Julius Caesar.

C. Iulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum. Caesar's Commentaries: the Gallic war, books I-Iv, with selections from books V-VII and from the civil war; online

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ne quod omnino tempus ab opere intermitteretur, paulo
ante tertiam vigiliam est animadversum, fumare aggerem,
quern cunlculo hostes succenderant, eodemque tempore, 10

5. fronte: the outside of the wall; the large stones tightly fitted
the spaces between the ends of the beams.

6. efferciuntur : ' are closely packed. 1

7. coagmentatis : < fastened together.'

8. idem illud intervallum: two feet. inter, etc. : ' touch one
another. 1 159. #

9. singulae, etc. : i the individual (beams) are held in position by
tightly fitting a stone between' each two. How lit. ?

11. iusta: ; proper.' expleatur: ' is reached.' 190,6.

24. 1. oppugnatione: 340. cum: < although.'

2. tempore: 14-7, c. frigore: it was still winter, probably in
March (chap. 32, 1. 4). assiduls: 'continual.' 81.

4. CCCXXX : trecentos et trigintd, measured where the siege bank
faced the wall (Map 14, and Fig. 130). LXXX : octoginta. The un-
usual height is explained by the existence of a gully in front of the wall.

7. excubaret : i was watching.'

9. fumare aggerem : i that the siege embankment was smoking.'

10. cunlculo : ' by means of a countermine,' run out underneath.



376 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 52

toto murd clamore sublato, duabus portis ab utroque
latere turrium eruptio f iebat ; alii faces atque aridam
materiem de muro in aggerem eminus iaciebant, picem
reliquasque res, quibus Ignis excitari potest, fundebant,

is ut, quo prlmum occurreretur aut cui rel ferretur auxilium,
vix ratio inirl posset.

Tamen, quod instituto Caesaris duae semper legiones
pro castrls excubabant pluresque, partitls temporibus, erant
in opere, celeriter factum est, ut alii eruptionibus resisterent,

20 alii turres reducerent aggeremque interscinderent, omnis
vero ex castrls multitudo ad restinguendum concurreret.

An instance of extraordinary bravery.

25. Cum in omnibus locis, consumpta iam reliqua
parte noctis, pugnaretur semperque hostibus spes victoriae
redintegraretur, eo magis, quod deustos pluteos turrium
videbant nee facile adire apertos ad auxiliandum animad-

11. portis: 134, a. ab utroque latere : <on both sides 1 of the
siege embankment, designated by the movable towers now at the corners
(Plate IX, 2).

12. faegs: < firebrands. 1 17, c. aridam: 81.

15. ut, etc. : 'so that it was hardly possible to decide at what point
a counter-attack should first be made, or to what part reinforcements
should be sent. 1 How lit.?

17. Instituto, etc. : 136, c. -The legionaries on duty worked in shifts.

20. turrSs, etc. : they first drew back the towers, so as to remove
these beyond the reach of the flames, then cut the siege embankment
in two in order to confine the fire to the part already burning.

21. ad restinguendum : 'to put out (the fire). 1 230, (3).

25. 2. hostibus : 109, a. B. 188, 1, n. ; A. 377 ; H. 425, 4, N.

3. deustos, etc. : sc. esse, 'that the breastworks of the towers were
burned 1 ; these were wooden screens, probably protected by hides, on
the front of the towers.

4. nee, etc.: sc. mllites; 'and that it was not easy for the men
exposed ^ to the enemy^ missiles ' to come forward to help ' in putting
out the fire. The artillery was placed in the towers, which were there-



vii, 26] Siege and Destruction of Avaricum 377

vertebant, semperque ipsi recentes defessis succederents
omnemque Galliae salutem in illo vestlgio temporis posi-
tam arbitrarentur, accidit, inspectantibus nobis, quod, dig-
num memoria visum, praetereundum non existimavimus.

Quldam ante portam oppidi Gallus per manus sebl ac
picis traditas glebas in Ignem e regione turris proiciebat ; 10
scorpione ab latere dextro traiectus exanimatusque, conci-
dit. Hunc ex proximis Onus iacentem transgressus, eodem
illo munere f ungebatur ; eadem ratione, ictu scorpionis, ex-
animato altero, successit tertius, et tertio quartus, nee prius
ille est a pr5pugnatoribus vacuus rellctus locus, quam, 15
restlncto aggere atque omni ex parte summotis hostibus,
finis est pugnandi factus..

Tlie defenders, despairing, plan to Jiee, but are thivarted.

26. Omnia expert! Galli, quod res nulla successerat,
postero die consilium ceperunt ex oppido profugere, hor-
tante et iubente Vercingetorige. Id silenti5 noctis conati,

fore special objects of attack ; the towers were finally saved, perhaps by
throwing earth against the parts that caught fire.

5. ipsi: 'on their side. 1 recentgs, defessis : 227, a, (4).

7. accidit: sc. id; 'there happened, under my own observation,
(something) which.' How lit.? 156. dignum : predicative, after
visum. 142, b.

9. per, etc. : 'lumps of tallow and pitch passed from hand to hand, 1
till they reached the Gaul who threw them. The siege embankment,
built of green timber and earth and stones, did not burn readily.

10. e regione turris : ' directly in a line with one of the towers 1 on
the siege embankment, hence within range. How lit.?

1 1 . scorpione, etc. : ' his right side pierced with a (bolt from a)
scorpion. 1 How lit.? 343, a.

12. Hunc, etc. : 'stepping over him as he lay. 1

14. tertio: ictu scorpionis exanimato tertio (Gallo), successit
quartus {Gallus). prius .... quam: 189, a.

15. propugnatoribus : 'defenders. 1 vacuus: predicative.



