Julius Caesar.

C. Iulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum. Caesar's Commentaries: the Gallic war, books I-Iv, with selections from books V-VII and from the civil war; online

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palisades (valli). 333.

13. hanc adept! victoriam: = si hanc victoriam adepti tsstni.
227, a, (2).

40. 1. Mittuntur: emphatic position. 363, a. ad Caesarem •
at Samarobriva.

2. si pertulissent : si nuntii eas Hit eras pertulissent.

3. missi: < those who had been sent. 1 $87, a. (4).

4. turrSs : 333. admodum : i fully.' cxx : coition vigmtf.
Unless the camp were larger than would seem to have been required
for a single legion, the 120 towers must have been about 40 feet apart ;
if so, men on the towers could defend the short spaces between with
any kind of missile. Ordinarily such towers were about 80 feet apart.

5. excitantur : - were erected.'



v, 4i] Heroic Defence of Cicero's Camp 325

Hoc idem reliquls deinceps fit diebus. Nulla pars noc- 10
turn! temporis ad lab5rem intermittitur ; non aegrls, non
vulneratls facultas quietis datur. Quaecumque ad proximl
die! oppugnationem opus sunt, noctu comparantur ; multae
praeustae sudes, magnus muralium pil5rum numerus Insti-
tuitur ; turres contabulantur, pinnae loricaeque ex cratibus is
attexuntur.

Ipse Cicero, cum tenuissima valetudine esset, ne noc-
turnum quidem sibi tempus ad quietem relinquebat, ut
ultro militum concursu ac v5cibus sibi parcere cogeretur.

TJie crafty parleying, which was Sabinus's undoing, has no
effect on Cicero.

41. Tunc duces principesque Nerviorum, qui aliquem ser-
monis aditum causamque amicitiae cum Cicerone habebant,
colloqui sese velle dicunt. Facta potestate, eadem, quae
Ambiorix cum Titurio egerat, commemorant : Omnem
G allium esse in armls ; Germdnds Rhenum translsse ; Cae-s
saris reliquorumque hlbema oppngnarl.

Addunt etiam de Sabini morte ; Ambiorigem ostentant

12. vulneratls : 227, a, (4). facultas quietis : ' chance to rest. 1
How lit.? 10, e. Quaecumque : 50, a.

14. praeustae sudes: 'stakes hardened at the ends by burning 1 ;
the stock of ordinary weapons had given out. muralium pilorum :
' of wall-pikes 7 ; heavy pikes, to be hurled from the towers.

15. contabulantur: < were provided with floors. 1 pinnae: i bat-
tlements. 1 loricae ex oratibus : 'breastworks of wattle, 1 made by
interweaving branches, and put up as screens to protect the soldiers in
the towers. 98, b, and 150, d.

16. attexuntur: t were attached, 1 lit. 'woven, 1 'to the towers. 1

17. cum: 187. tenuissima valetudine: 'in very delicate
health. 1 US, a.

41. 1. sermonis aditum: ' pretext for an interview. 1
7. ostentant, etc : ' they pointed to Ambiorix in order to inspire
credence. 1



326 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 54

fidei faciundae causa. Errdrc eos dicunt, si quicquam ab
his praesidii sperent, qui suis rebus diffidant ;

10 Sese tamen hoc esse in Ciceronem populumque Romanum
animo, tit nihil nisi hiberna recusent, atque hanc invetera-
scere consuetudinem nolint ; licere illis per se incolumibus
ex hibernis discedere et, quascumque in partes velint, sine
metu proficisci.

i 5 Cicero ad haec unum modo respondit :

Non esse consuetudinem populi Romania accipere ab hoste
armato condicionem ; si ab armis discedere velint, se adiu-
tore utantur legatosque ad Caesarem mitt ant ; sperare y pro
eius iustitia, quae petierint, impetratiiros.

The Nervians besiege the camp. Fire rages among the huts.

