Julius Caesar.

C. Iulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum. Caesar's Commentaries: the Gallic war, books I-Iv, with selections from books V-VII and from the civil war; online

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Suebos sese in silvas recepisse, inopiam frumenti veritus,
quod, ut supra demon stravimus, minime omnes German! agri
culturae student, constituit non progredl longius ; sed, ne
omnin5 metum reditus sui barbaris tolleret atque ut e5rum s
auxilia tardaret, reducto exercitu, partem ultimam pontis,
quae rlpas Ubiorum contingebat, in longitudinem pedum
cc rescindit, atque in extremo ponte turrim tabulatorum
iv constituit praesidiumque cohortium xn, pontis tuendi
causa, ponit magnisque eum locum munitionibus firmat. k

El loco praesidioque C. Volcacium Tullum adulescentem
praefecit.

12. conqulsita: < collect and.' 228, a. ab labris, etc. : 'mount
them with silver at the rim.' How lit. ?

13. in amplissimls epulis: 'at their more elaborate feasts.' The
principal beverage was beer.

14. utuntur: sc. his ; 'use them as drinking cups.' Such drinking
horns continued in use in the Middle Ages; in later times horns of
cattle were made into " powderhorns," the use of which in this country
continued till after the Revolutionary War. Drinking horns were used
also by the early Greeks.

29. 1. Caesar, etc. : the narrative, broken off at chapter 10, is here
resumed.

3. supra: chap. 22, 11. 1-2; cf. IV, 1, 11. 12-15.

8. in extremo ponte : ' on the end of the bridge,' in the river, 200
Roman feet from the east bank. The bridge here probably crossed
a small island, which furnished a secure foundation for the tower,
tabulatorum iv : ' four stories high. 1 How lit. ? 100, a.

10. munitionibus : of a fortified enclosure at the end of the bridge,
on the west bank.



COMMENTARIUS SEPTIMUS



Beginning of a General Uprising ; First Movements, i-io
The Gauls secretly plan a general uprising.

1. Quieta Gallia, Caesar, ut constituerat, in Italiam ad

conventus agendos proficlscitur. Ibi cognoscit de P. Clodii

caede ; de senatusque consulto certior factus, ut omnes

iuniores Italiae coniurarent, dilectum tota provincia habere

s Instituit.

Eae res in Galliam Transalpinam celeriter perferuntur.
Addunt ipsl et affingunt rumoribus Galli, quod res poscere

1-10. The Circumstances. During the sixth year of the Gallic War
(53 B.C.) the restlessness of the conquered states became increasingly mani-
fest, but all attempts to revolt were sternly repressed by Caesar. After his
return from the second expedition into Germany (VI, 29), Caesar devoted
himself particularly to the chastisement of the Eburones, but narrowly escaped
the loss of a legion, which was stationed at Atuatuca in command of Quintus
Cicero and was attacked by a force of marauding Sugambrians (VI, 30-44).

Before the close of the winter 53-52 B.C. the Gauls began to organize a
general rebellion. The earlier part of the Seventh Book, which is devoted
to the events of 52 B.C., deals with the first movements of the Gauls and with
Caesar's counter-movements, which were characterized by amazing quickness
of decision, energy, and despatch.

1. 1. Quigta Gallia: the "calm before the storm. 11 144, b, (3).
Italiam : Cisalpine Gaul. 283, b. ad, etc. : N. to I, 54, 1. 8.

2. P. Clodii: killed in January, 52 B.C., in an encounter with his
personal enemy, T. Annius Milo. Riots ensued at Rome, and the
Senate ordered out all men throughout Italy capable of bearing arms.

4. iuniorgs : men between the ages of 17 and 46. coniurarent :
'should together take the oath' that they would obey the consuls.
dilectum: 'levy.' 307, a. provincia :— citeriorc provincia. 28^.

