Julius Caesar.

C. Iulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum. Caesar's Commentaries: the Gallic war, books I-Iv, with selections from books V-VII and from the civil war; online

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ence, suggested by the Roman letters
on the coins, that Roman influence
was strong in Britain in the interval between Caesar's ex {(edi-
tions and the Roman Conquest of the island (p. 611).

Figure 24. — Coin of Lug-

Bronze. Reverse: prow of a
galley with beak ; above, an obe-
lisk, and a globe emitting rays.
Inscription, COPIA ; the official
name of the colony was COLONIA

On the obverse of this coin
the heads of Julius Caesar and
Augustus are shown.

Caesar and Historical Writers xxxiii

Complete Romanization of at least a part of central Gaul is
indicated by a coin struck soon after 31 b.c. at Lugdunum,
modern Lyons, which was one of the first Roman colonies
established in Gaul outside the Province (Fig. 24).

iv. Caesar and the Historical Writers

The historians have written more about Julius Caesar than
about any other Roman. There are, nevertheless, wide differ-
ences of opinion in regard to his motives and character.

In the eyes of some Caesar was a monster of wickedness, a
despot guilty of subverting the liberties of his country. Others
have viewed him as a statesman and patriot of exalted aims.
To others still his career has seemed to mark the culmination
of the inevitable trend of the Roman state toward absolutism,
and they have interpreted it as the opportune appearance of a
will and personality powerful enough to dominate, and fuse
into lasting union, the inharmonious elements of a political
life rapidly drifting into anarchy. Men's views of Caesar
have generally been colored by their attitude toward the type
of government which he established.

The extant Greek and Latin writings in which Caesar has a
prominent place are now accessible in excellent transla-
tions ; nearly all are included in the Loeb Classical Library}
Accessible in English also, with few exceptions, are the most
important modern works in foreign languages dealing with
Caesar and his times.

The earliest characterization of Caesar which we have, in
Sallust's Catiline (chaps. 53, 54), forms part of a comparison
between him and Cato. A biography of Caesar in Greek,
together with biographies of Pompey, Crassus, Brutus, Cato,
and Cicero, was included by Plutarch in his Lives, published
near the end of the first century a.d. (translation by B. Perrin,
10 vols., Loeb Classical Library, 1913-). Plutarch records

1 The volumes of the Loeb Classical Library, established by James Loeb of
New York, have the original text and the English translation on opposite
pages (publishers, G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York).

xxxiv Introduction

also a number of Caesar's sayings, with the incidents which
called them forth, in his Moralia (Plutarch's Essays and
Miscellanies, translation revised by W. W. Goodwin, 5 vols.,
Boston, 1906 ; Vol. 1, pp. 246-248). In 120 a.d. Suetonius
published a biography of Julius Caesar as the first of his Lives
of the Caesars (translation by J. C. Rolfe, 2 vols., Loeb Classical
Library, 1914).

The closing period of the Roman Republic was treated with
much detail by two late Greek historians, whose works in great
part still survive. About the middle of the second century
a.d. Appian wrote the Civil Wars (translation of Appian's
works by Horace White, 4 vols., Loeb Classical Library, 1912-
13) ; and in the earlier part of the third century Dio Cassius
composed his Roman History (translation by H. B. Foster,
revised by E. Cary, 9 vols., Loeb Classical Library, 1914-).
The ancient literary sources are well summarized and eval-
uated in the Annals of Caesar, A Critical Biography with a
Survey of the Sources, by E. G. Sihler, which follows the life
of Caesar year by year (New York, 1911).

To the ancient material relating to Caesar belong the coins
struck by his order, and a number of portraits. The most im-
portant coins are interpreted by H. A. Grueber in Coins of the
Roman Republic in the British Museum (with 123 plates ; 3
vols., London, 1910). The portraits of Caesar are discussed at
length, but without adequate critical preparation, in Por-
traitures of Julius Caesar, by F. J. Scott (New York, 1903).
The bust of Pompey in Copenhagen, three portraits of Cicero,
and three of Caesar, are presented in Greek and Roman Por-
traits, by A. Hekler (New York, 1912; plates 155-161).
Several gems with the portrait of Caesar are published by A.
Furtwaengler, Die Antiken Gemmen (3 vols., Berlin, 1899,
plates 45, 46).

