Julius Caesar.

C. Iulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum. Caesar's Commentaries: the Gallic war, books I-Iv, with selections from books V-VII and from the civil war; online

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happened.'

15. quod detrlmentum : id detrlmentum, quod. culpa et
temeritate : ' through the culpable rashness.' 238, d.

16. hoc : ' on this account.' aequiore animo : ' with the greater
tranquillity.'

18. expiato: 'atoned for.'

53-58. Summary. A report of the relief of Cicero's camp was quickly
conveyed to Labienus, encamped on the Treveran border (Map n) ; but
notwithstanding this victory Caesar found it increasingly difficult to prevent
revolts. Finally Indutiomarus and the Treverans made an attack on Labienus,
who first feigned fear, then surprised and routed them. Indutiomarus was slain.



COMMENTARIUS SEXTUS



Second Expedition into Germany. 9-29

Caesar bridges the Rhine, crosses, makes terms with the Ubii.

9. Caesar, postquam ex Menapiis in Treveros venit,
duabus de causis Rhenum transire constituit; quarum una
erat, quod GermanI auxilia contra se Treveris miserant,
altera, ne ad eos Ambiorlx receptum haberet. His con-

5 stitutis rebus, paulum supra eum locum, quo ante exercitum
traduxerat, facere pontem Tnstituit. Nota atque Institute
ratione, magno militum studio, paucis diebus opus efficitur.
Firmo in Treveris ad pontem praesidio rellctd, ne quis ab
his subito m5tus oreretur, reliquas copias equitatumque

10 traducit.

Ubii, qui ante obsides dederant atque in deditionem ve-
nerant, purgandi sui causa ad eum legatos mittunt, qui
doceant, neque auxilia ex sua civitate in Treveros missa
neque ab se fidem laesam ; petunt atque orant, ut sibi

1-8. Summary. Early in 53 B.C. Caesar heard that .the Nervians and
several other peoples were preparing for war. By sudden movements he
forced the Nervians, Senones, and Menapians to sue for peace, and marched
into the country of the Treverans, who had meanwhile been defeated by
Labienus.

9. 4. Ambiorlx: cf. N. to V, 37, 1. 17.

5. ante : in 55 B.C. ; see IV, 17-19, and Notes.

6. N6t5 . . . studio : ' Since the plan (of such a bridge) was
familiar and had been tried, (and) the soldiers worked with much
enthusiasm.' How lit.?

9. orerStur : 61, b.

12. sui: 164, b, and 230, (1). qui doceant : 193, a.
14. fidem laesam [esse] : ' (their) pledge had been violated/

338



MAP 13

Operations of 53 and 52 B.C.



Books VI, VII.



To face page 338




7T "V ^ S






EXPLANATION
1. March into the Arvernian country, 52 B.C. (VII. 8). 2. Winter quarters
(VII. 9). 3. Base, 52 B.C. (VII. 10). 4. Vellaunodunum captured (VII. 11).
5. Cenabum destroyed (VII. 11). 6. Noviodunum captured (VII. 12). 7. Ava-
ricum destroyed (VII. 14-28). 8. Gergovia blockaded (VII. 36 ff.). 9. Junc-
tion with Labienus (VII. 62). 10. Defeat of Vercingetorix (VII. 67).



vi, io] Second Expedition into Germany 339

parcat, ne communi odio German5rum innocentes pro no- 15
centibus poenas pendant; si amplius obsidum velit dari,
pollicentur. Cognita Caesar causa reperit, ab Suebis au-
xilia missa esse ; Ubi5rum satisfactionem accipit, aditus
viasque in Suebos perqulrit.

He finds it impossible to reach the Suebi.

10. Interim paucis post diebus fit ab Ubiis certior, Sue-
b5s omnes in unum locum copias cogere atque els nationi-
bus, quae sub eorum sint imperio, denuntiare, ut auxilia
peditatus equitatusque mittant. His cognitis rebus, rem
frumentariam providet, castrls idoneum locum deligit ; 5
Ubiis imperat, ut pecora deducant suaque omnia ex agrls
in oppida conferant, sperans, barbaros atque imperitos
homines, inopia cibariorum adductos, ad iniquam pugnandl
condicionem posse deducl; mandat, ut crebr5s explora-
tores in Suebos mittant, quaeque apud eos gerantur, co- 10
gnoscant.

