Julius Caesar.

C. Iulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum. Caesar's Commentaries: the Gallic war, books I-Iv, with selections from books V-VII and from the civil war; online

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6. Hominum, etc. : ' The population is beyond number.' How lit. ?

7. aedificia: sc. stmt. Gal-
licis [aedificils] : large round huts
of timbers and wickerwork, with coni-
cal thatched roofs.

8. aere: 'bronze, 1 bronze coins.
The earliest British bronze coins yet
discovered date from a few years after
Caesar's time.

9. nummo aureo : ' gold coins,
we should say. Gold coins began to
be struck in Britain at least a hundred

years before Caesar's invasions (Fig. 115). taleis ferreis: <iron
bars.' ad, etc. : * weighed to a certain standard,' lit. ' weight.' The
iron currency bars that have

Figure 115. — British gold coin.
Probably in circulation in Caesar's
time. Obverse, curious patterns; re-
verse, conventional horse, star, chariot

been found represent several
different weights, the heaviest
being twice as heavy as the
second, and so on.

1 1 . Nascitur : ' is found.'
plumbum album : 'tin,'
which began to be exported
from Cornwall as early as the
ninth century, B.C. medi-
terranels : * inland.' The
Cornish tin mines were in

Figure 116. — British helmet.
Of bronze ; found in the Thames at London.

reality near the sea, but they were a long distance from Caesar's

v, 13] Second Expedition to Britain 299

in maritimis ferrum, sed eius exigua est copia ; aere utun-
tur importato. Materia cuiusque generis, ut in Gallia, est,
praeter fagum atque abietem.

Leporem et gallinam et anserem gustare fas non putant ; 15
haec tamen alunt animi voluptatisque causa. Loca sunt
temperatiora quam in Gallia, remissioribus frigoribus.

13. Insula natura triquetra, cuius unum latus est contra
Galliam. Huius lateris alter angulus, qui est ad Cantium,
quo fere omnes ex Gallia naves appelluntur, ad orientem
solem, Inferior ad meridiem spectat. Hoc latus pertinet
circiter milia passuum d. 5

12. ferrum : iron mines were worked in Sussex from the prehistoric
period to the nineteenth century. aere : some bronze seems to have
been imported into Britain (Fig. 125), but most of the bronze objects '
found in Britain were made there, from native mixtures of the component
metals (Fig. 116).

14. fagum : ' beech.' 5, b. Caesar seems to have been mistaken
in saying that the beech was not found in Britain ; but his opportunities
for direct observation were limited. abietem : ' fir.' ' 10, e.

15. Leporem, etc. : 'hare, chicken, and goose.' The origin of the
superstition it is difficult to understand ; for the hare, cf. Levit. xi. 6.
13, g, and 284, &> anserem : 11, c. gustare : ' to taste.'

16. haec alunt: 'they raise these.' animi, etc.: 'for pastime
and amusement.' Loca : ' the region.' 6, c. sunt temperatiora :
' has a milder climate.' How lit. ?

17. remissioribus frigoribus : ' the cold being less severe.' How
lit.? 92, c, and 13, f.

13. 1. natura: 'in shape'; lit. 'by nature.' triquetra: 'trian-
gular.' contra: 'opposite.'

2. alter angulus : ' one corner.' ad Cantium : ' by Kent ' (Map
12, A) ; the boundaries of Kent in Caesar's time are not known with

3. quo: refers to angulus. appelluntur: ' come to land.' How
lit.? ad orientem solem: 'toward the east.' How lit. ?

4. inferior [angulus] : see Map 12, B. ad meridiem: 'toward
the south.'

5. D : quingentorum ; how many English miles in 500 Roman miles?
243, a, b.

300 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 54

Alterum vergit ad Hispaniam atque occidentem solem ;
qua ex parte est Hibernia, dimidio minor, ut existimatur,
quam Britannia, sed pari spatio transmissus, atque ex
Gallia est in Britanniam. In hoc medio cursu est insula,
10 quae appellatur Mona; complures praeterea minores sub-
iectae Insulae existimantur ; de quibus insulis non null!
scrlpserunt, dies continuos xxx sub bruma esse noctem.
Nos nihil de eo percontationibus reperiebamus, nisi certls
ex aqua mensuris breviores esse quam in continent! noctes

6. Alterum [latus], etc. : 'The second side has a westerly trend,
toward Spain. 1 How lit.? Caesar's erroneous belief that Spain ex-
tended north nearly to Britain was shared by his contemporaries, and
even by some writers after his time. See Map 12.