Among the modern biographies the first place must be given
to Julius Caesar and the Foundation of the Roman Imperial Sys-
tem, by W. Warde Fowler (New York, 1892). Less satisfac-
tory is Caesar, a Sketch, by J. A. Froude (New York, 1883).

Caesar and Historical Writers ' xxxv

Interesting sidelights on Caesar's career are found in Cicero
and his Friends, A Study of Roman Society in the Time of Caesar,
by G. Boissier, translated from the French (New York, 1898) ;
The Life of Cicero, by Anthony Trollope (2 vols., London and
Nev- York, 1880) ; Cicero and the Fall of the Roman Republic,
by J. L. Strachan-Davidson (New York, 1896) ; and Social Life
in Rome in the Age of Cicero, by W. Warde Fowler (New York,

Still of interest for the student of Caesar, though in most
respects superseded by later works, are Lectures on the Histoi*y
of Rome, by B. G. Niebuhr (3 vols., 3d edition, London, 1853) ;
History of the Later Roman Commonwealth, by Thomas Arnold
(2 vols., London, 1845) ; and The Decline of the Roman Republic,
by George Long (5 vols., London, 1874).

Of special importance are the interpretations of Caesar's
career in the fifth volume of The History of Rome, by Theodor
Mommsen (5 vols., New York, 1895) ; in the first portion of
TJie Romans under the Empire, by C. Merivale (reprinted in
8 volumes, New York, 1890) ; The Roman Triumvirates, by
C. Merivale, a volume of the series Epochs of Ancient History ;
the third volume of the richly illustrated History of Rome, by
V. Duruy (6 vols., London, 1883-86) ; the second volume of
G. Ferrero's highly imaginative but suggestive Greatness and
Decline of Rome (5 vols., New York, 1907-09) ; and the third
volume of The Roman Republic, by W. E. Heitland (3 vols.,
Cambridge, 1909).

It would be interesting if to the diverse modern estimates of
Caesar's character and life-work we could add a statement by
himself regarding his aims and achievements. In default of
the written word, however, we have not a few suggestions in
the imagery of the coins issued by his authority, the types of
which were suggested, or at least approved, by him. Thus we
are warranted in believing that he wished men to recall the
story of his lineage (Fig. 153) and the origin of the name
Caesar (Fig. 164), as well as his victories in Gaul (Fig. 159),
Spain (Fig. 161), the East, and Africa.



A suggestion of Caesar's attitude toward his task, or at least
the attitude he assumed, may be conveyed by a gold coin struck
in 49 b.c, after Pompey had fled across the Adriatic (Fig. 25).
Here we find, on the reverse, a design symbolizing his victories
in Gaul ; the design of the obverse shows the head of Pietas,
the deified personification of loyalty to duty, particularly duty
to the gods. Pietas in this connection has no relation to the

Figure 25. — Coin of Caesar struck in 49 b.c.

Gold, aureus. Obverse, head of Pietas, wearing a wreath of oak-leaves ; the hair be-
hind the head is gathered into a knot ornamented with jewels. The goddess is further
adorned with an earring in the shape of a cross, and a necklace. The significance of the
figure LII (52) is uncertain.

Reverse, symbols of victories in Gaul ; cf. Fig. 159, p. 595.

office of Supreme Pontiff (Fig. 157). It suggests that Caesar,
like the Trojan Aeneas in the Virgilian epic (Aen. I. 378), was
the instrument of heaven in the accomplishment of a mission.
Illuminating studies relative to Caesar and the transforma-
tion of the Roman Republic into the Roman Empire, are Roman
Imperialism, by J. R. Seeley, in his Roman Imper ialis m and
Other Lectures and Essays (Boston, 1889) ; Seven Roma* st.it, s-
men of the Later Republic, by C. Oman, with four studies devoted
to Crassus, Cato, Pompey, and Caesar (New York, 1902) ; Caesar
and Alexander, in Lectures on Modem History, to which are
added two essays dealing with ancient history, by Friedrich
Schlegel (London, 1849) ; by suggestion rather than by direct
bearing, the essay entitled The Roman Empire and the British
Empire in India, by James Bryce, in his Studies in History
and Jurisprudence (Oxford and New York, 1901).

