Julius Caesar.

C. Iulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum. Caesar's Commentaries: the Gallic war, books I-Iv, with selections from books V-VII and from the civil war; online

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offering to the gods, as Achan did (Joshua, chap. 7, verses 20-22).
supplicium, etc. : like the terrible doom of Achan (Josh. 7, 23-26).

18. 1 . Dite patre : Caesar identifies the Gallic divinity with a
Roman god of the Underworld known in earlier times as ' Father Dis '
(Dis pater), later generally called Pluto. 128, b.

2. Ob earn causam : because sprung from the god of the Under-
world, the realm of darkness and night.

4. finiunt : i measure. 1 The ancient Germans also reckoned time
by the number of nights ; traces of this reckoning remain in our words
"fortnight 11 (= fourteen nights) and "sennight 11 (= seven nights, i.e.
a week) . dies nStalgs : * birthdays. 1

5. ut, etc. : instead of saying " the first day of the month, 11 as we do,
the Gauls said ' the first night of the month, 1 ' the first night of the year, 1
' birthnight, 1 etc. Primitive peoples find it more difficult to keep track of
time by days than by nights because it is easier to note the changes of
the moon than of the sun. So Indians reckoned time by " moons. 11

6. hoc : 142, a. ab reliquis : ' from all other people. 1 171, a.

7. adol6v§runt : ' have grown up. 1 munus militiae : military
service. 1



vi, 19] The Customs of the Gauls 351

sustinere possint, palam ad se adire non patiuntur, filium-
que puerili aetate in publico in conspectu patris assistere
turpe ducunt. w

19. Virl, quantas pecunias ab uxoribus dotis nomine
acceperunt, tantas ex suis bonis, aestimatione facta, cum
d5tibus communicant. Huius omnis pecuniae conhlnctim
ratio habetur fructusque servantur ; uter eorum vita supe-
ravit, ad eum pars utriusque cum fructibus superiorum 5
temporum pervenit.

Virl in uxores, sicuti in liberos, vitae necisque habent
potestatem ; et cum pater familiae, illustriore loco natus,

8. se : only the fathers are referred to, as shown by 1. 9.

9. puerili aetate: ' while in the age of childhood.' How lit.?
143, a.

10. turpe : predicative, ' consider it disgraceful for a son ... to ap-
pear/ On public occasions the Gauls would appear armed ; it was
thought in bad form for an armed man to have with him, in a public
place, a son who was not also armed.

19. 1. Viri: 'husbands'; German Mann is similarly used. pe-
cunias : < property ' in general ; trans, as if tantas pecunias, quantas.
dotis nomine : < as dowry.' 17, c.

2. bonis : 'possessions.' aestimatione facta :< making an esti-
mate of value.' 144> b, (2).

3. communicant: 'set aside.' From his own pr6perty the hus-
band set aside an amount equal to the dower received with the wife.
The income from this common fund, or estate, was saved up and
added to the principal ; when the husband or wife died the whole
went to the survivor. coniunctim, etc. : ' a joint account is kept.'
How lit.?

4. fructus : 'inGome.' 92, a. uter: 'whichever,' husband or
wife. vita: 11+2, a.

5. utriusque: 'of both.' 51. The custom could have prevailed
only among the higher classes, on account of the abject poverty of the
common folk (chap. 13, 11. 2-4).

7. in: 'over.' vitae, etc.: among the early Romans also the
father had ' the power of life and death ' over his household.

8. pater familiae: 'the head of a family.' illustriore loco
natus : ' of higher rank.' 128, a.



352



Caesar's Gallic War



[B.C. 53



decessit, eius propinqui conveniunt et, de morte si res in
10 suspicionem venit, de ux5ribus in servilem modum quaesti-

onem habent et, si compertum est, igni atque omnibus tor-

mentis excruciatas interficiunt.

Funera sunt pro cultu Gallorum magnifica et sumptuosa ;

omniaque, quae vivis cordi fuisse arbitrantur, in ignem in-
15 ferunt, etiam animalia, ac paulo supra hanc memoriam servi



9. de, etc : * if suspicion has arisen regarding (the cause of) death. 1
How lit. ?

10. uxoribus : the plural implies the existence of polygamy among
the higher classes in Gaul. in, etc. : 'an examination like that of

slaves,' under torture. How
lit. ? Roman law and custom
sanctioned the torture of
slaves on the death of a
master under suspicious cir-
cumstances.