111! imperata faciunt et, paucis diebus intermissis, referunt :
Suebos omnes, posted quam certiores nuntil de exercitu
Romdnorum venerint, cum omnibus suls socidrumque cdpiis,
quds coegissent, penitus ad extremos fines se recepisse ; 15
silvam esse ibi inflnitd magnitudine, quae appellator
Bacenis ; hanc longe introrsus pertinere et, pro ndtivo muro

15. communi odio :* indiscriminate hatred. 1 innocentSs, etc. :
the innocent for the guilty.' 81.

16. amplius obsidum: 'more hostages.' 97, b. B. 201, 2; A.
346, a, 3 ; H. 442.

19. Suebos: 282. perqulrit : ' made careful inquiry about.'

10. 2. in unum locum, etc. : cf. IV, 19, 11. 5-12.

9. crebros : ' a great many.' The scouts were of course Ubians ;
cf. chap. 29, 1. 1.

1 5 . extremos fines : l the most remote part of their country.'
152, a.

17. pro nativS muro : 'as a natural barrier.'



340 Caesar's Gallic War fB.c. 53

obiectam, Cheruscos ab Suebls Suebosque ab CJieruscis
iniuriis incursionibitsque prohibere ; ad eius silvae initimn
20 Suebos adventutn Romandriim exspectdre constituisse.

The customs of the Gauls and Germans contrasted.
11-28.

Political conditions in Gaul ; motives for leadership.

11. Quoniam ad hunc locum perventum est, non alienum
esse videtur, de Galliae Germaniaeque moribus et, quo
differant hae nationes inter sese, proponere.

In Gallia non solum in omnibus civitatibus atque in
s omnibus pagis partibusque, sed paene etiam in singulis
domibus facti5nes sunt, earumque facti5num principes
sunt, qui summam auctoritatem eorum iudicio habere ex-
Istimantur, quorum ad arbitrium iudiciumque summa
omnium rerum consiliorumque redeat.



18. ab: 'on the part of. 1

19. iniuriis, etc. : 'protected . . . from destructive raids.' 238, d,
and 127, a.

11. 1. Quoniam, etc. : 'Since we have reached this point 'in the
narrative. 73, d. alienum : 'out of place.' The digression which
follows was introduced to gratify Roman readers, who were eager to
have information about the new countries ; it is regarded by historians
as a source of information of prime importance regarding political insti-
tutions and conditions of life in Northern Europe in antiquity. Cf. n.
at end of chap. 23.

2. dS — proponere: 'to give an account of.' qu6 : 'in what
respect,' introduces an indirect question.

5. partibus: 'districts.' 289, c.

6. domibus : 20, c. factionSs : ' party divisions.'

7. eorum : Gallorum. iudicio : 138.

8. quorum: refers to (et) qui . . . exlstimantur ; 'so that the
final decision in respect to all affairs and projects is referred to their
arbitrament and judgment.' How lit. ? 194, *•



vi, 12] The Customs of the Gauls 341

Idque eius rei causa antiquitus Institutum videtur, ne 10
quis ex plebe contra potenti5rem auxilii egeret ; suos enim
quisque oppriml et circumvenirl n5n patitur, neque, aliter
si faciat, ullam inter suos habet auctoritatem. Haec eadem
ratio est in summa totlus Galliae ; namque omnes civitates
divlsae sunt in duas partes. 15

12. Cum Caesar in Galliam venit, alterius factionis prin-
cipes erant Aedui, alterius Sequanl. Hi cum per se minus
valerent, quod summa auctoritas antiquitus erat in Aeduis
magnaeque eorum erant clientelae, Germanos atque Ario-
vistum sibi adiunxerant eosque ad se magnis iacturis pol- s
licitationibusque perduxerant.