Caesar in Literature xxxvii

Indispensable for the study of Caesar's Commentaries on
the historical side are Caesar's Conquest of Gaul by T. Rice
Holmes (2d edition, Oxford, 1911), and his Ancient Britain and
the Invasions of Julius Caesar (Oxford, 1907). Very useful are
the History of Julius Caesar, by Napoleon III, with the Atlas,
on which have been founded most of the maps illustrating
Caesar's campaigns in Gaul (2 vols., New York, 1866) ; two
works by C. Stoffel, Guerre de Char et oV Arioviste et premieres
operations de Cesar en Van 702 (Paris, 1890), and Histoire de
Jules Cesar, Guerre civile (2 vols., with Atlas, Paris, 1887) ; and
Histoire de la Gaule, by C. Jullian (4 vols., Paris, 1908-13).

Both the historical and the literary significance of Caesar's
Commentaries is estimated in The Commentaries of Caesar by
Anthony Trollope, in Ancient Classics for English Readers
(Philadelphia, 1871) ; in the History of Roman Literature by
C. L. Cruttwell (London, 1878), History of Latin Literature by
C. A. Simcox (2 vols., New York, 1883), and Literary History
of Rome 3 by J. W. Duff (London, 1914). The title of the Com-
mentaries is treated by F. W. Kelsey in The title of Caesar's
work on the Gallic and Civil Wars (Trayisactions of the American
Philological Association, vol. 36, 1905, pp. 211-238).

v. Caesar in Literature and Myth

Of deep human interest, and touching Caesar at many points,
are the Letters of Marcus Cicero ; among them are included a
few letters written by Caesar and others intimately associated
with him (edition, with full notes, by R. Y. Tyrrell and L. C.
Purser, 7 vols., in part 3d edit., Dublin and London, 1901 — ;
translation of the Letters to Atticus by E. O. Winstedt in the
Loeb Classical Library, 2 vols., 1913.)

About a century after Caesar's death Lucan, reacting against
the absolutism of Nero, composed the Pharsalia, an epic poem
in ten books having for its subject the struggle between Caesar
and Pompey, commencing with the crossing of the Rubicon.
The poet's sympathies were with Pompey and Cato ; but, even
so, from the very force of his personality Caesar is the domi-

xxxviii Introduction

nating character. (Text with notes by C. E. Haskins, London,
1887 : translation by Edward Kidley, New York, 1896.)

In modern times the singular power of Shakespeare's Julius
Caesar has apparently deterred other dramatists from attempt-
ing the theme. The scene of the tragedy, The False One, by
Beaumont and Fletcher (first published in 1647), is laid at Alex-
andria after the battle of Pharsalus ; the young King Ptolemy,
Achillas, and Septimius (C. III. 104), who is " the False One,"
all appear, as well as Cleopatra, Labienus, and Caesar, who de-
claims over the head of Pompey, presented to him by Achillas.

Recently John Masefield, in TJie Tragedy of Pompey the Great
(New York, 1911), has skillfully developed an interpretation of
Pompey's actions altogether different from the view that will
present itself to most readers of Caesar's Civil War. Bernard
Shaw's Caesar and Cleopatra is an amusing caricature.

Fewer historical novels concern themselves with the closing
days of the Roman Republic than with the first century of the
Empire. The best of them all is A Friend of Caesar, by W. S.
Davis (New York, 1900). The hero of TJie Wonderful Ad-
ventures of Phra the Phoenician, by E. L. Arnold, son of Edwin
Arnold (New York, 1890), in the first of his several eventful
lives weds the daughter of a British ruler and joins with the
natives in trying to prevent the landing of Caesar's forces.

To the domain of the essay, containing much suggestive gen-
eralization and psychological analysis, belong the sections and
passages relating to Julius Caesar in The Tragedy of the Cae-
sars, A Study of the Characters of the Caesars of the Julian and
Claudian Houses, by S. Baring-Gould (3d edit., London, 1895) ;
Roman Days, by V. Rydberg (2d edit., New York, 1887) ; Im-
perial Purple, by Edgar Saltus (Chicago, 1892) ; Ave Roma
Immortalis, by F. M. Crawford, New York, 1902) ; as well as the
older works, Causes of the Grandeur and Decadence of the
Romans, by Montesquieu (new translation by J. Baker, New
York, 1894; chap. 11, with the translator's note); and The
Caesars, by Thomas de Quincey (in vol. 6 of his Collet m I
Writings, edited by I). Masson, Edinburgh, 1890).