7. Addunt et affingunt: * added to (the facts) and embellished
(them) with rumors.' /7.'7, />. quod: = id quod, explained by reti-
nerl . . . posse; "the wish" was "father to the thought." r6s :
'the condition of affairs. '

364



Plate IX



Appliances for Siege and Defense




j^tTiih i b






PluteL
v]]aaaaa]|t [

na ™"™ a a a

air b" j a
aa aa a




I. Caesar's Works before Alesia (VII. 72, 73) : la, C»>/« / iJ, Z^'a ; ir, Stimuli.

2. /^?r, etc. (VII. 24). 3. Gallic City Wall (VII. 23).

4, 5. Movable Breastworks, plutei.

6. Rampart of Camp, with Passageway and Towers.

7. Movable Tower, turris ambulatoria. 8. Catapult, catapulta.

9. Sapper's Hut, vinea.



vii, 2] General Uprising in Gaul 365

videbatur, retineri urbano m5tu Caesarem neque in tantis
dissensidnibus ad exercitum venire posse.

Hac impulsi occasione, qui iam ante se populi Roman! 10
imperid subiectos dolerent, liberius atque audacius de bello
consilia inlre incipiunt. Indictis inter se principes Galliae
concilils silvestribus ac remotis locis querunter de Acc5nis
morte ; hunc casum ad ipsos recidere posse demonstrant ;
miserantur communem Galliae fortunam ; omnibus pollici- is
tationibus ac praemiis deposcunt, qui belli initium faciant
et sul capitis periculo Galliam in llbertatem vindicent. In
prlmis rati5nem esse habendam dicunt, prius quam eorum
clandestina c5nsilia efferantur, ut Caesar ab exercitu inter-
cludatur : 20

Id esse facile, quod neque legidnes audeant, absente im-
perdtore, ex liibernls egredl, neque imperdtor sine praesidio
ad legidnes pervenlre possit ; postremo in acie praestdre
interficl, quam non veterem belli gldriam libertatemque,
quam a maioribus acceperint, recuperdre. 25

The Carnutes lead in revolt, massacre the Romans in Cenabum.

2. His rebus agitatis, profitentur Carnutes, se nullum
periculum communis salutis causa recusare, prlncipesque

8. urbano motu : 'the disturbances in the city,' in Rome.

9. dissensionibus : ' strifes.'

10. qui: i since they. 1 194, c. ante: adverb.

13. Acconis : a leader in uprisings the previous year (VI, 4, 44).

14. ad ipsos recidere : ' might fall upon themselves.'

15. omnibus pollicitationibus : 'by every sort of promise.'

17. sul, etc. : 'at the risk of their lives would assert the freedom
of Gaul.' How lit.?

18. rationem esse habendam: 'that a plan should be devised.''
22. hibernis : 6 legions at Agedincum (3, Map 13), 2 among the

Lingones (2, Map 13), and 2 near the Treveran frontier.

2. 1. profitentur: at a meeting of representatives of Gallic states.
2. principes, etc : 'that they will be the first of all to make war, 1



366 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 52

ex omnibus bellum factur5s pollicentur et, quoniam in
praesentia obsidibus cavere inter se non possint, ne res

5 efferatur, at iure iurand5 ac fide sanciatur, petunt, collatis
militaribus signis, quo more eorum gravissima caerimonia
continetur, ne, fact5 initio belli, ab reliquis deserantur.
Turn, collaudatis Carnutibus, dato iure iurando ab omni-
bus, qui aderant, tempore eius rei constituto, a concilio
io disceditur.

3. Ubi ea dies venit, Carnutes, Cotuato et Conconneto-
dumno ducibus, desperatis hominibus, Cenabum signo dato
concurrunt civesque Romanos, qui negotiandi causa ibi
constiterant, in his C. Fufium Citam, honestum equitem

s Romanum, qui rei frumentariae iussu Caesaris praeefrat,
interficiunt bonaque eorum diripiunt.