7. qua ex parte: 'and on this side.' cTimidio minor: 'a half
smaller.' How lit.? 140.

8. Britannia: sc. est. pari, etc : '(reached by) a passage just
as long as that from Gaul to Britain.' How lit.? pari spatio: de-
scriptive ablative, taking the place of an adjective, and coordinated with
minor by sed. transmissus : genitive, depending on spatio. atque :
233, c.

9. In . . . cursu: ' half way across,' between Britain and Ireland.
How lit.? 152, a.

10. Mona: see Map 12. subiectae [esse], etc.: 'are thought
to lie off (the coast on this side).'

11. Insulae : probably the Hebrides are referred to. non nulli
scripsgrunt : perhaps Greek writers, whose works have perished, are

:2. sub bruma : 'about the winter solstice.' The statement re-
garding a period of thirty days without the sun is not true of the
Hebrides or of the other islands near Scotland.

13. Nos: 156. percontationibus: 'through inquiries."
certls, etc.: 'by exact measurements (made) with a water-clock.'
How lit.? A water-clock, clepsydra, was used in a Roman camp, espe-
cially to mark the watches. 2^2, e.

14. ex aqua : with mcnsitns. !.'><).</. breviores : Caesar's ob-
servations were made in summer; in winter the nights would of course
be longer.

MAP 12
Map of Britain as conceived by Caesar

Book V, 13

To face page 300


In view of the meagerness of Caesar's information, his statement about the
geography of Britain is surprisingly near the truth in essential particulars. In
this respect it compares favorably with the statements of modern travelers and
explorers in regard to regions of which they have seen only a small part.

He knew that the Island was triangular in shape, and in his two expeditions
he had himself seen a portion of the coast facing Gaul (chap. 13,1. 1). He could
easily believe that one corner (A) faced east, another (B) toward the south.
His language implies that he had a vague idea of a projection eastward (C) at
the northern extremity (1. 18). He knew the location, and approximately the
size, of Ireland (1. 7).

Caesar, as other ancients, found it more difficult to estimate distances north
and south than east and west. He fell easily into the error of supposing that the
northern end of Spain extended so far that it lay west of the southern part of
Britain (1. 6); and his conception of the relative positions of the two Gauls, Italy
and Illyricum, was probably very nearly as represented.

The strait between Italy and Sicily, now Strait of Messina, is called by Caesar
Fretum (C. II, 1. 3).

v, 14] Second Expedition to Britain 301

videbamus. Huius est longitudo lateris, ut fert illorum 15
opinio, dcc milium.

Tertium est contra septentriones ; cui parti nulla est
obiecta terra, sed eius angulus lateris maxime ad Germa-
niam spectat. Hoc milia passuum dccc in longitudinem
esse existimatur. 20

Ita omnis Insula est in circuitu vlcies centum milium

14. Ex his omnibus longe sunt humanissimi, qui Can-
tium incolunt, quae regio est maritima omnis, neque mul-
tum a Gallica differunt c5nsuetudine. InteriSres plerlque
frumenta non serunt, sed lacte et carne vivunt pellibusque
sunt vestiti. 5

Omnes vero se Britannl vitro Inficiunt, quod caeru-

15. ut, etc. : ' according to their idea, 1 i.e. of the Britons. How lit. ?

16. DCC: septingentorum. milium: 100, b.

17. Tertium [latus] : cf. iinum (1. i), and alteram (1. 6).
19. Hoc: hoc latus. DCCC: octingenta.

21. vicies centum : < two thousand. 1 How lit. ? Caesars estimate
is nearer the truth than might have been expected; no Roman is
known to have sailed around the island until more than a century after
Caesars time, in 84 a.d.

14. 1. his omnibus : the Britons. 97, d. humanissimi: 'most
civilized. 1

2. omnis: 'wholly. 1 151. neque: 'and . ,. . not.'

3. Interiores plerlque : 'Those living in the interior, for the most
part. 1

4. serunt: 'sow. 1 lacte: cf. IV, 1, 1. 16. 131, a. carne:
'meat. 1 18, a.

5. suntvestiti: 'clothe themselves. 1 174- Caesar was misin-
formed about the life of the inland tribes of Britain. It has been
proved by discoveries that, long before his time, at least the more pro-
gressive raised crops and had woolen and linen clothes.

6. se vitro inficiunt : ' stain themselves with woad, 1 a plant from
the leaves of which is made a dye resembling indigo in color,
caeruleum colorem : ' a bluish color. 1 80, b.