42. Ab hac spe repulsi, Nervii vallo pedum x et fossa

pedum xv hiberna cingunt. Haec et superiorum ann5rum

consuetudine a nobis cognoverant et, quosdam de exercitu

nactl captlvos, ab his docebantur ; sed nulla ferramentorum

scopia, quae esset ad hunc usum idonea, gladiis caespites

8. faciundae : 64, b. Errare : ' were deluding themselves.'
eos: Cicero and his men. quicquam praesidii: 'any help at all. 1
49, a.

9. his : the Romans in the other camps. qui, etc. : ' who were
in desperate straits. 1 How lit. ? 62, and 185, a.

10. hoc esse — animo : 'had this feeling. 1 How lit. ? 143,3.

12. consuetudinem: 'custom 1 of imposing winter camps upon
them. per s§ : 'so far as they, 1 the Nervii, ' were concerned. 1

17. armato: 'in arms. 1 ab armis discedere : in our idiom,
' to lay down their arms. 1 b6, etc. : ' they might utilize him as
mediator. 1 131,/.

18. spgrSre : sc. se, Cicero.

42. 1. sp5: ' hope ' of cozening Cicero. pedem x: in height
2. pedum XV: in width, at the top. 100, a.

4. nulla, etc. : 'having no stock of iron tools. 1 144y b, (3).

5. esaet: 194, a- caespites: 10, U,



v, 43] Heroic Defence of Cicero's Camp 327

circumcldere, manibus sagullsque terram exhaurlre coge-
bantur.

Qua quidem ex re hominum multitudo cognosci potuit ;
nam minus horls tribus milium passuum nr in circuitu
munitionem perfecerunt. Reliquis diebus turres ad alti- 10
tudinem valli, falces testudinesque, quas Idem captivl docu-
erant, parare ac facere coeperunt.

43. Septimo oppugnationis die, maximo coorto vento,
ferventes fusill ex argilla glandes fundls et fervefacta
iacula in casas, quae more Gallico stramentis erant tectae,
iacere coeperunt. Hae celeriter Ignem comprehenderunt
et ventl magnitudine in omnem locum castrorum distu-s
lerunt. Hostes maximo clamore, slcuti parta iam atque
expl5rata victoria, turres testudinesque agere et scalis
vallum ascendere coeperunt.

At tanta mllitum virtus atque ea praesentia animl fuit

6. circumcldere: 'cut'; lit. 'cut around.' sagulis : <in their
cloaks. 1 348, and 181, a. exhaurlre : 'to take out.'

io. turres: movable ' towers.' ad: 'proportioned to.'

ii. falces : large 'hooks' for pulling down the palisade. testu-
dines : ' turtle-shell sheds,' probably less solid than those built by the
Romans. 342, a.

43. 2. ferventes, etc. : ' red-hot balls of kneaded clay,' which would
not crack to pieces when heated. Experiments have shown that red-
hot balls of clay the size of one's fist when thrown will retain their heat
long enough to ignite straw. 98, b. fervefacta iacula : ' burn-

ing javelins.'

3. casas: 'huts.' 335, b. stramentis: 'with thatch.'

5. ventl magnitudine: 'by reason of the force of the wind.'
distulerunt : hae casae ignem distulerunt, the huts being looked upon
as agents. Probably the high wind carried bits of burning thatch all
over the camp. 239, h.

6. slcuti: 'just as if.'

7. agere : ' to move up.' The Gauls were using Roman methods
of attack. 842, a and b. scalis : 'with scaling-ladders.' 342, d.

9. At: 236, a. ea praesentia animl: 'such their presence of
mind.'



328 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 54

iout, cum undique flamma torrerentur maximaque telorum
multitudine premerentur, suaque omnia impedimenta
atque omnes fortunas conflagrare intellegerent, non modo
demigrandi causa de vallo decederet nemo, sed paene ne
respiceret quidem quisquam, ac turn omnes acerrime for-

15 tissimeque pugnarent.

Hie dies nostrls longe gravissimus fuit ; sed tamen hunc
habuit eventum, ut eo die maximus numerus hostium vul-
neraretur atque interficeretur, ut se sub ipso vallo constl-
paverant recessumque prlmis ultiml non dabant.