Celeriter ad omnes Galliae civitates fama perfertur.
Nam ubi quae maior atque illustrior incidit res, clamore
per agros regionesque significant ; hunc alii deinceps ex-

3. quoniam, etc. : ' since at the time they could not bind one an-
other for mutual protection by an exchange of hostages. 1

5. fide: 'a pledge of honor. 1 sanciatur: sc. ut ; 'that (the
compact) be ratified. 1 199, a. collatis signis: 'by placing their
standards close together, 1 signifying inviolable alliance for war.

6. more eorum : i in accordance with their custom.' 136, c. gra-
vissima : ' most solemn. 1

9. eius rei : the commencing of hostilities.

10. discSditur: « they went away. 1 73, d, and 175, b.

3. 1. dies: the 'day 1 appointed for commencing hostilities. Jl.<?.

2. desperatis: here an adjective. Cgnabum : Map 13. 119, a.

3. negotiandi: the Roman citizens engaged in business in Gallic
cities were chiefly money-lenders who furnished capital for various enter-
prises, and dealers in supplies, particularly of grain ; cf. p. xxviii.

6. interficiunt : the massacre of the Roman citizens, well organized
in advance, took place at daybreak (1. 11).

8. quae: 'any. 1 168. clamore: 'by shouting. 1

9. per agros regiongsque : 4 across the country. 1 How lit. ?
hunc [clamorem], etc : 'others in turn take up the shouting.'



vii, 4] General Uprising in Gaul 367

cipiunt et proximls tradunt, ut turn accidit. Nam quae 10
Cenabi oriente sole gesta essent, ante primam cdnfectam
vigiliam in flnibus Arvernorum audita sunt, quod spatium
est milium passuum circiter clx.

The Arverni revolt, under the leadership of Verting etorix.

4. Simili ratione ibi Vercingetorix, CeltillT fllius, Arver-
nus, summae potentiae adulescens, cuius pater principatum
totius Galliae obtinuerat et ob earn causam, quod regnum
appetebat, a civitate erat interfectus, convocatls suls
clientibus facile incendit. Cognito eius consilio, ad arma s
concurritur. Prohibetur a Gobannitione, patruo suo, reli-
quisque prlncipibus, qui hanc temptandam fortunam non
existimabant ; expellitur ex oppido Gergovia ; non destitit
tamen, atque in agris habet dilectum egentium ac perdi-
torum. ic

Hac coacta manu, quoscumque adit ex clvitate, ad suam
sententiam perducit ; hortatur, ut communis libertatis causa

ii. Cenabi: 146. gesta essent: adversative, 'although these
things had been done. 1 194, d. ante . . . vigiliam : 228, b, and 242, c.

12. quod spatium: 'a distance which.' Perhaps men had been
posted in advance along the roads leading from Cenabum, in readiness
to transmit the news ; otherwise the population must have been so dense
over the country that neighbors were within hailing distance. 165, b.

4. i. ibi: in the country of the Arvernians ; Map 13. «

2. principatum totius Galliae : ' a position of leadership through-
out the Celtic country, 1 on account of his influence. 287, b.

3. earn : 161, a. causam : explained by the guod-dause.

5. clientibus : a feudal following, like that of Orgetorix (I, 4).

6. ad arma concurritur : ; they rushed to arms. 1 How lit. ? 73, d.
patruo : ' uncle, 1 on his fathers side.

7. hanc, etc. : 'that fortune ought not to be tempted in this way 1 ;
cf. Fig. 198. How lit.?

11. quoscumque, etc.: 'all the men of his state whom he ap-
proached. 1 50, a.



308 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 52

arma capiant, magnisque coactls copiis adversaries suos, a
quibus paulo ante erat eiectus, expellit ex civitate. Rex
is ab suls appellator. Dimittit quoque versus legationes ;
obtestatur, ut in fide maneant.

Vercingetorix wins over many states, including the Bituriges.