302 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 54

leum efficit colorem, atque hoc horridiores sunt in pugna
aspectu ; capilloque sunt promisso.

The Britons fight fiercely, but Caesar defeats them.

15. Equites hostium essedariique acriter proelio cum
equitatu nostro in itinere confllxerunt, ita tamen, ut nostri
omnibus partibus superiores fuerint atque eos in silvas col-
lesque compulerint ; sed, compluribus interfectis, cupidius

s insecuti non nullos ex suis amiserunt.

At illi, intermisso spatio, imprudentibus nostris atque
occupatls in munitione castrorum, subito se ex silvls eiece-
runt, impetuque in eos facto, qui erant in statione pro.
castris collocati, acriter pugnaverunt ; duabusque missis

iosubsidid cohortibus a Caesare, atque his prlmls legionum
duarum, cum hae perexiguo intermisso loci spatio inter se
c5nstitissent, novo genere pugnae perterritis nostris, per
medios audacissime perruperunt seque inde incolumes
receperunt. E5 die Q. Laberius Durus, tribunus militum,

is interficitur. Illi, pluribus summissls cohortibus, repelluntur.

16. Toto hoc in genere pugnae, cum sub oculls omnium

7. hoc: * on this account.' horridiores aspectu: i rather wild-
looking 1 ; similar was the use of war-paint by the American Indians.
How lit.? 142, a.

8. capillo, etc. :' they let their hair grow long.' How lit.?

15. 1. Equitgs, etc. : cf. IV, 33, and Notes. The narrative,
interrupted by the description of Britain, is here resumed from chap.

10. atque, etc. : 'and those the first.' 161, c.

11. perexiguo: i very small.' 79, b. inter se : 'apart.'

12. novo, etc. : the two cohorts had evidently not been on the first
expedition. per medios : between the cohorts.

16. 1. genere, etc. : ' throughout the engagement, with fighting of
this sort.' How lit.? sub oculls omnium: i.e. /;/ conspectu

V, 16]

Second Expedition to Britain


ac pr5 castris dimicaretur, intellectual est, nostros propter
gravitatem armorum, quod neque Insequi cedentes possent
neque ab signis discedere auderent, minus aptos esse ad
huius generis hostem ; equites autem magno cum periculo s
proelio dlmicare, propterea quod ill! etiam consulto plerum-
que cederent et, cum paulum ab legionibus nostros remo-
vissent, ex essedis desilirent et pedibus dispari proelio
contenderent. Accedebat hue, ut numquam conferti, sed

Figure 117. — Scene in a Roman camp.

Left to right: background, captives, foreground, legionary in marching order; cavalry
officer ; legionaries, one with head bandaged in consequence of a wound ; Roman stand-
ards ; three captured standards, one in the left hand of a military tribune, the other two
lying on the ground ; commander-in-chief, lictors, second in command, and horn blowers.

2. intellectum est : ' it was evident. 1 How lit. ?

6. ill! , etc. : 'they,' the Britons, * would fall back purposely.'

8. dispari proelio: 'in battle with the advantage on their side/
because Caesar's Gallic cavalry were no match for warriors fighting on
foot. How lit.?

9. Accedebat hue: 'There was the further fact that.' con-
ferti: ' in close formation .'

304 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 54

iorari magnisque intervallis proeliarentur stationesque dispo
sitas haberent, atque alios alii deinceps exciperent, integri-
que et recentes defatlgatis succederent.

17. Postero die procul a castris hostes in collibus con-
stiterunt, rarique se ostendere et lenius, quam pridie, nos-
tros equites proelio lacessere coeperunt. Sed merldie,
cum Caesar, pabulandi causa, in legiones atque omnem
sequitatum cum C. Trebonio legato misisset, repente ex
omnibus partibus ad pabulatores advolaverunt sic, uti ab
signis legionibusque non absisterent.

Nostri, acriter in eos impetu facto, reppulerunt neque
finem sequendi fecerunt, quoad, subsidio confisi, equites,
iocum post se legiones viderent, praecipites hostes egerunt;
magnoque e5rum numero interfecto, neque sul colligendl
neque consistendi, aut ex essedis desiliendi, facultatem

Ex hac fuga protinus, quae undique convenerant, auxilia
15 discesserunt, neque post id tempus umquam summls
nobiscum copiis hostes contenderunt.

io. rSrl: 'in small bodies.' stationgs : here ' reserves. 1

ii. alios, etc. : ' were relieving one another in turn. 1 171, b.

12. dSfatigatis : 227, a, (4).