11. compertum est: im-
personal, ' (their guilt) has
been proved.' igni, etc. :
'agonize and kill them with
fire and every instrument of
torture.' 228, a, and 205 (3) .

13. Funera: 'funerals.'
13, e. pro cultu : ' con-
sidering the civilization,'
which in art as in life seemed
to the Roman crude (Fig.
124). magnifica: 'splen-
did.' 31. sumptuosa.
* costly.' 75, f.

14. cordi fuisse: 'were
dear.' How lit.? 10, g, and
112, b. ignem : of the
funeral pyre. The ashes were
sometimes buried in wooden

buckets adorned with bronze ornaments (Fig. 125 ; wood restored).
15. supra hanc memoriam : i before our time.' How lit.?




Figure 124. — Gallic bronze bracelets.

Bronze bracelets and neck rings were popular
ornaments in ancient Gaul.



VI, 20]



The Customs of the Gauls



353



et clientes, quos ab els dilect5s esse constabat, iustis fune-
bribus confectis, una cremabantur.

Tlieir precautions in dealing with rumors affecting public safety.

20. Quae civitates commodius suam rem publicam ad-
ministrate existimantur, habent legibus sanctum, si quis
quid de re publica a finitimis rumore aut fama acceperit,
uti ad magistratum deferat neve cum qu5 alio communicet,
quod saepe homines temerari5s atque imperitos falsls ru- 5
m5ribus terrerl et ad facinus impelli et de summis rebus
consilium capere cognitum est.

Magistrates, quae visa sunt, occultant, quaeque esse ex
usu iudicaverunt, multitudini pr5dunt. De re publica nisi
per concilium loqui non conceditur. ic

16. dilectos esse : i were loved. 1 iustis, etc. : 'on the comple-
tion of the regular funeral rites. 1

17. una: 'at the same time, 1 with the body of the master. The
burning of favorite dependents on their masters funeral pyre was probably
intended to continue their service for

him in the other world. Interment with-
out burning was also in vogue in Gaul.
20. 1. Quae civitates: i.e. eae
civitates, quae. rem publicam :

'public affairs. 1

2. habent, etc. : ' have it ordained
by law that if anybody has heard any-
thing. 1 49, a.

3. de re publica: 'touching the
public interest. 1 How lit.?

4. neve: 'and not. 1 quo: 49, a.

5. falsls: 'baseless. 1 83, a. Cf.
IV, s, 11. 5-13-

8. visa sunt: i.e. visa sunt occul-
tanda, ' which they have thought best to
conceal. 1 quaeque : et (ea) quae.

10. per concilium: 'at an assem-
bly 1 duly convoked, lit. 'through (the medium of) an assembly. 1 Very
few states could have enforced this regulation for any length of time.




Figure 125. — Bucket in which
burnt human bones were found ;
imported from Gaul into Britain
in Caesar's time.



354 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 53

Altogether different are the beliefs and customs of the Germans.

21. German! multum ab hac consuetudine differunt.
Nam neque druides habent, qui rebus divlnls praesint, ne-
que sacrificiis student. Deorum numero eos solos ducunt,
quos cernunt et quorum aperte opibus iuvantur, Solem et

s Vulcanumet Lunam; reliquos ne fama quidem acceperunt.
Vita omnis in venationibus atque in studiis rel militaris
consistit ; a parvis labori ac duritiae student.

The Germans do 7iot take to farming, arid have no private land.

22. Agri culturae non student, maiorque pars eorum
victus in lacte, caseo, carne consistit. Neque quisquam
agri modum certum aut fines habet proprios ; sed magistra-
tes ac principes in annos singulos gentibus cognationibus-

sque hominum, quique una coierunt, quantum et quo loco

21. i. German!, etc. : ' The German mode of life and government
differs greatly from that described. 1 How lit. ? 238, b.

2. druides: there were priests among the Germans, but they did

not form a dominant class, as the Druids did in Gaul. rebus divi-

nis: chap. 13, 1. 10, and n. praesint: 193, a. B. 282, 2 ; A. 531,2.

3. Deorum, etc. ; the religion of the Germans in Caesar's time was

a primitive nature- worship.

5. Vulcanum : god of fire. Lunam. : the host of Ariovistus dared
not fight before the new moon (I, 50,11. 11-17). reliquos : sc dcos.

6. vgnationibus : ' hunting' 92, a. in, etc.: * in warlike
pursuits.'

7. 5 parvis : ' from childhood.' duritiae : ' hardship. 1
22. 2. lacte: 10, g. caseo: ' cheese.' carne: IS, a.