Celeriter sibi Senones, Parlsios, Pictones, Cadurcos, Tu-
ronos, Aulercos, Lemovices, Andos reliquosque omnes,
qui Oceanum attingunt, adiungit ; omnium consensu ad

soeum defertur imperium. Qua oblata potestate, omnibus
his civitatibus obsides imperat, certum numerum militum
ad se celeriter adducl iubet, arm5rum quantum quaeque
civitas domi quodque ante tempus efficiat, constituit ; in
primls equitatui studet.

as Summae diligentiae summam imperil severitatem addit ;
magnitudine supplicii dubitantes cogit. Nam, maiore com-
misso delicto, igni atque omnibus tormentis necat, leviore
de causa auribus desectis, aut singulis effossls oculis, domum
remittit, ut sint reliquis documento et magnitudine poenae

30 perterreant alios.

5. His supplicils celeriter coacto exercitu, Lucterium
Cadurcum, summae hominem audaciae, cum parte copia-
rum in Rutenos mittit; ipse in Bituriges proficlscitur.

13. adversSrios : < opponents,' such as Gobannitio.

16. obtestatur: 'he adjured (his allies), 1 through his envoys.

22. armorum quantum, etc.: 'how great a supply of arms each
state should furnish.' 97, b.

23. domi: 'of its own manufacture,' lit. 'at home. 1 140. quod,
etc. : ' and before what time ' ; Vercingetorix fixed the date for deliver) .

26. dubitantfis: 'those who hesitated' to join him. . (4).

27. dglicto : 'offence.' necat: sc. cum qui id < ommiso at.

28. leviore de causa : i.e. si qui levius peccaverunt. auribus,
etc. : ' he cut off their ears, or gouged out one eye, and.' 144* & ( 2 )-

29. documento: 'a warning.' 112, b.

5. 3. Rutends. etc : Vercingetorix (Figures 18, 145) proceeds
with great energy against the states friendly to Caesar.



vii, 6] General Uprising in Gaul 369

Eius adventu Bituriges ad Aeduos, quorum erant in fide,
legatos mittunt subsidium rogatum, qu5 facilius hostiunis
copias sustinere possint.

Aedui de consilio legatorum, qu5s Caesar ad exercitum
rellquerat, copias equitatus peditatusque subsidio Biturlgi-
bus mittunt. Qui cum ad flumen Ligerim venissent, quod
Bituriges ab Aeduls dividit, paucos dies ibi moratl neque 10
flumen translre ausl, domum revertuntur legatlsque nostris
renuntiant, se Biturigmn perfidiam veritos revertisse, qiti-
bus id consilii fuisse eognoverint, ut, si jlumen trdnslssent,
una ex parte ipsl, altera Arverni se cireumsisterent. Id
eane de causa, quam legatis pronuntiarunt, an perfidia 15
adductl fecerint, quod nihil nobis constat, non videtur pro
certo esse ponendum.

Bituriges eorum discessu statim se cum Arvernis coniun-
gunt.

Caesar leaves Cisalpine Gaul, proceeds to Narbo, in the Province.

6. His rebus in Italiam Caesarl nuntiatis, cum iam ille
urbanas res virtute Cn. Pompei commodiorem in statum

4. quorum, etc. : i in whose allegiance they were. 1 The Aeduans
were at the head of one league of Gallic states, the Arvernians of the
other (I, 31, 11. 10-28).

5. rogatum: 231, a. hostium : the Arvernian army.

7. legatorum: these had been left 'with the army' when it was
placed in winter quarters at the end of 53 B.C. 313, a.

9. Biturigibus: 19, e, and 112, b. Qui: 167. Ligerim: 18, e.

11. ausi: 62. domum : 20, c, and 119, b.

12. veritos : 61, a, (2), and 227, a, (1). quibus, etc. : ' having
found out that the Bituriges had the design.' 97, b, and 214, a.

15. -ne . . . an: 204, (1). B. 162,4; A. 335; H. 380.

16. fecerint : the object is Id. nihil : adverbial accusative.
118, c. nobis: 156. pro certo : 'ascertain.' 154, a.

6. 1 . Italiam : Caesar was in Cisalpine Gaul. 283, b, and 256.

