to be taken down the Marne
and the Seine to the Channel, then north to Boulogne (portus Itius) ;
see Map 11.

7. numero : 142, a, and 85. milium: dependent on equitatus.
100, a, and 309, b.



292 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 54

Dumnorix attempts to elude Caesar's vigilance, and is slain.

6. Erat una cum ceteris Dumnorix Aeduus, de quo
ante a nobis dictum est. Hunc secum habere in primis
constituerat, quod eum cupidum rerum novarum, cupidum
imperii, magni animi, magnae inter Gallos auctoritatis
5 cogn5verat. Accedebat hue, quod in concilio Aeduorum
Dumnorix dixerat, sibi a Caesare regnum civitatis deferri ;
quod dictum Aedui graviter ferebant, neque recusandi aut
deprecandi causa legatos ad Caesarem mittere audebant.
Id factum ex suis hospitibus Caesar cogn5verat.
io I He omnibus primo precibus petere contendit, ut in
Gallia relinqueretur, partim quod, Insuetus navigandi, mare
timeret, partim quod religionibus impediri sese diceret.
Postea quam id obstinate sibi negari vidit, omni spe impe-
trandi adempta, principes Galliae sollicitare, sevocare sin-
is gulos hortarique coepit, uti in continentl remanerent ; metu
territare :

Non sine causa fieri, ut Gallia omni nobilitate spoliare-
tur; id esse consilium Cae saris, ut, qu'ds in conspectu
Galliae interficere vereretur, /ids omnes in Britanniam tra-
20 ductds necaret ; fidem reliquis interponere, ius iurandum
poscere, ut, quod esse ex usu Galliae intellexissent, com-
muni consilio administrarent.

6. 2. ante: I, chap. 16-20. Dumnorix had always opposed Caesar.
3. eum : sc. esse. 289, c.

6. sibi . . . dSferri : contrary to the constitution of the Aeduans,
who elected a Vergobret annually; see I, 16, 11. 12-14.

11. insu§tus navigandi : ' unused to sailing. 1 230, (1).

12. religionibus: i by religious scruples.' diceret: 188, b

13. obstinatS : ' persistently.'

14. sSvocare : ! to call aside,' for secret conference. 19, d.

16. tSrritare : sc. eos ; i he worked upon their fears (saying).' 182,
<md218,d. How lit.?

17. spoliarStur: <was being stripped,' by taking the leading men
to Britain.



V,7] Second Expedition to Britain 293

Haec a compluribus ad Caesarem deferebantur.

7. Qua re cognita Caesar, quod tantum civitatl Aeduae
dignitatis tribuebat, coercendum atque deterrendum, qui-
buscumque rebus posset, Dumnorigem statuebat ; quod
longius eius amentiam progredi videbat, prospiciendum,
ne quid sibi ac rel publicae nocere posset. Itaque dies 5
circiter xxv in e5 loco commoratus, quod Corus ventus
navigationem impediebat, qui magnam partem omnis
temporis in his locis flare consuevit, dabat operam, ut in
officio Dumnorigem contineret, nihilo tamen setius omnia
eius consilia cognosceret; tandem idoneam nactus tem-io
pestatem milites equitesque conscendere naves iubet.

At, omnium impeditis animls, Dumnorix cum equitibus
Aeduorum a castris, insciente Caesare, domum discedere
coepit. Qua re nuntiata, Caesar, intermissa profectione
atque omnibus rebus postpositis, magnam partem equitatus is
ad eum insequendum mittit retrahique imperat; si vim
faciat neque pareat, interfici iubet, nihil hunc, se absente,
pro sano facturum arbitratus, qui praesentis imperium
neglexisset. Ille autem revocatus resistere ac se manu
defendere suorumque fidem impl5rare coepit, saepe cla- 20
mitans, liberum se liberaeque esse civitatis. Illi, ut erat
imperatum, ' circumsistunt hominem atque interficiunt; at
equites Aedui ad Caesarem omnes revertuntur.



7. 3. posset : sc. eum coercere et deterrere.
4. prospiciendum : sc. esse statuebat.

6. eo loco : portus Itius, Boulogne. commoratus : < while wait-
ing.' Corus : i from the northwest. 1

8. dabat operam : ' was taking pains. 1
10. tempestatem : cf. IV, 23, 1. 2, and N.

16. retrain: sc. eum, 'that he be brought back. 1
18. pro sano: Mike a man in his senses. 1 How lit.? praesen-
tis : sc. suT, i.e. Caesar is.