3. fines proprios : < lands of his own ' ; there was no private own-
ership of land. Cf. IV, 1, 11. 13-15.

4. in annos singulos : 'each year.' gentibus: 'clans.' cog-
nationibus : < those connected by blood,' groups of families.

5. quique, etc. : i and (to those) who have joined together,' asso-
ciating themselves for the purpose. quantum — agri, etc. : 'as much
land as they deem proper, and in whatever place (they think best).'



vi, 23] The Customs of the Germans 355

visum est agri, attribuunt, atque anno post alio transire
cogunt.

Eius rei multas afferunt causas : ne, assidua consuetu-
dine capti, studium belli gerendl agri cultura commutent;
ne latos fines parare studeant, potentioresque humiliores 10
possessionibus expellant; ne accuratius ad frigora atque
aestus vitandos aedificent ; ne qua oriatur pecuniae cupi-
ditas, qua ex re factiones dissensionesque nascuntur ; ut
animi aequitate plebem contineant, cum suas quisque opes
cum potentissimis aequarl videat. is

Their ambitions are military; but they protect a guest.

23. Ovitatibus maxima laus est, quam latissime circum
se, vastatis finibus, solitudines habere. Hoc proprium
virtutis exlstimant, expulsos agrls finitimos cedere, neque
quemquam prope audere consistere ; simul hoc se fore tu-
tiores arbitrantur, repentinae incursionis timore sublato. s

Cum bellum clvitas aut illatum defendit aut infert, magis-

6. visum est : sc. els (inagistratibus ac ftrincipibus) . anno :

140. Cf. IV, 1, 11. 9-13. alio : adverb, 'to another place. 1

8. Eius rei causas : ' explanations of this practice,' defined by the
«<?-clauses and ^/-clause following. assidua, etc. : ' captivated by
the attractiveness of permanent residence.' How lit. ?

9. cultura: 139. A. 417, b; H. 478, 4.

11. accuratius: i with too great pains.' frigora: 92 y c.

13. dissensiones :' dissensions.' 81. nascuntur: indicative as
expressing the view of the writer ; cf. 220.

14. animi aequitate: 'in a state of contentment.' How lit.?
cum, etc. : ' each one seeing.'

15. cum potentissimis : cum opibus ftotentissimorum. 238, b.
23. 1. maxima laus : i the highest distinction.' quam: 153, c.

2. proprium virtutis : ' a proof of valor.' How lit.? 102. Cf. IV,

3, 11. i-5-

3. neque quemquam : 'and that no one.' 168, and 49, a.

5. incursionis: 'raid.' timore: lJfAi b, (3).

6. bellum illatum defendit : ' repels an attack that has been made.'



356 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 53

tratus, qui el bello praesint et vitae necisque habeant
potestatem, deliguntur. In pace nullus est communis
magistrates, sed principes regionum atque pagorum inter

iosuos ius dicunt controversiasque minuunt.

Latrocinia nullam habent infamiam, quae extra fines
cuiusque civitatis fiunt, atque ea iuventutis exercendae ac
desidiae minuendae causa fieri praedicant. Atque ubi quis
ex principibus in concilia dixit, si ducem fore, qui seqtu

i S velint, profiteantur, consurgunt el, qui et causam et homi-
nem probant, suumque auxilium pollicentur atque a mul-
titudine collaudantur ; qui ex his secuti non sunt, in
desertorum ac proditorum numero ducuntur, omniumque
his rerum postea fides derogatur.

7. praesint : 193, a. B. 282, 2 ; A. 531, 2 ; H. 590.

8. communis : ' common ' to a whole people or tribe.

9. principes, etc. : ' the head men of divisions and districts. 1 Noth-
ing is known about the details of the German civil administration in
Caesar's time ; these probably varied somewhat among the different
peoples.

10. ius dicunt : i administer justice.'

11. Latrocinia : ' marauding expeditions ' outside their own borders
have generally been considered by barbarous peoples as not merely
permissible but even praiseworthy. habent : 4 involve. 1 infa-
miam : ' disgrace. 1

13. desidiae : 'indolence. 1 praedicant: 'they (the Germans)
declare. 1 quis : 49, a.

14. ducem: i leader 1 of an expedition or raid. qui : as ante-
cedent supply el, subject of profiteaiitur.

15. profiteantur : i that they . . . are to volunteer. 1 216.

17. ex his: 'of those 1 who have offered to follow. In this volun-
tary relation between the chieftain as leader and his followers lies the
origin of the peculiar relation between lord and vassal in the Middle
Ages.