17. 4. pabulandi causa : i to forage. 1 Three legions and the
cavalry made a foraging party of extraordinary size.

6. pabulatorgs : 'foragers.' advolavgrunt : i rushed upon. 1

How lit.? ab . . . absisterent: 'they did not hold back from the
standards of the legions, 1 lit. 'and the legions'; the Britons even
charged upon the legionaries, formed in order of battle. 238, d, and

9. quoad: 190, c. subsidio: 'on the support (of the legions). 1
135, a.

10. cum: 184, a. praecipitSs : accusative, 'head over heels. 1

11. sul colligendl: 154, b. B. 339, 5 ; A. 504, c\ H. 626, 3.
14. Ex: 'after. 1 auxilia: auxilia Brit an nor um.

V, 19] Second Expedition to Britain 305

With great dash Caesars men force the passage of the Thames.

18. Caesar, cognito consilio eorum, ad flumen Tamesim
in fines Cassivellauni exercitum duxit; quod flumen uno
omnino loco pedibus, atque hoc aegre, transirl potest. Eo
cum venisset, animadvertit, ad alteram fluminis ripam
magnas esse copias hostium Instructas. Ripa autem erat 5
acutis sudibus praeflxis munlta, eiusdemque generis sub
aqua defixae sudes flumine tegebantur.

His rebus cognitis a captlvls perfugisque, Caesar, prae-
misso equitatu, confestim legiones subsequi iussit. Sed
ea celeritate atque eo impetu mllites ierunt, cum capiteio
solo ex aqua exstarent, ut hostes impetum legionum atque
equitum sustinere non possent ripasque dimitterent ac se
fugae mandarent.

Cassivellaunns harasses Caesar's army on the march.

19. Cassivellaunus, ut supra demonstravimus, omnl depo-
sita spe contentions, dimissis amplioribus copils, milibus
circiter mi essedariorum relictls, itinera nostra servabat;
paulumque ex via excedebat locisque impedltls ac silvestri-

18. i. consilio: the 'plan' of the Britons, revealed in chap. 19.
3. loco: 145, c. hoc: sc. loco.

6. acutis sudibus : ' with sharp stakes.' praeflxis : ; driven in
front,' at the water's edge.

10. cum, etc. : 'though they were in water up to the chin.' How
lit. ? Caesar crossed the Thames from the south to the north side ;
precisely where he crossed, is not known. See Map 1 r.

19. 2. contentionis : 'of a general engagement.' amplioribus
copils : ' the greater part of his forces.'

3. nil : quattuor. It is not possible to determine whether Caesar
means that Cassivellaunus kept in the field 4000 chariot-drivers, each
having a chariot and accompanied by a warrior (n. to IV, 33, 1. 2), mak-
ing a force of 8000 men, or whether in essedariorum, both drivers and
warriors are included ; in the latter case there would be 2000 chariots,
each with two men, making a totaf of 4000 men.

306 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 54

5 bus sese occultabat, atque els regionibus, quibus nos iter
facturos cognoverat, pecora atque homines ex agris in
silvas compellebat ; et, cum equitatus noster, liberius prae-
dandi vastandlque causa, se in agros effuderat, omnibus
viis semitisque essedarios ex silvis emittebat, et magno cum

io periculo nostrorum equitum cum eis confligebat atque hoc
metu latius vagari prohibebat.

Relinquebatur, ut neque longius ab agmine legionum
discedl Caesar pateretur, et tan.tum in agris vastandis
incendiisque faciendls hostibus noceretur, quantum labore

is atque itinere legionarii milites efficere poterant.

The Trinovantes and other peoples submit. Caesar takes
Cassivellaunus'' stroyighold.

20. Interim Trinovantes, prope firmissima earum re-
gionum civitas, ex qua Mandubracius adulescens, Caesaris
fidem secutus, ad eum in continentem venerat (cuius pater
in ea civitate regnum obtinuerat interfectusque erat a

s Cassivellauno, ipse fuga mortem vitaverat), legatos ad
Caesarem mittunt pollicenturque, sese el dedituros atque
imperata factur5s ; petunt, ut Mandubracium ab iniuria
Cassivellaunl defendat, atque in civitatem mittat, qui
praesit imperiumque obtineat. His Caesar imperat obsides

ioXL frumentumque exercitui Mandubraciumque ad eos

8. se effuderat: 'had dashed forth. 1 omnibus, etc.: 'by all
the roads and passage-ways,' well known to the Britons. 134, a.
io. equitum: 102. hoc metu: i from fear of this ' danger.
1 1 . vagari : sc. nostros.