20. clamitans : l crying out. 1 78, a.



291 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 54

Caesar sails to Britain, lands, arid captures a stronghold.

8. His rebus gestis, Labieno in continent! cum m
legionibus et equitum milibus duobus relicto, ut portus
tueretur et rem frumentariam provideret, quaeque in
Gallia gererentur, cognosceret, consiliumque pro tempore

s et pr5 re caperet, ipse cum v legi5nibus et pari numero
equitum, quern in continentl reliquerat, ad solis occasum
naves solvit.

Et lenl Africo provectus, media circiter nocte vento
intermisso, cursum non tenuit et, longius delatus aestu, orta

ioluce sub sinistra Britanniam relictam conspexit. Turn,
rursus aestus commutationem secutus, remis contendit, ut
earn partem insulae caperet, qua optimum esse egressum
superiore aestate cognoverat. Qua in re admodum fuit
militum virtus laudanda, qui vectoriis gravibusque navigiis,

is non intermisso remigandi labore, longarum navium cursum
adaequarunt.

Accessum est ad Britanniam omnibus navibus meridiano
fere tempore, neque in eo loco hostis est visus; sed, ut
postea Caesar ex captivis cognovit, cum magnae manus

20 eo convenissent, multitudine navium perterritae, quae cum
annotinis privatisque, quas sui quisque commodi causa

8. 4. pro ... re: 'as conditions at the time might require.' How
lit.?

5. pari: trans, as if eddoii.

8. Africo : ' southwest wind. 1 Caesar probably sailed about July 6.

11. aestus, etc. : the change' of course is shown on Map 1 1, A.

12. caperet: 'reach.'

14. laudanda: 'praiseworthy.' vectoriis, etc.: * hea\ v trans-
ports.'

15. remigandi: 'of rowing'; the transports were provided with
oars, in addition to the usual sails (Fig. 202, in Vocab.).

17. meridiano tempore: 'midday. 7

21. annotinis: sc. navibus, 'ships of the previous year.'



Plate VIII Chalk Cliffs near Dover




Between Dover and Deal. The cliff is here about 400 feet high. At the top
is the lighthouse of South Foreland.



v, 9] Second Expedition to Britain 295

fecerat, amplius dccc uno erant visae tempore, a lltore
discesserant ac se in superi5ra loca abdiderant.

9. Caesar, exposito exercitu et loco castris idoneo capto,
ubi ex captivis cognovit, qu5 in loco hostium copiae conse-
dissent, cohortibus x ad mare relictis et equitibus ccc, qui
praesidio navibus essent, de tertia vigilia ad hostes conten-
dit, eo minus veritus navibus, quod in litore molli atque 5
aperto deligatas ad ancoras relinquebat ; ei praesidio navi-
busque Q. Atrium praefecit. Ipse, noctu progressus mllia
passuum circiter xn, hostium copias conspicatus est.

Illi, equitatu atque essedis ad flumen progress!, ex loco
superi5re nostros prohibere et proelium committere coepe- 10
runt. Repulsi ab equitatu se in silvas abdiderunt, locum
nacti egregie et natura et opere munitum, quern domestic!
belli, ut videbatur, causa iam ante praeparaverant ; nam
crebris arboribus succisis omnes introitus erant praeclusl.
IpsI ex silvls rarl propugnabant, nostrosque intra muni- 15
tiones ingredi prohibebant. At mllites legi5nis septimae,
testudine facta et aggere ad munltiones adiecto, locum
ceperunt edsque ex silvls expulerunt, paucls vulneribus
acceptls. Sed e5s fugientes longius Caesar prosequi
vetuit, et quod loci naturam ignprabat, et quod, magna 20

22 DCCC : octingentae ; with quae, * of which more than 800. ' 97, c,
and 129, b.

9. 3. qui . . . essent: * to guard the ships.' How lit.? 193, a,
and 112, b.

5. navibus: dative. molli: affording good anchorage.

9. essedis : see IV, chap. 33 and Notes. flumen : the Great
Stour ; see Map 1 1 .

14. omnes, etc. : * all the entrances were obstructed.'

15. rarl propugnabant: ' in small bodies were hurling missiles.'
How lit. ? The British stronghold was perhaps near Canterbury.

16. prohibebant : 'were trying to prevent.' 175, e, and 228, a.

17. testudine: 31+5. aggere: probably made of tree trunks.
8U-



296 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 64

parte die! consumpta, munition] castrorum tempus relinqui
volebat.

A storm shatters the fleet; Caesar orders repairs, returns
inland.