Caesar in Myth


Wonderful portents accompanying the death of Caesar are
described by Virgil in the first book of the Georgics, while the
transformation of his soul into a comet is set forth by Ovid at the
end of the Metamorphoses; thus within approximately a half cen-
tury after his death the miraculous
had gathered about his memory and
had found literary expression.

Other marvelous stories about
Caesar were current in the Koman
Empire, and were reflected in later
writings. The Gesta Romanorum,
a collection of edifying tales made
about the end of the thirteenth
century, tells us how, as Caesar
started to cross the Eubicon, a
huge ghost stood in his way, and
how Caesar met the challenge
(Latin text edited by H. Oesterley,
Berlin, 1872 ; trans, by C. Swan, 2
vols., London, 1824, vol. 1, p. 99).

The most persistent tale related
to the safe-guarding of Caesar's
ashes. In the earlier part of the
first century a.d. a massive granite
obelisk was brought to Rome from
Egypt and erected in a circus near
where St. Peter's church was after-
wards built ; • on the top a large
ball, or sphere, of bronze was
placed (Fig. 26). The obelisk re-
mained standing to modern times ;
until 1586, when the ball was taken
down ancl found to be solid, many believed that it contained
the ashes of Julius Caesar, placed there in order that, in the
quaint language of a medieval guide-book, " as in his lifetime the
whole world lay subdued before him, even so in his death the

Figure 26. — Bronze ball sup-
posed to contain the ashes of
Julius Caesar.

After the murder of Julius Caesar
his body was taken to the Forum,
and there burned.

In the Middle Ages his ashes were
supposed to be preserved in the large
round ball on the top of the obelisk
which, till 1586, stood at the side of
St. Peter's church in Rome, and now
stands in the Piazza in front of St.
Peter's. (Illustration from an en-
graving made in 1569.)

xl Introduction

same may lie beneath him forever " (Mirabilia Urbis Romae.
Latin text, H. Jordan, Topographie der Stadt Rom, vol. 2,
p. 625 ; translation by F. M. Nichols, London, 1889, pp. 71-72).
One version of the Swan Legend, most commonly associated
with Lohengrin, tells us how a sister of Julius Caesar eloped
with a Belgian prince, and in her northern home had a beautiful
white swan. Her husband joined forces with Ariovistus and
fell at the battle of Vesontio. Now in Caesar's army was a
hero, Salvius Brabon, who was descended from the Trojan
Hector. Hunting near the Rhine he saw a snow-white swan,
" playfully pulling at the rope which bound a small skiff to the
shore. Salvius leaped into the boat and cast it loose from its
mooring. Then the bird swam before him as a guide, and he
rowed after it." The swan conducted him to the sister
of Caesar, who made herself known to him ; he brought Caesar
to her castle, and the conqueror embraced his sister with joy.
Salvius asked Caesar for the widowed sister's hand; Caesar
consented, and Salvius Brabon became the first Duke of
Brabant (S. Baring-Gould, Curious Myths of the Middle Ages,
second series, Philadelphia, 1868, pp. 332-335).


Campaigns of 58 and 57 b.c.
?cpk.l, -2r54, H, 1-53; HI, 1-6

To face page 1


The route of the Helvetians to the Arar is indicated by a broken black
line ; thence their line of march and Caesar's coincide, to Toulon.


Geography of Gaul

Divisions and peoples.

1. Gallia est omnis dlvisa in partes tres, quarum unam
incolunt Belgae, aliam Aquitani, tertiam, qui ips5rum
lingua Celtae, nostra Galli appellantur. Hi omnes lingua,

Commentarius : ' Commentary.' 273. 1 primus : 83, 86.

1. i . Gallia : 2, a, and 286. Gallia omnis : ' Gaul as a whole, 1
contrasted with Gaul in the narrower sense, or Celtic Gaul ; Celtic Gaul
also is often called Gallia. 287, b. omnis : 25, a, and 80, b.
dlvisa : • divided, 1 the perfect passive participle of divido used as a
predicate adj. 148, c. B. 337, 2; A. 495 ; H. 640,3. in: 'into. 1
124, a. partes : 'parts. 1 17, b. trgs : 87, b, and 353, c. qua-
rum : 'of which. 1 47. Why genitive? 97, a. B. 201, 1; A. 346,
a, 1 ; H. 442. unam: sc. partem, * one (part). 1 23, a. Look up
the three ' parts 1 of Gaul on the Map at the end of this book.