13. discSdi: i.e. equitibus, 'that (the cavalry) should leave,' etc.
tantum — nocSrgtur : < that so great harm be done.' How lit. ?

14. labore atque itinere : 'by toilsome marching.' 238, d.

20. 2. Caesaris fidem secutus: 'attaching himself to Caesar.'
How lit. ?

8. Cassivellaunl: 'at the hands of Cassivellaunus.' 96. qui:

193, a.

V, 22] Second Expedition to Britain 307

mittit IllI imperata celeriter fecerunt, obsides ad numerum
frumentumque miserunt.

21. Trinovantibus defensis atque ab omni militum iniuria
prohibitis, Cenimagni, Segontiaci, Ancalites, BibrocI, CassI,
legationibus missis, sese Caesarl dedunt.

Ab his cognoscit, non longe ex eo loco oppidum Cassi-
vellauni abesse, silvis paludibusque munitum, quo satis s
magnus hominum pecorisque numerus convenerit. Oppi-
dum autem BritannI vocant, cum silvas impedltas vall5
atque fossa munierunt, qu5, incursi5nis hostium vitandae
causa, convenire consuerunt.

Eo proficlscitur cum legidnibus. Locum reperit egregie io
natura atque opere munltum ; tamen hunc duabus ex parti-
bus oppugnare contendit. Hostes, paulisper morati, militum
nostrorum impetum non tulerunt seseque alia ex parte
oppidi eiecerunt. Magnus ibi numerus pecoris repertus,
multique in fuga sunt comprehensl atque interfecti. i«

An attack on the naval camp is repulsed. Cassivellaunus yields.

22. Dum haec in his locis geruntur, Cassivellaunus ad
Cantium, quod esse ad mare supra demonstravimus, quibus
regionibus mi reges praeerant, Cingetorix, Carvilius, Taxi-
magulus, Segovax, nuntios mittit atque his imperat, utl,

21. 2. Cenimagni, etc. : some of these small states are located on
the Map at the end of this volume.

4. eoloco: where Caesar met the envoys. oppidum: 'the
stronghold of Cassivellaunus ' is thought to have been in the vicinity
of St. Albans.

6. Oppidum vocant : 'call (it) a stronghold. 1 Several fortified en-
closures of extreme antiquity, intended not for permanent habitation
but only for refuge and defense in time of danger, have been found in

22. 1. in his locis : in the region of St. Albans.
2. supra: chap. 14,11. 1-3.

308 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 64

s coactis omnibus c5piis, castra navalia de improviso adorian-
tur atque oppugnent. Hi cum ad castra venissent, nostri,
eruptione facta, multis eorum interfectis, capto etiam nobili
duce Lugotorlge, suos incolumes reduxerunt.

Cassivellaunus, hoc proelio nuntiato, tot detrlmentis

ioacceptis, vastatis finibus, maxime etiam permotus defec-
tione civitatum, legatos per Atrebatem Commium de de-
ditione ad Caesarem mittit. Caesar, cum constituisset
hiemare in continent! propter repentinos Galliae m5tus,
neque multum aestatis superesset, atque id facile extrahi

is posse intellegeret, obsides imperat et, quid in annos
singulos vectigalis populo Romano Britannia penderet,
constituit ; interdlcit atque imperat Cassivellauno, ne Man-
dubracio neu Trinovantibus noceat.

Caesar returns to the coast, finds ships ready, sails to Gaul.

23. Obsidibus acceptis, exercitum reducit ad mare, naves
invenit refectas. His deductis, quod et captivorum mag-
num numerum habebat et non nullae tempestate de-
perierant naves, duobus commeatibus exercitum reportare
s Instituit. Ac sic accidit, utl ex tanto navium numero tot
navigationibus neque hoc neque superiore ann5 ulla om-
nino navis, quae milites portaret, desideraretur, at ex eis,

5. castra navalia: see chap. II, 11. 8-13.

8. Lugotorlge : 10, c. incolumSs : predicative.

14. id, etc. : 'and that this could easily be wasted, 1 lit. 'drawn out,'
in profitless negotiations.

15. quid — vectigalis : 97, b. in annos singulos : ' each year.'
17. interdicit, etc. : Maid the strictest injunctions on Cassivellau-
nus.' How lit. ? 175, b.