18. dSsertorum, etc. : ' as deserters and traitors. 1 81. omnium
rSrum fides : < confidence in all matters, 1 not merely in respect to war-
like prowess.

19. his: dative. 109, If. dgrogatur : * is withdrawn. 1



VI, 24] The Customs of the Germans 357

Hospitem violare fas non putant; qui quacumque de2©
causa ad eos venerunt, ab iniuria prohibent, sanct5s habent,
hisque omnium domus patent vlctusque communicatur.

TJie Gauls, once superior to the Germans, are now inferior.

24. Ac fuit antea tempus, cum Germanos Galli virtute
superarent, ultro bella Inferrent, propter hominum multi-
tudinem agrique inopiam trans Rhenum colonias mitterent.
Itaque ea, quae fertilissima Germaniae sunt, loca, circum
Hercyniam silvam, quam EratosthenI et quibusdam Graecis 5

20. Hospitem violare : ' to maltreat a guest.' qui : as antece-
dent supply eos, object of prohibent. quacumque : 50, a.

References. The statements in chapters 22 and 23 about the institutions
of the early Germans are of particular interest; for they reveal the applica-
tion, in a crude way, of principles of government the fuller outworking of
which in the feudal system and in the English Constitution have had much to
do with shaping the political history of Europe, and even of America. Ref-
erences are: Stubbs, Constitutional History of England, vol. I., chaps. I and
2; Taylor, Origin and Growth of the English Constitution, book I., chaps.
1, 2; Adams, Civilization during the Middle Ages, chap. 5; Hallam, View
of the State of Europe during the Middle Ages, chap. 2.

24. 2. inferrent, mitterent : 288, a.

3. trans Rhenum ; the Gauls in earlier times had not only held ex-
tensive regions east of the Rhine, but
had pressed far down into Italy, giving
to Cisalpine Gaul its name. The
•Boii (as noted elsewhere) gave their
name to " Bohemia," and coins struck
by different branches of the Boii,
east of the Rhine and in northern
Italy, have been found (Fig. 126 and FigUre 126 — Coin of the Boii-

Vocab. under Boii). colonias : 81. , Silver [ f^. 5 ^ ea , st ° f the
7 , Rhine, while the B011 still dwelt there.

4. fertilissima : ' most productive.' Reverse, serpent with a lion's head.
81. loca: accusative.

5. Hercyniam silvam : see Vocab. EratosthenI : see Vocab.
quibusdam : 168. Graecis : it is not now possible to determine to
what Greek writers Caesar refers.




358 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 53

fama notam esse video, quam ill! Orcyniam appellant,
Volcae Tectosages occupaverunt atque ibi consederunt ;
quae gens ad hoc tempus his sedibus sese continet sum-
mamque habet iustitiae et bellicae laudis opinionem.

10 Nunc, quod in eadem inopia, egestate, patientia, qua
ante, GermanI permanent, eodem victu et cultu corporis
utuntur, GallTs autem provinciarum propinquitas et trans-
marlnarum rerum n5titia multa ad copiam atque usus
largitur, paulatim assuefactl superarl multisque victi proeliis,

i 5 ne se quidem ipsi cum illls virtute comparant.

The Hercynian forest, and the wonderful animals found in it.

25. Huius Hercyniae silvae, quae supra demonstrata
est, latitudo vim dierum iter expedito patet ; non enim

6. video : Caesar evidently had before him the works of the Greek
writers referred to. He probably kept at his headquarters copies of
writings that he thought might be in any way useful in his campaigns.

7. Volcae Tectosages : see Vocab. under Tectosages.

8. quae gens: 'and that people/ ad . . . continet: 'to this
day continues to maintain itself/ a Gallic outpost, as it were, on German
soil. summam : 853, d.

9. bellicae, etc.: ' reputation for . . . prowess in war. 1

10. in, etc. : 'in the (same condition of) poverty, privation, (and)
endurance as before. 1 23h a.

12. provinciarum: the two provinces, Cisalpine Gaul and ''the
Province 11 in Transalpine Gaul. transmarin&rum, etc. : k familiarity
with products brought across the sea, 1 which entered Gaul chiefly
through the port of Massilia. How lit.? 293, a.

13. multa: 'many articles, 1 not contributing to the "simple life. 11
ad . . . largitur : ' supply in abundance for common use. 1 How lit. ?

15. ipsi: Galll. illls : trans, as if Germanls.