2. incolunt: * inhabit. 1 55. Belgae : 19, e; 287. aliam [partem] :
'another (part), 1 less precise than alteram (partem), 'a second (part), 1
which might have been used. 23, a. Aquitani: sc. incolunt.
89, a. tertiam, qui : = tertiam partem ei incolunt, qui, i a third
part is inhabited by those who, 1 lit. ' those inhabit who. 1 164, &-
ipsorum : ' their own ' ; lit. ' of themselves. 1 46. ipsorum lingua :
'in their own language. 1 131, a. B. 218; A. 409; H. 476.

3. Celtae : sc. appellantur. 88, and 287, b. nostra : nostra
lingua, Latin. 157, c. appellantur: 'are called. 1 53. lingua,
institutis, lggibus : ' in respect to language, institutions, and laws. 1
142, a, and 234, a. B. 226 ; A. 418 ; H. 480.

1 References in Italic type are to the " Companion to Caesar " and " Points to
be Noted in Writing Latin," in this book; B., A., and H. refer to the Latin gram-
mars by Bennett, Allen and Greenough, and Harkness, respectively. For other
abbreviations consult the list preceding the Vocabulary,

2 Caesar's Gallic War [R.c. 68

' institufis* legibus inter se differunt. Gallos ab Aquitanis

s Garumna flumen, a Belgis Matrona et Sequana dlvidit.

Horum omnium fortissimi sunt Belgae, propterea quod

a cultu atque humanitate provinciae longissime absunt,

minimeque ad eos mercatores saepe commeant, atque ea,

quae ad effeminandos animos pertinent, important ; proxi-

io mlque sunt Germanis, qui trans Rhenum incolunt, quibus-

cum continenter bellum gerunt.

4 inter sg : 'from one another.' 159. B. 245; A. 301,/; H.
502, 1 . differunt : ' differ.' 69, b.

5. Garumna. sc. dlvidit, ' separates.' flumen: 12, e, and 91, a.
Derivation ? 74, d. Matrona : 292. dlvidit : singular number ;
why? 173, a. B. 255, 3 ; A. 317, b ; H. 392, 4.

6. Horum: 42, b, and 97, a. B. 201, 1 ; A. 346, a, 2; H. 442.
fortissimi: 'the bravest.' 27, a. proptereS : adv. meaning 'on
this account ' ; closely connected with quod, the two words together
being translated ' because.' Three reasons are given for the bravery
of the Belgians ; what are they?

7. cultu : ' mode of life,' referring to the outward appearances of
civilization. 20. atque : 233, a. humanitate : < refinement ' in
intellectual interests and in feeling. 10, f. provinciae: 'of the
Province.' 94, a, and 290. longissime absunt: 'are furthest
removed.' 34, a, and 66, a ; also, 183, a.

8. mimime — saepe: ' very rarely ' ; lit. 'least often.' 35. eos:
44, and 160, b. mercatorgs : ' traders ' from the Province, especially
from Massilia, followed the course of the Rhone, the Sa6ne, and the
Loire, so that naturally they did not often go so far north as the Belgian
country. commeant : ' make their way to ' ; lit. ' go and come.' 53.
ea : ' those things,' object of important. 160, c. Caesar seems to have
had in mind particularly the importation of wine (II. 15 ; IV. 2).

9. ad effgminandos animos : 'to weaken the courage.' 230, (3).
B - 339> 2 ; A - 5°3> 5°6; H. 628. animos : 6, a, and 92, a. per-
tinent: 'tend.' 54. important: 'import.' 53, and 1 75, a.

10. proximique sunt: 'and they are nearest.' 33, and 233, b.
Germanis: why dat.? 108, a. B. 192, 1; A. 384: H. 434, 2.
tr5ns : here 'on the other side of.' 122, a. quibuscum : l$6 } < .

11. continenter: < continually.' bellum gerunt: » they wage
war.' 6, a, and 55,

I, l] Introduction 3

Qua de causa Helvetii quoque reliquos Gallos virtute
praecedunt, quod fere cotidianis proelils cum Germanls
contendunt, cum aut suls flnibus eos prohibent, aut ipsi in
eorum flnibus bellum gerunt. IS

Figure 27. — Modern road in the Jura Mountains.