Proeliis vero compluribus factis secundis, atque omni
nobilitate Aeduorum interfecta, tantum potentia anteces-
serant, ut magnam partem clientium ab Aeduis ad se tradu-



10. Id — institutum [esse] videtur: 'that practice seems to
have become established.' eius rei causa: 'with this object in
view,' referring to the clause ne . . . egeret. How lit. ? 161, a.

11. auxilii: 127, d. egeret: 'lack. 1

12. quisque: 'each (leader). 1 neque . . . faciat, habet:
207, (2).

14. ratio, etc. : ' This same condition holds true of the whole of
Gaul. 1 How lit.?

15. divlsae: 1^8, c. partes: i groups, 1 explained in chap. 12.
12. 1. Cum: < (At the time) when. 1 185, b. alterius: 23, b,

and 171, b.

2. Hi: 'The latter.' Previously the Arvernians had held a position
of leadership ; cf. I, 31, 11. 10-28.

4. clientelae : ' dependencies,' states acknowledging the sovereignty
of the Aeduans.

5. eos ad se . . . perduxerant: ' had won them over.' iactu-
ris : ' pecuniary sacrifices.'

7. omni nobilitate : cf. I, 31. 1. 21 and N.

8. tantum — antecesserant : 'they had so far outstripped (the
Aeduans).'

9. clientium : dependent states are here meant.



342 Caesars Gallic War [B.C. 53

rocerent obsidesque ab eis principum fllios acciperent, et
publice iurare cogerent, nihil se contra Sequanos consilii
inituros, et partem flnitimi agri per vim occupatam possi-
derent Galliaeque totius principatum obtinerent. Qua
necessitate adductus, Diviciacus, auxilii petendi causa,

l 5 Romam ad senatum profectus, Infecta re redierat.

Adventu Caesaris facta commutatione rerum, obsidibus
Aeduis redditis, veteribus clientelis restitutis, novis per
Caesarem comparatis, quod ei, qui se ad eorum amicitiam
aggregaverant, meliore condicione atque aequiore imperio

20 se uti videbant, reliquis rebus eorum gratia dignitateque
amplificata, Sequani principatum dimiserant.

In eorum locum Remi successerant ; quos quod adae-
quare apud Caesarem gratia intellegebatur, ei, qui propter
veteres inimicitias nulla modo cum Aeduis coniungl pote-

25 rant, se Remis in clientelam dicabant. Hos illi diligenter

11. publice: 'for the state.' iurare: as subject sc. eos, i.e.
Aeduorum principes. nihil — consilii: < no scheme.' 97, a.

12. occupatam possidSrent : < seized . . . and retained in their
possession.' 228, a.

14. Diviciacus, etc : the statement of Diviciacus himself on this
point is summarized by Caesar, I, 31, 11. 29-33.

15. Infects r§ : * without accomplishing his purpose.' How lit. ?

16. Adventu: 147, b. facta, etc.: the ablatives absolute are
best translated by clauses. 144, b, (2) and (3). commutatione
rSrum : ' a complete change of relations.'

17. Aeduis: dative. novis : sc clientelis.

18. comparatis : for the Aeduans. s5, etc. : 'had joined them-
selves to them as allies.' How lit. ?

20. s6utl: 'that they enjoyed.' reliquis r6bus : 'in all other
respects ' also.

22. quos . . . intelleggbatur : 'and since it was understood that
they (the Remi) stood equally high in Caesar's favor.' How lit. ?

24. inimicitias: 'enmities.' coniungl: 174.

25. RSmls, etc. : ' attached themselves as dependents to the Remi.'
How lit. ?



vi, 13] The Customs of the Gauls 343

tuebantur ; ita et novam et repente collectam auctoritatem
tenebant. Ed turn statu res erat, ut longe principes habe-
rentur Aedui, secundum locum dignitatis Rem! obtinerent.

The two ruling classes, and the common people, in Gaul.