23. 2. refectas: 'repaired 1 ; cf. chapters 10, 11. dgductis :

'launched, 1 lit. 'drawn down 1 to the water, from the fortified enclosure
{castra navalia, chap. 22, 1. 5) in which they had been guarded and

4. duobus commeatibus : ' in two trips. 1 136, b.

v, 24] Division of the Army for the Winter 309

quae inanes ex continent! ad eum remitterentur, et pri5ris
commeatus, expositis militibus, et quas postea Labienus
faciendas curaverat, numero lx, perpaucae locum caperent, 10
reliquae fere oranes reicerentur.

Quas cum aliquamdiu Caesar frustra exspectasset, ne
annl tempore a navigatione excluderetur, quod aequinoc-
tium suberat, necessario angustius mllites collocavit ac,
summa tranquillitate consecuta, secunda inita cum solvisset is
vigilia, prima luce terram attigit omnesque incolumes naves

Division of the Army for the Winter. 24, 25

Grain being scarce, Caesar for the winter divides his army.

24. Subductis navibus concilioque Gallorum Samarobrl-
vae peracto, quod eo anno frumentum in Gallia, propter
siccitates, angustius pr5venerat, coactus est aliter ac superi-
oribus annis exercitum in hlbernis collocare legionesque in
plures civitates distribuere. Ex quibus unam, in Morinos 5
ducendam, C. Fabio legato dedit, alteram in Nervios Q.
Ciceroni, tertiam in Esuvios L. Roscio; quartam in Remls
cum T. Labieno in confinio Treverorum hiemare iussit;

8. et, etc. : ' both (the ships used) in the first trip, (sent back) after
the soldiers had been landed, and (other ships) which. 1

10. locum caperent : ' reached their destination,' Britain.

12. Quas: 'these' ships, sent from the continent. 167.

13. aequinoctium : Caesar must have left Britain shortly after the
middle of September, having been two months or more on the island.

14. necessario angustius : 'of necessity rather closely.' 153, a.
24. 1. Subductis: cf. chap. 1, 11. 6-7. Samarobrivae : 4, a.
3. siccitates: cf. IV, 38, 1. 3, and N. aliter ac : 233,-c.

6. ducendam, etc.: 'to be led into the country of the Morini.'
229, b.

8. in confinio Treverorum: 'on the Treveran frontier. 1 The
site of Labienus's camp is indicated on Map 11.

310 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 54

tres in Bellovacis collocavit : his M. Crassum et L.

ioMunatium Plancum et C. Trebonium legatos praefecit.

Unam legionem, quam proxime trans Padum conscripse-

rat, et cohortes v in Eburones, quorum pars maxima est

inter Mosam ac Rhenum, qui sub imperio Ambiorlgis et

Catuvolcl erant, misit. His militibus Q. Titurium Sabi-

15 num et L. Aurunculeium Cottam legatos praeesse iussit.

Ad hunc modum distributis legionibus, facillime inopiae

re! frumentariae sese mederi posse existimavit. Atque

harum tamen omnium legionum hiberna praeter earn,

quam L. Roscio in pacatissimam et quietissimam partem

2oducendam dederat, milibus passuum c continebantur. Ipse
interea, quoad legiones collocatas munltaque hiberna co-
gnovisset, in Gallia morari constituit.

Tasgetius murdered, Caesar transfers Plancus to the country of
the Carnutes.

25. Erat in Carnutibus, summo loco natus, Tasgetius,
cuius maiores in sua civitate regnum obtinuerant. Huic
Caesar pro eius virtute atque in se benevolentia, quod in
omnibus bellis singularl eius opera fuerat usus, maiorum
s locum restituerat. Tertium iam hunc annum regnantem,
inimici palam, multis ex civitate auctoribus, interfecerunt.

Defertur ea res ad Caesarem. Ille veritus, quod ad

9. M. Crassum: quaestor; see Vocab. under Crassus, (3).

1 1 . trans Padum : north of the Po, in Cisalpine Gaul ; Caesar
writes from the point of view of one in Rome.

16. inopiae— medgrl : 4 to remedy the shortage 1 (Fig. 1 14). 106 t b-

20. C : cent ion. Caesar perhaps means that no two. camps were
more than 100 Roman miles apart ; if so, his estimate is somewhat
under the truth. 81.

25. 1. summo loc5 natus : < of the highest rank by birth.' 128, a.

3. virtute: 'efficiency. 1 in sS benevolentia: ' loyalty to him-

Online LibraryJulius CaesarC. Iulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum. Caesar's Commentaries: the Gallic war, books I-Iv, with selections from books V-VII and from the civil war; → online text (page 27 of 73)