25. 1. suprS : chap. 24, 1. 5.

2. latitudo: 'breadth, 1 from north to south. villi, etc : 21$, c.
expedito: 'for an unencumbered (traveler), 1 who might average 20
miles a day ; if so, the ' nine days 1 journey 1 would be a rough equiva-
lent of 180 miles.



VI, 26] Animals in the Hercynian Forest 359

aliter finirl potest, neque mensuras itinerum n5verunt. Ori-
tur ab Helvetiorum et Nemetum et Rauracorum finibus, rec-
taque fluminis Danuvii regione pertinet ad fines Dacorum s
et Anartium ; hinc se flectit sinistrorsus, diversls a flumine
regionibus, multarumque gentium fines propter magnitu-
dinem attingit; neque quisquam est huius Germaniae, qui
se aut adisse ad initium eius silvae dicat, cum dierum iter
lx prdcesserit, aut, quo ex loco oriatur, acceperit ; multaque 10
in ea genera ferarum nasci constat, quae reliquls in locis
visa non sint ; ex quibus quae maxime differant a ceteris
et memoriae prodenda videantur, haec sunt.

26. Est b5s cervi figura, cuius a media fronte inter aures
unum cornu exsistit, excelsius magisque derectum his, quae

3. neque, etc. : ' and (the people) have no system of measuring dis-
tances,' by paces and miles (24-3, a) such as the Romans had. How
lit. ? Oritur : sc. ea (Hercynia silva) .

4. finibus: 'frontiers.' r§cta, etc. : ' following the line of the
Danube it extends ' How lit.?

5. regione : 136, b.

6. sinistrorsus : ' to the left ' of the Danube, spreading out north-
ward, toward the Carpathian Mountains. diversls, etc. : l in a direc-
tion away from the river.' 92, a.

8. huius Germaniae : ' of this (part of) Germany,' the western part.

9. initium: the eastern limit. die at : 19J+, a. cum: 187.
n. ferarum: 'wild animals.' quae: 'such as.' 191+, a. re-
liquls locis : 'any other places.'

12. ex quibus quae: et ex els (ea) quae.

13. memoriae: dative; trans., 'seem worthy of mention.' How
lit? haec: 161, a.

26. 1. Est : 90, a. bos, etc. : 'an ox having the* form of a stag.'
Caesar is describing the reindeer, with which the American caribou is
closely related. As a descriptive term bos was applied also to the ele-
phant, one name of which was Lilca bos, ' Lucanian cow.' 18, a.
figura: 143, a. media: 152, a. aures: 'ears.' 82, c.

2. unum cornu : reindeer and caribou shed their antlers each year,
and Caesar's informant may have seen a reindeer which had lost one
antler, but had not yet shed the other. In the Provincial Museum at



360



Caesar's Gallic War



(B.C. 53



nobis nota sunt, cornibus; ab eius summo sicut palmae
ramique late diffunduntur. Eadem est feminae marisque
s natura, eadern forma magnitudoque cornuum.




Figure 127. — Caribou with one horn.
In the Provincial Museum at Victoria, British Columbia.



Victoria, British Columbia, there is a degenerate caribou which, when
shot, had only one antler (Fig. 127). excelsius, etc. : 'higher and
straighter.' 30, and 129, a.

3. ab eius summo : ' at the end of the antler.' How lit. ? sicut,
etc.: 'hands 1 (i.e. with fingers extended) 4 and branches, as it were,
are widely spread out.' The aptness of the description, and the com-
parison with the deer-horns familiar to the Romans {nobis nota sunt),
suggest that Caesar had probably obtained an antler of a reindeer.
The error of placing a single antler at the middle of the forehead of
the reindeer may be due to an interpreter's misunderstanding ; if so,
the error is certainly no more remarkable than that mistranslation of
Exodus (chapter 34, verse 29), which led Michael Angelo to put horns
on his famous statue of Moses.

4. feminae. etc. : ' the natural characteristics of the male and the
female.' maris: 13, g.

5. eadem, etc. : here again Caesar was misinformed; the antlers of
the female reindeer are somewhat smaller than those of the male .



VI, 27j Animals in the Hercynian Forest



361



27. Sunt item, quae appellantur alces. Harum est
consimilis capris figiira et varietas pellium, sed magnitudine
paulo antecedunt mutilaeque sunt cornibus et crura sine
nodis articulisque habent, neque quietis causa pr5cumbunt,
neque, si quo affllctae casu conciderunt, erigere sese auts
sublevare possunt.