13. In omni Gallia eorum hominum, qui aliqu5 sunt
numero atque honore, genera sunt duo ; nam plebes paene
servorum habetur loco, quae nihil audet per se, null! adhi-
betur consilio. Plerique, cum aut aere alieno aut magni-
tudine tributorum aut iniuria potenti5rum premuntur, sese s
in servitutem dicant nobilibus ; quibus in hds eadem omnia
sunt iura, quae dominis in servos.

Sed de his duobus generibus alterum est druidum,
alterum equitum.

TJie Druids : their power as priests and judges, their organiza-
tion, their teachings about the soul.

Till rebus divlnis intersunt, sacrificia publica ac prlvata io
procurant, religiones interpretantur; ad hos magnus adu-

26. repente collectam : ' suddenly acquired,' in the brief period
since the defeat of Ariovistus, five years before.

13. 1. aliquo, etc. : 'are of any account and (receive) recognition.'
How lit.? 143, b.

3. servorum loco : < as slaves.' 288, b. nulli consilio : ' to no
consultation.' 28, a.

4. aere alieno : ' by debt.' How lit.?

5. tributorum : < of the taxes.' sese, etc. : l attach themselves as
bondmen.' How lit. ?

6. quibus, etc. :< and these have over them. 1 167, and 111.

7. quae, etc. : sc. sunt ; 'as masters (have) over slaves.'

8. alterum [genus]: 171, b. druidum: < (that of ) the Druids,'
a priesthood possessing great power in Gaul and Britain. Very little
is known of the Druids in Caesar's time beyond what he tells us in this
book.

io. HIT, etc. : 'the former have charge of the services of worship.'
sacrificia — procurant ; ' regulate the sacrifices.'

1 1 . religiones interpretantur : ' settle religious questions.' 238, a.



344 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 53

lescentium numerus disciplinae causa concurrit, magnoque
hi sunt apud eos honore. Nam fere de omnibus contro-
versiis publicis privatisque constituunt et, si quod est

isfacinus admissum, si caedes facta, si de hereditate, de
finibus controversia est, Idem decernunt, praemia poe-
nasque constituunt ; si qui, aut privatus aut populus, eorum
decreto non stetit, sacrificiis interdicunt.

Haec poena apud eos est gravissima. Quibus ita est

2ointerdictum, hlnumero impiorum ac sceleratorum habentur,
his omnes decedunt, aditum eorum sermonemque defu-
giunt, ne quid ex contagione incommodi accipiant, neque
his petentibus ius redditur neque honos ullus communi-
catur.

25 His autem omnibus druidibus praeest Onus, qui summam
inter eos habet auctoritatem. Hoc mortuo aut, si qui ex
reliquis excellit dignitate, succedit, aut, si sunt plures

1 2. disciplinae causa : ' in order to receive instruction. 1 How lit. ?
81.

13. hi: the Druids. eos: Gallos.

14. quod: adjective form. 49, a, and 168.

15. facta: sc. est. hereditate: 'an inheritance.'

16. finibus: here 'boundaries. 1 Idem decernunt: 'they like-
wise render judgment. 1

1 7. qui : substantive form ; ' any (party) 1 to a controversy, ' whether
. . . or, 1 etc. 49, a.

18. dgcrgto : 'decision. 1 138. sacrificiis interdicunt: 'they
exclude (the offender) from the sacrifices. 1 127, a.

19. Quibus : dative ; t on whom such an interdict has been laid. 1

20. numero, etc. : 'as wicked and crime-polluted men. 1 How lit.?

21. his: dative; 'these all men avoid. 1 109, d. dgfugiunt :
'shun. 1

22. contagione: 'contact ' with the excommunicated.

23. petentibus: 'though they may seek (justice). 1 honos: 13, a,
and /'.

26. Hoc mortuo: 'When he 1 (the arch-Druid) 'dies. 1 160. b.

27. excellit: ' is preeminent. 1 205, (1). dignitate: 'in stand-
ing. 1 142, a.



vi, 14] The Customs of the Gauls 345

pares, suffragio druidum, non numquam etiam armis, de
principatu contendunt.