2. urbanas res: -affairs in the city,' Rome; see chap. 1, 11. 2-9,
and Notes. virtute: ' through the energetic action.' The break
between Caesar and Pompey did not come till two years later. 258.



370 Caesar's Gallic War [b.c. 51

pervenisse intellegeret, in Transalpinam Galliam profectus
est.

5 Eo cum venisset, magna difficultate afficiebatur, qua
ratione ad exercitum pervenire posset. Nam si legiones
in provinciam arcesseret, se absente in itinere proelio dlmi-
caturas intellegebat ; si ipse ad exercitum contenderet, ne
eis quidem eo tempore, qui quietl viderentur, suam salutem

io recte committl videbat.

7. Interim Lucterius Cadurcus in Rutenos missus earn
civitatem Arvernis conciliat. Progressus in Nitiobroges
et Gabalos, ab utrisque obsides accipit et, magna coacta
manu, in provinciam Narbonem versus irruptionem facere

5 contendit.

Qua re nuntiata, Caesar omnibus consiliis antevertendum
exlstimavit, ut Narbonem proficlsceretur. Eo cum venis-
set, timentes c5nfirmat, praesidia in Rutenls provincialibus,
Voids Arecomicls, Tol5satibus circumque Narbonem, quae

ioloca hostibus erant finitima, constituit, partem copiarum
ex provincia supplementumque, quod ex Italia adduxerat,
in Helvios, qui fines Arvernorum contingunt, convenire
iubet.



5. magna, etc. : 'he experienced great difficulty in devising a plan
for reaching his army. 1 How lit. ?

6. posset: 204, (2). legiongs : see chap. 1, 1. 22, and N.

8. ipse : alone, or with only a small military escort.

9. eo tempore : • at so critical a time.'' How lit. ?

7. 1. RutSnos: 282. missus: chap. 5, 11. 1-3.

2. Nitiobroges, Gabalos : west, and east, of the Ruteni ; see

Map Gallia.

4. versus : ' in the direction of.' 128, c. irruptionem : • raid.'
6. omnibus, etc. : ' that setting out for Narbo should precede all

(forming of) plans. 1 How lit. ?

8. provincialibus : a part of the Ruteni were in the Province.

9. quae 1 oca: {in) locls quae. 165, c.

11. supplSmentum : 'raw contingent'; cf. chap. I, 11. 3-5.



vii, 8] General Uprising in Gaul 371

Caesar crosses the Cevennes through deep snow, surprising the

Arverni.

8. His rebus comparatis, represso iam Lucteri5 et re-
moto, quod intrare intra praesidia perlculosum putabat, in
Helvios proficlscitur. EtsI mons Cebenna, qui Arvernos
ab Helvils discludit, durissimo tempore annl altissima nive
iter impediebat, tamen, discussa nive in altitudinem pedum s
sex atque ita vils patefactls summo militum sudore, ad
fines Arvernorum pervenit. Quibus oppressls inoplnan-
tibus, quod se Cebenna ut muro munit5s exlstimabant,
ac ne singularl quidem umquam homini eo tempore annl
semitae patuerant, equitibus imperat, ut, quam latissime io
possint, vagentur et quam maximum hostibus terrorem
Inferant.

Celeriter haec fama ac nuntils ad Vercingetorigem per-
feruntur ; quern perterriti omnes Arverni circumsistunt
atque obsecrant, ut suis fortunis consulat neu se ab hos- is
tibus dlripl patiatur, praesertim cum videat omne ad se
bellum translatum. Quorum ille precibus permotus, castra
ex Biturlgibus movet in Arvernos versus.



8. i. His, etc. : * Having completed these preparations.'

2. intra praesidia: i within the (chain of) garrisons 1 by which
Caesar had secured the western frontier of the Province. perlculo-
sum : 75, f\ 84, and 148, d. putabat: sc. Lucterius.

3. proficlscitur : sc. Caesar.

4. durissimo tempore : 'the most inclement season.'

5. discussa nive: 'the snow was cleared away' in the pass by
which he crossed the Ce'vennes. Cf. Map 13, (1). 144, b, (2).