20 Paulum quidem intermissa flamma, et quodam loco turn
adacta et contingente vallum, tertiae cohortis centuriones
ex eo, quo stabant, loco recesserunt suosque omnes remo-
verunt, nutu vocibusque hostes, si introire vellent, vocare
coeperunt ; quorum progredl ausus est nemo. Turn ex omni

25 parte lapidibus coniectls deturbatl, turrisque succensa est.

10. cum: 187. flamma torrerentur: * they were being scorched
by the flames.' 92, b.

12. conflagrare: l were on fire. 1

13. demigrandi causa: 'in order to withdraw 1 temporarily to
rescue his valuables or get a brief respite. paene, etc. : ' but hardly
any one even looked around. 1

14. turn : emphatic, * then, 1 above all other times.

18. ut: * since. 1 sub, etc.: * had crowded together close up to
the rampart. 1

19. recessum . . . dabant: < those behind would not give those in
front a chance to draw back. 1

20. intermissa flamma : the Gauls dared not risk moving forward
the wooden towers while the flames were at their height. loco: 1^5, c.

22. recessgrunt : * drew back. 1

23. si: 204, (4)- introire : ' to come inside. 1

25. lapidibus : the supply of ordinary weapons had given out.
Practice in hurling the pike enabled Roman soldiers to throw stones
effectively. Both pike-hurling and stone-throwing find a parallel in the
throwing of hand grenades in the Great War. d6turbati : sc sunt :
1 they were forced back in disorder. 1



v, 44] Heroic Defence of Caesar's Camp 329

Brave deeds of two rival centurions, Pullo and Vorenus.

44. Erant in ea legione fortissiml virl, centuriones, qui
prlmis ordinibus appropinquarent, T. Pullo et L. Vorenus.
Hi perpetuus inter se controversies habebant, uter alter!
anteferretur, omnibusque annis de loco summls simultatibus
contendebant. s

Ex his Pullo, cum acerrime ad muniti5nes pugnaretur,
'Quid dubitas,' inquit, 'Vorene? aut quern locum tuae pro-
bandae virtutis exspectas ? hie dies de nostris controversiis
iudicabit.'

Haec cum dixisset, procedit extra munitiones, quaeque io
pars hostium confertissima est visa, in earn irrumpit.

Ne Vorenus quidem sese turn vallo continet, sed, om-
nium veritus existimationem, subsequitur.

Mediocrl spatio rellcto, Pullo pllum in hostes immittit
atque unum ex multitudine procurrentem traicit; quo per- 15
cusso et exanimatd, hunc scutis protegunt hostes, in ilium
universi tela coniciunt neque dant progrediendl facultatem.
Transflgitur scutum PullonI et verutum in balteo defigitur.

44. 1. Erant: 90, a. qui, etc.: 'who were nearing the first
rank, 1 the position of centurion of first rank. 194, a, and 315, a.

4. anteferretur, etc.: 'should have the preference over the other,'
as the better man. 69, b, and 204, (3)- omnibus annis: 'year in
year out? de loco : ' for advancement. 1 summls simultatibus :
' with the utmost bitterness. 1

6. acerrime — pugnaretur: < the fighting was the very hottest. 1

7. Quid: 'Why. 1 118, e. locum: 'opportunity. 1

11. earn: earn partem. 165, c. irrumpit: ' he rushed. 1

14. Mediocrl spatio rellcto : 'At a moderate distance, 1 perhaps
four or five rods from the enemy. .

15. quo: refers to the wounded Gaul, who, as protegunt implies,
was not killed ; trans, as if et hoc, 'and since he was made breathless
by the blow. 1 How lit. ?

16. protegunt: 'protected. 1 ilium: Pullo.

18. PullonI: 109, a. verutum: the same 'dart 1 that pierced
Pullo's shield. balteo : ' sword-belt. 1 322, e.



330 Caesar's Gallic War [B.c. 54

Avertit hie casus vaglnam et gladium educere conantl
sodextram moratur manum, impeditumque hostes circum-
sistunt. Succurrit inimicus illi Vorenus et laboranti
subvenit.