Hi certo anni tempore in finibus Carnutum, quae regio 3 o
totius Galliae media habetur, consldunt in loco consecrato.
Hue oranes undique, qui controversies habent, conveniunt
eorumque decretis iudiciisque parent.

Disciplina in Britannia reperta atque inde in Galliam
translata esse existimatur, et nunc, qui diligentius earn rem 35
cognoscere volunt, plerumque illo discendi causa proficls-
cuntur.

14. Druides a bello abesse consuerunt neque tributa
una cum reliquis pendunt, militiae vacationem omniumque
rerum habent immunitatem. Tantis excitati praemiis, et
sua sponte multi in disciplinam conveniunt et a parentibus
propinquisque mittuntur. 5

Magnum ibi numerum versuum ediscere dicuntur.
Itaque annos non nulli vlcenos in disciplina permanent.

28. pares: i.e., pares dignitdte. suffragio: ' by vote. 1

30. quae regio : ' a region which. 1 165, b. Carnutum: Fig. 122.

31. consldunt : ' hold a meeting. 1 loco consecrato: the 'hal-
lowed spot 1 was probably a sacred grove. 1^5, a.

34. Disciplina : ' The system 1 of the Druids. reperta, trans-
lata : 221, b. It is not now possible to determine the truth of the
tradition recorded by Caesar, that Druidism originated in Britain.

35. diligentius: 'with special thoroughness.' earn rem: 'the
system. 1 160, d.

14. 2. una cum reliquis: 'at the same rate as the rest 1 ; the
Druids paid taxes at a lower rate than ordinary citizens, or were not
legally bound to pay taxes at all. pendunt: n. to I, 36, 1. 14.
militiae : 80, b. vacationem, etc. : ' exemption from 7 (lit. ' of 1 )
' military service and freedom from all (public) burdens. 1 81.

4. in disciplinam : 'to receive instruction, 1 from the Druids. How
lit.? parentibus: 81.

5. mittuntur: sc. multi; so to-day many "are sent 11 to school.

6. versuum : ' lines ' ; the metrical form was probably adopted to
facilitate memorizing. ediscere : ' to learn by heart. 1

7. vlcenos : 36. in disciplina : ' under instruction.'



346



Caesar's Gallic War



[B.C. 53



Neque fas esse existimant ea litteris mandare cum in
reliquls fere rebus, publicis privatisque rationibus, Graecis

10 litteris utantur. Id mihi duabus de causis instituisse
videntur, quod neque in vulgus discipllnam efferri velint,
neque e5s, qui discunt, litteris confisos, minus memoriae
studere ; quod fere plerisque accidit, ut praesidio litterarum
dlligentiam in perdiscend5 ac memoriam remittant.

is In prlmis hoc volunt persuadere, non interire animas,
sed ab alils post mortem transire ad alios; atque hoc
maxime ad virtutem exdtari putant, metu mortis neglecto.

8. ea : the teachings set forth in verse. litteris : ' to writing,' we
should say. cum: 'although.' 187.

9. rationibus: 'accounts,' inclu led W&9& ebus but added as a
concrete example; trans, 'as in,' etc. Graecis litteris: 'Greek

characters,' used in writing the Gallic
languages (cf. I, 29, 1. 1). Gallic coins
occasionally had inscriptions in the Latin
alphabet, in imitation of Roman coins
(Fig. 122).

11. quod . . . velint :' because (as
it has been suggested) they do not wish
to have their body of teachings spread
Bronze. Obverse, head, Venus; abroad among the common people,' who
inscription, pixtilos, a name. Re- wou ld remain in subjection to the druidi-

verse, lion-headed griffin holding down , . A , , . , A ,

aman; inscription piix or pilx. cal P"esthood only so long as they

should be kept in ignorance. 183, a.

12. discunt : vivid use of the indicative ; cf. 220. litteris : 135, a.
minus — studere : 'pay too little heed.'