6. summo sudore : 'with the utmost effort.' 136, b. How lit.?

9 ne, etc. : ' not even for one man alone,' not to speak of an army.
10. semitae: mountain ' trails.' patuerant: ' were passable.'
13. fama: 'by report; ' less definite than nuntiis, 'by messages.'

15. suis: 'their own.' neu: 199, d.

16. cum: 184, b. omne: 353, d.

18. in . . . versus : 123, c. Arvernos : 282.



372 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 52

Caesar assembles his legions; he leaves two at Agedincum and
starts for Oorgobina, besieged by Vercingetorix.

9. At Caesar, blduum in his locis moratus, quod haec
de Vercingetorige usu ventura opinione praeceperat, per
causam supplement! equitatusque c5gendl ab exercitu dis-
cedit, Brutum adulescentem his copils praeficit ; hunc
smonet, ut in omnes partes equites quam latissime perva-
gentur : Daturnm se operant, ne longius tridito a castrls
absit.

His constitutis rebus, suis inopinantibus, quam maximis
potest itineribus, Viennam pervenit. Ibi nactus recentem
10 equitatum, quern multis ante diebus eo praemiserat, neque
diurno neque nocturno itinere intermisso, per fines Aeduo-
rum in Lingones contendit, ubi duae legiones hiemabant,
ut, si quid etiam de sua salute ab Aeduis iniretur consilii,
celeritate praecurreret. Eo cum pervenisset, ad reliquas
is legiones mittit priusque omnes in unum locum cogit, quam
de eius adventu Arvernis nuntiari posset.

Hac re cognita, Vercingetorix rursus in Bituriges exer-
citum reducit, atque inde profectus Gorgobinam, Boiorum

9. 1. haec de Vercingetorige : ' these movements on the part of
Vercingetorix. 1

2. usu ventura [esse] : i would take place;' lit., * would come in
experience.' 142 9 a. opinione praecSperat : ' had conjectured.'

3. per causam, etc. : ' making a pretext of bringing together his
new force,' etc. How lit. ?

6. Daturum [esse] . . . absit : said as a blind, to prevent infor-
mation regarding his plans from reaching the enemy.
9. nactus, etc. : ' finding his cavalry refreshed.'

12. duae legiones: see (2) on Map 13.

13. quid, etc. : 'any design involving his personal safety.' 97 y 6;
863, d.

14. celeritate: < by quickness of movement.' praecurreret:
that he might forestall (it).'

16. nuntiari posset: 'any report could reach.' 78, d', 189,6.
18. Boiorum, etc. : I, 28, 11. 15-18 ; also, n. to VI, 24, 1. 3.



VII, 10]



General Uprising in Gaul



373



oppidum, quos ibi, Helvetico proelio victos, Caesar colloca-
verat Aeduisque attribuerat, oppugnare instituit. 2 <

10. Magnam haec res Caesarl difficultatem ad consilium
capiendum afferebat : si reliquam partem hiemis uno loco
legiones contineret, ne, stipendiary's Aeduorum expugna-
tls, cuncta Gallia deficeret, quod nullum amlcls in eo
praesidium videret positum esse; si maturius ex hibernis 5
educeret, ne ab re frumentaria duris subvectionibus labo-
raret.



10. i. haec res : ; This movement' of Vercingetorix.
3. ne, etc. : if Caesar failed to protect the Gauls pledged to his
interest, he would soon find them enemies.




Figure 129. — Low ground northeast of Bourges, ancient Avaricum.



4. cuncta Gallia : ' the whole of Gaul.' amlcls : ' for those
(who were) friendly (to him).' eo : Caesar.

6. educeret : sc. legiojies. ab : 'in respect to.' duris sub-
vectionibus : i on account of difficulties of transportation, 1 caused by
the bad state of the roads toward the end of winter.