Ad hunc se confestim a Pullone omnis multitudo con-
vertit ; ilium veruto transfixum arbitrantur. Vorenus
25 gladi5 rem comminus gerit atque, uno interfecto, reliquos
paulum propellit; dum cupidius instat, in locum deiectus
inferiorem concidit. Huic rursus circumvento subsidium
fert Pullo, atque ambo incolumes, compluribus interfectls,
summa cum laude sese intra munitiones recipiunt.
30 Sic fortuna in contentione et certamine utrumque ver-
savit, ut alter alteri inimicus auxilio salutique esset, neque
diiudicarl posset, uter utri virtute anteferendus videretur.

Word of Cicero's desperate plight finally reaches Caesar.

45- Quanto erat in dies gravior atque asperior oppug-
natio, et maxime quod, magna parte militum confecta

19. vaglnam : ' scabbard.' conantl: sc. ei, i as he 1 (lit. 'to
him') < was attempting. 1

20. impeditum : sc ciun.

21. Succurrit illi: < ran to his rescue. 1 How lit.? inimicus:
1 adversary. 1

25. rem comminus gerit: i engaged in close fighting. 1 175, b.

26. in, etc. : ' stumbling 1 (lit. 'thrown down 1 ) 'into a hollow. 1
28. ambo: 'both. 1 37, c.

30. contentione et certamine : ' in contest and combat. 1
utrumque versavit : ' shifted (the positions of) both. 1

31. alter alteri: 171,6. alteri, auxilio : 112, b.

32. diiudicarl: ' be determined. 1 utri : 'to the other. 1 23, a,
and 107, a. virtute, etc. : ' should seem worthy to be considered
superior in point of valor.' 142, a.

45. 1. Quanto, etc: 'The harder and more violent — the more
frequently dispatches. 1 How lit.? 140. B. 223 ; A. 414, a; H. 471,
10. in digs : ' day by day. 1

2. maximS quod: 'chiefly because.' confecta: 'enfeebled.'



v, 46] Heroic Defence of Cicero's Camp 331

vulneribus, res ad paucitatem defensorum pervenerat,
tanto crebriores litterae nuntiique ad Caesarem mitteban-
tur ; quorum pars, deprehensa, in conspectu nostrorum s
militum cum cruciatu necabatur.

Erat un'us intus Nervius, nomine Vertico, loco natus
honesto, qui a prima obsidione ad Ciceronem perfugerat
suamque el fidem praestiterat. Hie servo spe libertatis
magnisque persuadet praemiis, ut litteras ad Caesarem 10
deferat. Has ille in iaculo illigatas effert et, Gallus inter
Gallos sine Gila suspicione versatus, ad Caesarem pervenit.
Ab eo de periculls Ciceronis legionisque cognoscitur.

3. Crushing defeat of the beleaguering Gauls by Caesar.

46-52

Caesar makes 'hurried preparations, and proceeds by forced

marches to relieve Cicero.

46. Caesar, acceptis litteris hora circiter undecima diei,
statim nuntium in Bellovacos ad M. Crassum quaestorem
mittit, cuius hlberna aberant ab eo milia passuum xxv ;
iubet media nocte legi5nem proficlsci celeriterque ad se
venire. Exit cum nunti5 Crassus. Alterum ad C. Fabium 5

5. deprehensa: 'caught.'

7. unus : 'one, 1 the only Nervian. intus : in the camp. loco,
etc. : 'of good family.' 128, a.

8. a prima obsidione : 'soon after the beginning of the siege.'
152, a.

ii. in iaculo illigatas: 'tied in a javelin.' The javelin may have
been split ; the dispatch, written on papyrus, may have been put be-
tween the parts, the javelin then being tied with cords as if acciden-
tally split and repaired. inter Gallos versatus : ' mingling with
Gauls.'

13. Ab e6 — cognoscitur : Caesar ab eo cognoscit.

46. 1. Caesar: at Samarobriva. hora undecima: about 5 P.M.;
it was now early autumn. 2^2, a and b.