13. quod: 'and this.' 167. . praesidio litterarum: 'through
reliance upon written records.' How lit.?

14. perdiscendo: 'learning by heart.' 230, (4). The truth of
this statement is unquestioned.

1 5 . animas : ' the soul,' as life-principle ; the doctrine of transmigra-
tion of souls, or metempsychosis, was widely accepted in antiquity, and
is held to-day by the Buddhfsts. 92, a.

16. alils, alios : 171, b, and 164, a. hoc : ' by this (belief).'

17. excitari: impersonal; 'men are spurred on.' metu, etc. :
W, b, (3).




Figure 122. — Coin of the
Carnutes.



vi, 16] The Customs of the Gauls 347

Multa praeterea de slderibus atque eorum motu, de mundl
ac terrarum magnitudine, de rerum natura, de deorum im-
mortalium vi ac potestate disputant et iuventuti tradunt. 20

The knights : their warlike occupation, and their retainers.

15. Alterum genus est equitum. Hi, cum est usus
atque aliquod bellum incidit (quod fere ante Caesaris ad-
ventum quotannls accidere solebat, uti aut ipsi iniurias In-
ferrent aut illatas propulsarent), omnes in bell5 versantur,
atque eorum ut quisque est genere copiisque aroplissimus, 5
ita plurimos circum se ambactos clientesque habet. Hanc
unam gratiam potentiamque noverunt.

Superstitions of the Gauls ; their human sacrifices.

16. Natio est omnis Gallorum admodum dedita reli-
gionibus, atque ob earn causam, qui sunt affecti gravioribus
morbis quique in proeliis pertculisque versantur, aut pr5
victirnis homines immolant aut se immolaturos vovent, ad-
ministrisque ad ea sacrificia druidibus utuntur, quod, pros
vita hominis nisi hominis vita reddatur, non posse deorum

18. Multa — disputant: 'They treat many subjects. 1 sideri-
bus : ' heavenly bodies. 1 mundi : ' the universe. 1

19. terrarum : for orbis terrarum, 'the earth. 1

15. 1. Alterum: cf. chap. 13,1.8. cum: 'whenever.' 1 186, a.

2. aliquod: 49, a. incidit: ' breaks out. 1 quod: 'and this. 1

5. eorum, etc. : 'each knight has about him the greatest number
of vassals and retainers that his social position and resources will war-
rant. 1 How lit.? A notable example is Orgetorix (I, 4, 11. 4-7).

6. Hanc, etc. : ' This (numerousness of retinue) is the only sign of
influence and power that they recognize. 1 How lit. ? 176, b.

16. 1. omnis: 'as a whole. 1 dedita: 'devoted. 1 1^8, c. re-
ligionibus : ' religious observances. 1

3. morbis: 'diseases. 1 pro victirnis : 'as victims. 1

4. immolant : ' offer up. 1 se immolaturos : i.e. se immolatiiros
esse homines pro victirnis. vovent : ' vow.' administris : ' as
officiating priests. 1 7, c, and 131,/.



348 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 53

immortalium numen placari arbitrantur; publiceque eius-
dem generis habent instituta sacrificia.

Alii immanl magnitudine simulacra habent, quorum con-
iotexta viminibus membra vivis hominibus complent; quibus
succensis, circumventl flamma exanimantur homines.

Supplicia eorum, qui in furto aut latrocinio aut aliqua
noxia sint comprehensl, gratiora dis immortalibus esse
arbitrantur; sed cum eius generis copia defecit, etiam ad
15 innocentium supplicia descendunt.

The gods worshipped by the Gauls.
17. Deorum maxime Mercupum colunt. Huius sunt
plurima simulacra; hunc omnium inventorem artium fe-

7. numen : ' majesty ;' lit. l nod. 1 piacSri : • be appeased.'

8. habent instituta: 229, a. B. 337, 7; A. 497, 6; H. 431, 3.
sacrificia : human sacrifices were offered at times in Eastern lands (cf.,
tor example, 2 Kings, iii. 27), and in ancient Mexico ; and even at Rome
an instance of human sacrifice is reported as late as 216 b. c.