His sunt arbores pro cubilibus ; ad eas se applicant, at-
que ita, paulum modo reclinatae, quietem capiunt. Quarum
ex vestigils cum est animadversum a venat5ribus, quo se
recipere consuerint, omnes eo loco aut ab radlcibus subru- io



27. i. alces: ' moose. 1 The American moose closely resembles
the European elk, to which Caesar refers ; the American elk belongs to
a different genus.

2. capris: i.e. figurae (dative) caprdrum, i (like) that of goats 1 ;
brachylogy. 238, b. varietas :
' mottled appearance.'

3. antecedunt: 'they sur-
pass (the reindeer). 1 muti-
lae, etc. : ' their horns present
a broken appearance 1 (Fig. 128).
How lit.? cornibus: 142, a.
crura: 'legs. 1 13, g.

4. nodis articulisque:
i nodes and joints. 1 In this state-
ment Caesar reflects the condi-
tion of scientific knowledge in his time. The even more marvelous uni-
corn found a place in a textbook of Natural History as late as the
fourteenth century. In England down to the nineteenth century the
belief was still current that elephants have no joints in their legs,
quietis : 10, e.

5. affllctae : 'thrown down.' erigere, etc : 'to assume a stand-
ing position, or raise themselves up. 1

7. sunt pro cubilibus: 'serve as resting-places. 1
'they lean up against these. 1

8. reclinatae : 'leaning to one side 1 ; lit. 'leaned back. 1

9. cum: 185, b. venatoribus : 'hunters. 1 74, a-

10. omnes: with arbores. 353. d. ab : 'at. 1 126, c.




Figure 128. — Horns of a Moose.



ad, etc. 1



362 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 53

unt aut accidunt arbores, tantum, ut summa species earum
stantium relinquatur. Hue cum se consuetudine reclina-
verunt, Infirmas arbores pondere affllgunt atque una ipsae
concidunt.

28. Tertium est genus eorum, qui uri appellantur. Hi
sunt magnitudine paulo infra elephantos, specie et colore et
figura tauri. Magna vis eorum est et magna velocitas,
neque homini neque ferae, quam c5nspexerunt, parcunt.
5 Hos studiose fovels captos interficiunt. H5c se labore
durant adulescentes atque hoc genere venationis exercent,
et qui plurimos ex his interfecerunt, relatis in publicum
cornibus, quae sint testim5nio, magnam ferunt laudem.
Sed assuescere ad homines et mansuefieri ne parvuli quidem
ioexcepti possunt.

Amplitudo cornuum et figura et species multum a nostro-

11. accidunt: 'cut into.' tantum, etc. : '(only) so much that
the trees retain perfectly the appearance of standing firmly. 1 How lit.?

12. Hue: in has arbores. consuetudine: 136, c. This won-
derful story may have originated in a distorted account of a kind of pit-
fall, made by covering a deep hole with timber so weakened by notches
that a heavy animal passing above would break through.

28. i . uri : ' wild cattle,' now extinct ; sometimes confused with the
aurochs, or European buffalo, of which a few herds still exist in game
preserves. The ' wild cattle ' had spreading horns, like those of our
Texas cattle, and it is thought that they represented the primitive stock
from which our domestic cattle are descended. The last specimen died
in 1627.

2. elephantos: < the elephant. 1 92, a. specie: 143,a. co-
lore : 80, b.

3. tauri: i.e. of a domestic ' bull. 1

4. parcunt: 'spare 1 ; they attack indiscriminately. 105.

5. studiose :< diligently. 1 fovels :' by means of pitfalls. 1 cap-
tos: 228, a. se durant: 'they develop hardihood. 1 How lit.?

7. relatis, etc. : 'publicly exhibiting the horns as a trophy.'

8. sint: 193, a. testimonio : 112, a.

9. assugscere, etc : 'become domesticated. 1 mansugfieri : ' be
tamed. 1 n6, etc. : ' not even if very young when caught.'



vi, 29] Caesar returns to Gaul 363

rum bourn cornibus differt. Haec studiose conqulsita ab
labrls argento circumcludunt atque in amplissimls epulis
pro poculls utuntur.

Caesar returns to Gaul, cats down the farther end of the bridge.

29. Caesar, postquam per Ubios exploratores comperit,



Online LibraryJulius CaesarC. Iulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum. Caesar's Commentaries: the Gallic war, books I-Iv, with selections from books V-VII and from the civil war; → online text (page 31 of 73)