5. Alterum: sc. nuntium. C. Fabium: chap. 24, 11. 5-6.



332 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 64

legatum mittit, ut in Atrebatium fines legi5nem adducat,
qua sibi iter faciendum sciebat. Scribit Labieno, si rei
publicae commodo facere posset, cum legione ad fines
Nerviorum veniat. Reliquam partem exercitus, quod

10 paulo aberat longius, non putat exspectandam ; equites
circiter cccc ex proximls hlbernis cogit.

47. H5ra circiter tertia ab antecursoribus de Crassi ad-
ventu certior factus, eo die milia passuum xx procedit.
Crassum Samarobrlvae praeficit legionemque ei attribuit,
quod ibi impedimenta exercitus, obsides civitatum, litteras

spublicas frumentumque omne, quod eo, tolerandae hiemis

causa, devexerat, relinquebat. Fabius, ut imperatum erat,

non ita multum moratus, in itinere cum legione occurrit.

Labienus, interitu SabinT et caede cohortium cognita,

cum omnes ad eum Trever5rum copiae venissent, veritus

io ne, si ex hlbernis fugae similem profectionem fecisset,
hostium impetum sustinere non posset, praesertim quos

6. ut : '(directing him) to.' 199, a. Caesar would have to march
through the country of the Atrebatians (Fig. 121) in order to reach

Cicero^ camp, in the country of the
Nervians. See Map II.

7. rei publicae commodo : 'con-
sistently with the public interest.'
188.

9. veniat: 216. Reliquam par-
Figure 121.— Coin of the tem exercitus: chap. 24, 11. 7, ro.

Atrebatians. 47 - '• antecursoribus: 'advance

Gold. Obverse, crude head, with guard ' of Crassus.
mark on right cheek. Reverse, fanci- 3. Crassum, etc. : Caesar left Sama-
fui horse, and crescent. robriva before Crassus arrived.

4. impedimenta: 811. litteras publicas : 'state documents,'
such as dispatches and accounts .

7. non ita, etc. : ' with very little delay.' How lit.? occurrit:
sc Caesar f.

11. praesertim quos, etc: ' especially since he knew that they.'
184, b.




v, 48] The Relief of Cicero 333

recent! victoria efferrl sciret, litteras Caesari remittit,
quanto cum periculo legionem ex hlbernis educturus esset ;
rem gestam in Eburonibus perscrlbit ; docet, omnes equi-
tatus peditatusque copias Treverorum in milia passuum is
longe ab suis castrls consedisse.

48. Caesar, consilio eius probato, etsl opinione trium
legipnum deiectus ad duas redierat, tamen unum communis
salutis auxilium in celeritate ponebat. Venit magnis iti-
neribus in Nerviorum fines.

Ibi ex captlvis cognoscit, quae apud Ciceronem gerantur, s
quantoque in perlculd res sit. Turn cuidam ex equitibus
Gallis magnis praemiis persuadet, utl ad Ciceronem epis-
tulam deferat.

Hanc Graecis conscriptam litteris mittit, ne, intercepta
epistula, nostra ab hostibus consilia cognoscantur. Si ad- io
Ire non possit, monet, ut tragulam cum epistula ad ammen-
tum deligata intra munitionem castrorum abiciat. In
litteris scrlbit, se cum legionibus profectum celeriter affore;
hortatur, ut pristinam virtutem retineat.

Gallus, perlculum veritus, ut erat praeceptum, tragulam 15
mittit. Haec casu ad turrim adhaesit, neque a nostrls biduo

13. quanto, etc. : ' (explaining) how dangerous it would be for him
to withdraw the legion.' How lit. ? 204,(3).

14. rem gestam : ' what had taken place,' referring to the destruc-
tion of the force under Sabinus and Cotta.

48. 1. opinione, etc. : i disappointed in his expectation of (having)
three legions he had been reduced to two,' the legion which he had had
at Samarobriva, and the one under Fabius that had joined him.

3. magnis itineribus : 329.

7. epistulam : 'letter.'