9. simulacra : ' images ' of wickerwork, having some resemblance
to the human form.

10. vi vis : ' living. 1 quibus: et cis (sitnuldcris).

12. Supplicia: 92, a. fiirto: 'theft. 1 latrocinio: 'highway
robbery. 1

13. noxia: 'crime. 1 gratiora: < more acceptable. 1
15. dgscendunt: 'resort. 1

17. 1. Deorum: dependent on maxime. 97, e. Mercurium :
in the case of Mercury and the other gods mentioned, Caesar gives the
name of the Roman divinity whose attributes and functions seemed to
him to correspond most nearly with those of the Gallic divinity ; the
Gallic names were of course not known to Roman readers.

2. simulacra: since the Gauls began making statues only after the
Roman conquest, it has been suggested that the ' images of Mercury
referred to here were the huge upright stones (menhirs) of which several
groups must have been seen by Caesar in Gaul (Fig. 123), and that these
were associated in some way with the worship of the Gallic divinity
identified by him with this god. Pillars of a certain type were sacred
to Hermes, the Greek god corresponding with Mercury, inventorem :
80,6. artium: 'arts. 1 81. ferunt : 172, c.



vi, 17] The Customs of the Gauls 349

runt, hunc viarum atque itinerum ducem, hunc ad quaestus
pecuniae mercaturasque habere vim maximam arbitrantur ;
post hunc, Apollinem et Martem et Iovem et Minervam. 5

De his eandem fere, quam reliquae gentes, habent opi-
nionem : Apollinem morbos depellere, Minervam operum
atque artificiorum initia tradere, Iovem imperium caelestium
tenere, Martem bella regere.

Huic, cum proelio dlmicare constituerunt, ea, quae bello IC
ceperint, plerumque devovent ; cum superaverunt, animalia
capta immolant reliquasque res in unum locum conferunt.




Figure 123. — Sacred stones called Menhirs.

Probably thought by Caesar to be images of Mercury. These Menhirs are near that
part of the west coast where Caesar and his army witnessed the . sea-fight with the
Venetans (III, 14, 1. 25). In the background is a modern windmill.

3. viarum: Mercury is 'guide for roads' in that he points out the
road, and ' for journeys ' because he accompanies the traveler on the
way. quaestus: i acquisition. 1 92, a.

4. mercaturas : i commercial transactions.'

7. Apollinem, etc. : the infinitive clauses are appositional. 12, d.
operum, etc. : ' imparts the elements of the trades and crafts.'

8. caelestium : i the gods ' as dwellers in the sky (caelum).

11. ceperint: subjunctive in implied indirect discourse, for the
future perfect indicative. cum superaverunt : post victdriam.

animalia : 16, b, and 80, b.



350 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 53

Multfs in civitatibus harum rerum exstructos tumulos locls
consecratis conspicarl licet ; neque saepe accidit, ut
is neglecta quispiam religione aut capta apud se occultare
aut posita tollere auderet, gravissimumque el rei supplicium
cum cruciatu constitutum est.

18. Galli se omnes ab Dite patre pr5gnatos praedicant

idque ab druidibus proditum dicunt. Ob earn causam

spatia omnis temporis non numero dierum, sed noctium

finiunt ; dies natales et mensium et annorum initia sic ob-

5 servant, ut noctem dies subsequatur.

Strange customs of the Gauls.
In reliquis vltae Institutis hoc fere ab reliquis differunt,
quod suos liberos, nisi cum adoleverunt, ut munus militiae

13. tumulos : such piles of booty would after a time rot down and
be covered with vegetation, presenting the appearance of a mound.

15. quispiam: 49, a. capta: neuter plural, accusative. 227,
a, (4). apud se: 'in his possession. 1

16. posita tollere : ' to take away what had been deposited' as an



Online LibraryJulius CaesarC. Iulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum. Caesar's Commentaries: the Gallic war, books I-Iv, with selections from books V-VII and from the civil war; → online text (page 30 of 73)