10. Postridie eius die! mane tripertito milites equitesque
in expeditionem misit, ut eos, qui fugerant, persequerentur.
His aliquantum itineris progressis, cum iam extremi essent
in prospectu, equites a Q. Atrio ad Caesarem venerunt,

5 qui nuntiarent, superiore nocte maxima coorta tempestate,
prope omnes naves afflictas atque in litus eiectas esse,
quod neque ancorae funesque subsisterent, neque nautae
gubernatoresque vim tempestatis pati possent ; itaque ex
e5 concursu navium magnum esse incommodum acceptum.

11. His rebus cognitis, Caesar legiones equitatumque
revocari atque in itinere resistere iubet, ipse ad naves re-
vertitur; eadem fere, quae ex nuntiis litterisque cogno-
verat, coram perspicit, sic ut, amissis circiter xl navibus,

s reliquae tamen refici posse magno negotio viderentur.

Itaque ex legionibus fabros deligit et ex continent! alios
arcess! iubet; Labieno scrlbit, ut, quam plurimas posset,
els legionibus, quae sinf apud eum, naves instituat. Ipse,



10. i. tripertito: ' in three columns. 1

2. in expeditionem : * for a rapid march,' with light equipment.

3. aliquantum itineris : ' some distance.' How lit. ? extremi:
' the rear ' of the Roman force was just visible to those in camp.

11. 2. in itinere resistere : to beat off the enemy, without halting
for a pitched battle.

3. nuntiis : ' messengers,' mounted (chap. 10, 1. 4). litteris :

' dispatch,' from Quintus Atrius.

5. negotio: 'trouble.'

6. fabros : ' mechanics.' 7, c, and 310, b.

8. els legionibus : \ with (the help of) tho legions, 1 at portus Itius
160, d.



v, 12] Second Expedition to Britain 297

etsi res erat multae operae ac laboris, tamen commodissi-
mum esse statuit, omnes naves subducl et cum castris una 10
munitione coniungi. In his rebus circiter dies x consumit,
ne nocturnis quidem temporibus ad laborem militum inter-
missis. %

Subductls navibus castrlsque egregie munitis, easdem
copias, quas ante, praesidio navibus relinquit, ipse eodem, 15
unde redierat, proficiscitur. Eo cum venisset, maiores iam
undique in eum locum copiae Britann5rum convenerant,
summa imperii belllque administrandi communi consili5
permissa Cassivellaun5 ; cuius fines a maritimis civitati-
bus flumen dividit, quod appellatur Tamesis, a marl circiter 2c
milia passuum lxxx. Huic superiore tempore cum reli-
quis civitatibus continentia bella intercesserant; sed, nostro
adventu permoti, BritannI hunc totl bello imperioque prae-
fecerant.

The Britons and their island.

12. Britanniae pars interior ab eis incolitur, quos natos
in insula ipsa memoria proditum dicunt ; maritima pars ab
eis, qui praedae ac belli inferendi causa ex Belgio transie-

9 res, etc.: 'it was a wearisome and laborious undertaking.'
How lit.? 100, b.

10. subducl: the ships were built so that they could be beached;
chap. 1, 11. 6-10.

15. eodem, etc. : the British stronghold, near modern Canterbury
(chap. 9, 11. 11-19).

20. Tamesis : only the upper Thames formed the boundary of the
territories ruled by Cassivellaunus. 14, c. marl: at the point
where Caesar landed, near Deal.

12. 1. quos, etc. : quos natos [esse] is subject of proditum [esse] ;
I who, they say, according to tradition, originated in the island itself.^
How lit.? 294.

2. dicunt: 172, c. Several ancient peoples considered themselves
"autochthones," sprung from the soil in the region in which they
dwelt.



298



Caesar's Gallic War



[B.C.G4



runt (qui omnes fere els nominibus clvitatum appellantur,
squibus orti ex civitatibus eo pervenerunt), et, bello illato,
ibi permanserunt atque agros colere coeperunt. Hominum
est Infinita multitudo creberrimaque aedificia fere Gallicis
consimilia, pecorum magnus numerus. Utui>tur aut aere
aut nummo aureo, aut taleis ferreis ad certum pondus ex-
ioaminatis, pro nummo.

Nascitur ibi plumbum album in mediterranels regionibus,



4. qui, etc. : there was, for example, a British tribe called Atre-



Online LibraryJulius CaesarC. Iulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum. Caesar's Commentaries: the Gallic war, books I-Iv, with selections from books V-VII and from the civil war; → online text (page 26 of 73)