374 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 52

Praestare visum est tamen omnes difficultates perpeti,
quam, tanta contumelia accepta, omnium suorum volun-
iotates alienare. Itaque cohortatus Aeduos de supportando
commeatu, praemittit ad Boios, qui de suo adventu doceant,
hortenturque, ut in fide maneant atque hostium impetum
magno' animo sustineant. Duabus Agedinci legionibus
atque impedimentis totius exercitus relictis, ad Boi5s pro-
is ficiscitur.

The Siege and Destruction of Avaricum. 23-31

The ingenious construction of Gallic city walls.

23. Muri autem omnes Gallici hac fere forma sunt.

Trabes derectae, perpetuae in longitudinem paribus inter-
vallis, distantes inter se binos pedes, in solo collocantur.
Hae revinciuntur introrsus et multo aggere vestiuntur; ea

9. tanta contumelia accepta : * by acquiescing in so great an
indignity ' as the capture of Gorgobina by Vercingetorix would be.
suorum : i who were loyal to him.' 1 voluntatis : ' the good will.

11. qui, etc. : ' (messengers) to explain.' 198, a.

14. totius exercitus : ten legions, besides auxiliary troops. 308.

11-22. Summary. Caesar in rapid succession captures Vellaunodunum,
Cenabum, and Noviodunum (4, 5, and 6 on Map 13), and marches toward
Avaricum (7 on Map 13). This city the Gauls, contrary to the advice of Ver-
cingetorix, resolve to defend. Caesar besieges it, and Vercingetorix is unable
to gain any advantage over him.

23. 2. Trabgs, etc.:
beams at right angles to the
course of the wall were laid
in a row two feet apart along
the entire length of the wall.

4. revinciuntur intror-
sus : ' are made fast inside '
., ,, , , , , _ „ Figure 130. Section of works at

the wall, probably by means 6

c x ,', , . 4 , Avaricum.

of crossbeams parallel with

the line of the wall, as indi- , a ; a / ( Roman *f ^ wit ,^ a ^J, " the rais h < ; d
' front facing the Gallic wall, and a higher movable

cated in Plate IX, 3. vesti- tower further back .

untur : ' are covered.' b. Section of Gallic wall surmounted by a tower.




MAP 14
The Siege of Avaricum



Book VII, 15-28



To face page 374




SCALE OF ENGLISH MILES



8CALE OF ROMAN MILES



EXPLANATION

The city of Avaricum, on the site of modern Bourges, was situated at the con-
fluence of two streams, now called Yevre and Auron, and was protected by
marshes on three sides. It was surrounded by a strong wall (outlined in blue),
and was reckoned by its inhabitants the most beautiful city in Gaul.

Caesar encamped on the higher ground on the side of the city free from marshes.
Selecting a favorable point of approach he commenced the construction of a
huge embankment, agger, consisting of two parallel dikes, or viaducts, terminat-
ing in a long embankment near the wall and parallel with it.

The siege embankment, composed largely of timber, was in part destroyed by
fire, and the city was finally taken by assault.



vii, 24] Siege and Destruction of Avaricum 375

autem, quae diximus, intervalla grandibus in fronte saxis 5
efferciuntur.

His collocatis et coagmentatis, alius insuper ordo
additur, ut idem illud intervallum servetur neque inter se
contingant trabes, sed, paribus intermissls spatils, singulae
singulis saxis interiectls arte contineantur. Sic deinceps 10
omne opus contexitur, dum iusta murl altitudo expleatur.

The Gauls set the agger on fire and make a fierce attack.

24. His tot rebus impedita oppugnatione, mllites, cum
toto tempore frigore et assiduls imbribus tardarentur,
tamen continent! labore omnia haec superaverunt et die-
bus xxv aggerem latum pedes cccxxx, altum pedes lxxx
exstruxerunt. 5

Cum is murum hostium paene contingeret, et Caesar
ad opus consuetudine excubaret mllitesque hortaretur,



Online LibraryJulius CaesarC. Iulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum. Caesar's Commentaries: the Gallic war, books I-Iv, with selections from books V-VII and from the civil war; → online text (page 32 of 73)