9. Graecis litteris : in Greek characters, not Greek words ; some of
the Nervians apparently could read Latin.

1 1 . adire : < to reach ' the camp. ammentum : ' thong ' attached
to a javelin and used in throwing.

16. turrim: 14, d. adhaesit: i stuck.' neque: < and not.'



334 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 54

animadversa, tertio die a quodam milite conspicitur, dempta
ad Ciceronem defertur. Ille perlectam in conventu mili-
tum recitat maximaque omnes laetitia afficit. Turn fuml
20 incendiorum procul videbantur ; quae res omnem dubita-
ti5nem adventus legionum expulit.

Caesar approaching, the Gauls turn from Cicero's camp to attack

him.

49. Galli, re cognita per exploratores, obsidionem re-
linquunt, ad Caesarem omnibus copils contendunt. Haec
erant armata circiter milia lx.

Cicer5, data facultate, Galium ab eodem Verticone, quern
5 supra demonstfavimus, repetit, qui litteras ad Caesarem
deferat; hunc admonet, iter caute diligerenterque f aciat ;
perscribit in litterls, hostes ab se discessisse omnemque ad
eum multitudinem convertisse. Quibus litterls circiter
media nocte Caesar allatis suds facit certiores eosque ad
iodlmicandum animo conffrmat.

Postero die, luce prima, movet castra ; et circiter milia
passuum 1111 pr5gressus, trans vallem magnam et rlvum
multitudinem hostium conspicatur. Erat magni periculi res,

17. dSmpta: * was taken down and.' 228, a.

18. perlgctam — recitat: sc. earn; 'after he had read it through
he read it aloud. 1 227, a.

19. afficit: * filled. 1 fumi incendiorum: of burning villages,
set on fire as Caesar 1 s relieving force passed through ; the plural implies
more than one fire.

49. 1 . r6 : ' the fact 1 of Caesars approach- per : 123, a.

4. Galium, etc. : i asked the same Vertico ... for another Gaul. 1
116, b.

5. supra: chap. 45, 11. 7-12. qui, etc : 193, a.

6. hunc, etc.: 'warned him 1 (Caesar) 'to proceed with caution.'
200, a.

12. rlvum : 'brook, 1 flowing in a 'wide valley. 1

13. Erat, etc. : 'It was extremely hazardous. 1 How lit.?



v, 50] The Relief of Cicero 335

tantulis copiis inlquo loco dlmicare ; turn, quoniam obsidi-
one llberatum Ciceronem sciebat, aequo animo remittendum 15
de celeritate existimabat. Consedit et, quam aequissimo
potest loco, castra communit, atque haec, etsi erant exigua
per se, vix hominum milium vn, praesertim nullis cum
impedimentis, tamen angustiis viarum, quam maxime potest,
contrahit, e5 consilio, ut in summam contemptionem hosti- 20
bus veniat. Interim, speculatoribus in omnes partes dimissis,
explorat, quo commodissime itinere vallem transire possit.

Caesar, encamped, pretends fear, lures the Gauls on, routs them.

50. Eo die, parvulls equestribus proelils ad aquam factis,
utrique sese suo loco continent : Galll, quod ampliores
copias, quae nondum convenerant, exspectabant; Caesar,
si forte timoris simulatione hostes in suum locum elicere
posset, ut citra vallem pro castris proelio contenderet ; si 5
id efficere non posset, ut, exploratis itineribus, minore cum
periculo vallem rivumque transiret.

Prima luce hostium equitatus ad castra accedit proeli-
umque cum nostris equitibus committit. Caesar consulto
equites cedere seque in castra recipere iubet ; simul ex 10

15. aequo, etc. : 'that without anxiety he could slacken his pace.'
How lit. ?

17. haec : object of contrahit ; * this ' camp, < although it was,' etc.

18. vix, etc.: '(containing) barely 7000 men'; the two legions
with Caesar averaged hardly 3500 men each. 100, b, and 307, b.

19. angustiis, etc. : ' by making the passages as narrow as possible/
334, b, and Fig. 185.

20. consilio: 138. hostibus : trans, as if hostium. 109, a.
50. 1. ad aquam: 'by the water,' the brook mentioned chap. 49,

1. 12.