In Caesar's time there were only trails, over which the migrating Helvetians with
their carts could not pass ; no such barrier protected them from the Germans.

12. Qua de causa : ' For this reason. 1 167. B. 251, 6 ; A. 308,/;
H. 510. quoque: 'also.' reliquos: 'the rest of the.' 171, a.
Gallos : only the inhabitants of Celtic Gaul are meant, as indicated in
1. 3 ; no comparison with the Belgians and the Aquitanians is implied.
113, a. virtute: 'in valor. 1 142, a. B. 226 ; A. 418; H. 480.

13. praecedunt :' excel. 1 113, b. fere : 'almost. 1 cotidianis:
' every day 1 ; lit. ' daily. 1 22, b. proelils : ' in battle r ; lit. ' by means
of battles. 1 131, a. cum : the preposition cum is distinguished
from the conjunction cum only by the sense and the connection.

14. contendunt: 'contend. 1 55. cum: 185, a. aut . . .
aut : ' either . . . or. 1 235, b. suls : * their own, 1 referring to the
Helvetians. 158, a. flnibus: 'country 1 ; lit. 'boundaries. 1 H, b,
and 127, a. B. 214, 2; A. 400; H. 464, I. eos: translate as if
Germanos, 'the Germans, 1 in order to avoid using 'them 1 and 'they 1
with reference to two different peoples in the same sentence. pro-
hibent : 'are keeping (the Germans) out. 1 ipsi: 'themselves, 1
162, a. There is no detailed record of these border raids.

15. eorum : translate as if Germanorum. flnibus : 124, <*»

4 Caesar's Gallic War (B.C. 58

[Eorum una pars, quam Gallos obtinere dictum est,
initium capit a flumine Rhodano; continetur Garumna
flumine, Oceano, finibus Belgarum ; attingit etiam ab Se-
quanis et Helvetiis flumen Rhenum; vergit ad septen-

20 triones. Belgae ab extremis Galliae finibus oriuntur ;
pertinent ad Inferiorem partem fluminis Rheni ; spectant
in septentrionem et orientem solem. Aquitania a Garumna
flumine ad Pyrenaeos montes et earn partem Oceani, quae
est ad Hispaniam, pertinet ; spectat inter occasum solis et

25 septentriones.]

The Campaign against the Helvetians. 2-29
Orgetorix, a Helvetian, persuades his countrymen to migrate.

2. Apud Helvetios longe nobilissimus fuit et ditissimus
Orgetorix. Is, M. Messala, M. Plsone consulibus, regni

16-25. Eorum . . . septentriones : there is reason for believing
that this passage was not written by Caesar but was added after his
time by some one who thought it worth while to give with greater detail
the boundaries of the three divisions of Gaul mentioned by Caesar at
the beginning of the chapter ; the style is forced and difficult. If it is
omitted, the transition from the statement about the Helvetians, in lines
12-15, to the activities of the Helvetian leader, Orgetorix, at the begin-
ning of the second chapter, becomes easy and natural. Translation :

' One part of Gaul taken as a whole ' (lit. ' of them ') , ' which it has been said
the Celts occupy, begins at the river Rhone ; it is bounded by the Garonne river,
the Ocean, and the country of the Belgians; on the side where the Sequanians and
Helvetians are it extends also to the river Rhine ; it lies to the north. The country
of the Belgians commences at the most distant borders of Celtic Gaul and extends
to the lower part of the river Rhine ; it. faces north and east. Aquitania extends
from the Garonne river to the Pyrenees mountains and that part of the Ocean
which is off Spain ; it faces northwest.'

2. 1. Apud: 188, a. longS : 153, b. nobilisaimua : 'high-
est in rank.' 27, a, and 353, a. ditissimus : 31.

2. Orgetorix: 10, c. M. : = Marco. 19, a. M. . . . c6n-
sulibus: = 6i B.C. 144, b, (i), and 840, a. B. 227, 1; A. 4'9«";
H. 489. rfignl ; ' of kingly power, 1 objective genitive. 6', 0, and 108.

1,2] The Campaign against the Helvetians 5

cupiditate inductus, coniurationem nobilitatis fecit, et civi-
tati persuasit, ut de flnibus suis cum omnibus copiis exi-
rent ; perfacile esse, cum virtute omnibus praestdrent, totlus s

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