3. Caesar, etc. : Caesar [se continet suo loco] ut, si . . . fiosset,
citra vallem . . . contender ent.

4. suum locum: 'a position favorable to himself.' 157, e.
elicere : ' to entice.'



336 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 54

omnibus partibus castra altiore vallo munlri portasque
obstrui atque in his administrandis rebus quam maxime
concursari et cum simulatione agi tim5ris iubet.

51. Quibus omnibus rebus hostes invitati copias tradu-
cunt aciemque iniquo loco constituunt ; nostris vero etiam
de vallo deductis, propius accedunt et tela intra muniti-
onem ex omnibus partibus coniciunt praeconibusque cir-

5 cummissis pronuntiari iubent :

Sen qnis, Gallus sen Romanns, velit ante horam tertiam
ad se transire, sine periculo licere ; post id tempns non fore
potestatem.

Ac sic nostros contempserunt, ut, obstructis in speciem
ioportis singulis ordinibus caespitum, quod ea non posse
introrumpere videbantur, alii vallum manu scindere, alii
fossas complere inciperent.

Turn Caesar, omnibus portls eruptione facta equitatuque
emisso, celeriter hostes in fugam dat, sic uti omnino pug-
15 nandi causa resisteret nemo, magnumque ex eis numerum
occidit atque omnes armis exuit.

Caesar, joining Cicero, praises him and his men.

52. Longius prosequi veritus, quod silvae paludesque
intercedebant neque etiam parvulo detrimento illorum

12. obstrui: i be blocked up.'

13. concursari: 'that the men rush about.' 73, d. agi: 'go
through their motions.' How lit.?

51. i. copias traducunt : idpias rivum tnlducunt. 11.'^ a.

4. praeconibus, etc. : * they sent criers around' the camp, l direct-
ing that the announcement be made.' How lit.?

9. in speciem : ' for show.' The barriers in the gates, of turf and
only the breadth of a sod in thickness, seemed solid but were easily
pushed over from the inside.

10 ea — introrumpere : ' to break in that way,' through the gates.

14. omnino — nSmo : no one at all.'

52. 2. neque . . . relinqui: 'and that no opportunity was left
for (inflicting) even a trifling loss upon them.' How lit.?



V, 52] Caesars Repressive Measures 337

locum relinqul videbat, omnibus suis incolumibus eodem
die ad Ciceronem pervenit.

Institutes turres, testudines munitionesque hostium ad- 5
mlratur ; producta legione, cognoscit, non decimum quem-
que esse reliquum mllitem sine vulnere ; ex his omnibus
iudicat rebus, quanto cum perlculo et quanta cum virtute
res sint administratae. Ciceronem pro eius merit5 legio-
nemque collaudat ; centuriones singillatim tribunosque 10
mllitum appellat, quorum egregiam fuisse virtutem testi-
monio Ciceronis cognoverat.

De casu Sabini et Cottae certius ex captivis cognoscit.
Postero die, contione habita, rem gestam proponit, mllites
consolatur et confirmat; quod detrlmentum culpa et teme- 15
ritate legati sit acceptum, hoc aequiore animo ferundum
docet, quod, beneficio deorum immortalium et virtute eo-
rum expiato incommodo, neque hostibus diutina laetitia
neque ipsls longior dolor relinquatur.

5. turres, etc. : chap. 42, 11. 10-11, and Notes.

6. producta : * drawn up ' for review. non, etc. : ' that not one
soldier in ten had escaped unwounded. 1 How lit. ? 170, a.

9. res, etc. : ' the operations ' for defence ' were handled.' eius
merito : Cicero's heroic defence is famous in military annals.
11. appellat: 'he addressed' in complimentary terms.

13. certius : an earlier report had come from Labienus (chap. 37).

14. contione: 'an assembly.' rem, etc. : 'set forth what had



Online LibraryJulius CaesarC. Iulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum. Caesar's Commentaries: the Gallic war, books I-Iv, with selections from books V-VII and from the civil war; → online text (page 29 of 73)