378 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 52

non magna iactura suorum sese effecturos sperabant, prop-
s terea quod neque longe ab oppido castra Vercingetorigis

aberant, et palus perpetua, quae intercedebat, Romanos ad

Insequendum tardabat.

Iamque hoc facere noctu apparabant, cum matres

familiae repente in publicum procurrerunt flentesque pro-
ioiectae ad pedes suorum omnibus precibus petierunt, ne se

et communes llberos hostibus ad supplicium dederent, quos

ad capiendam fugam naturae et virium infirmitas impediret.

Ubi eos in sententia perstare viderunt, quod plerumque in

summo periculo timor misericordiam non recipit, conclamare
15 et significare de fuga Romanis coeperunt.

Quo timore perterriti Galll, ne ab equitatu Romanorum

viae praeoccuparentur, consilio destiterunt.

In a ^iial assault the Romans capture Avaricum, sparing none.

27. Postero die Caesar, promota turri perfectisque operi-

bus, quae facere Instituerat, magno coorto imbri, non

inutilem banc ad capiendum consilium tempestatem arbi-

tratus, quod paulo incautius custodias in muro dispositas

s videbat, suos quoque languidius in opere versari iussit et,

26. 4. non magna: i no great.' 289,%.

6. et : correlative with neque. 233, a. palus : cf. chap. 19, 11. 1-10.

7. tardabat: 'would delay. 1

8. apparabant : ' they were preparing.'

10. proiectae : "casting themselves.' suorum: ' of their (hus-
bands).'

14. non, etc. : 'knows no pity.' 177, c, and 17~>, c.

16. Quo, etc. : ' frightened by this ' (giving of notice to the Romans)
'and fearing that.' How lit.?

17. praeoccuparentur: ' be seized in advance.' 202.

27. 2. imbri: tS f C. non inutilem : 239, g.

4. incautius: 'rather carelessly.' 153, a.

5. languidius: 'quite lazily' according to appearances, in order to
deceive the enemy.



vii, 28] Siege and Destruction of Avaricum 379

quid fieri vellet, ostendit. Legiones intra vineas in occulta
expedites cohortatus, ut aliquando pro tantis laboribus
fructum victoriae perciperent, els, qui primi murum ascen-
dissent, praemia proposuit militibusque signum dedit.

IllI subito ex omnibus partibus evolaverunt murumque 10
celeriter compleverunt

28. Hostes, re nova perterritl, muro turribusque deiectl,
in foro ac locis patentioribus cuneatim constiterunt, hoc
animo, ut, si qua ex parte obviam veniretur, acie Instructa
depugnarent. Ubi neminem in aequum locum sese demit-
tere, sed toto undique muro circumfundi vlderunt, veritl, ne s
omnlno spes fugae tolleretur, abiectis armls ultimas oppidi
partes continentl impetu petlverunt, parsque ibi, cum
angusto exitu portarum se ipsl premerent, a militibus, pars
iam egressa portis ab equitibus est interfecta. Nee fuit
quisquam, qui praedae studeret. Sic, et CenabI caede et io
labdre operis incitatl, non aetate confectis, non mulieribus,
non Infantibus pepercerunt.

Denique ex omnl numero, qui fuit circiter milium xl,
vix dccc, qui, primo clamore audlto, se ex oppido eiecerant,
incolumes ad Vercingetorlgem pervenerunt. Quos ille 15
multa iam nocte silentio ex fuga excepit, et veritus, ne qua

9. praemia : 318. signum : 326, b.

28. 1 . turribus : on the walls of Avaricum (chap. 22, 1. 9). 127, a.

2. cuneatim: l in wedge-shaped masses. 1 77.

3. si, etc. : 'if an attack should be made from any quarter. 1 How
lit.?

4. depugnarent : i they would fight it out. 1

5 . circumfundi : impersonal, * that they ' (the Romans) ' distributed
themselves thickly. 1 How lit.? 17 If..

8. a militibus : sc. interfecta est.

10. quisquam: 168. studeret: 194, a. CenabI: 146.

1 1 . non, etc. : 239, a. aetate confectis : * the aged. 1 How
lit?

15. Vercingetorlgem: In Fig. 131 a modern designer represents



380



Caesar's Gallic War



[B.C. 52



in castris ex e5rum concursu et misericordia vulgi seditio
oreretur, procul in via dispositis familiaribus suis principi-
busque clvitatum, disparandos deducendosque ad suos
2oc0ravit, quae cuique civitatl pars castr5rum ab initio
obvenerat.



<R



H ; *i§j|





Figure 131. — Vercingetorix viewing the burning of Avaricum.



Vercingetorix with a group of Gallic soldiers as viewing from a distance
the burning of Avaricum after the slaughter of the inhabitants.

17. seditio : "mutiny.'

18. orergtur: 61, b. procul, etc.: 'he stationed personal rep-
resentatives and leading men of the (different) states along the road at
a distance 1 from the camp, in order to intercept the fugitives, ' (and). 1

19. disparandos, etc.: 'he had them 1 (the fugitives) 'divided up
and conducted in each case to the men of their own state, (who were)
in the part of the camp that had from the first been assigned to that
state. 1 How lit.? The 10,000 defenders of Avaricum had been drawn
from different states (chap. 21, 1. 6). 229, b.

u It is probable^ 1 says Desjardins, tt that if the orders of the Gallic



vii, 36] The Siege of Gergovia 381

The Siege of Gergovia. 36-51

Caesar arrives at Gergovia and fortifies two camps.

36. Caesar ex eo loco qulntis castris Gergoviam pervenit
equestrique eo die proelio levi facto, perspect5 urbis situ,
quae, posita in altissimo monte, omnes aditus difficiles habe-
bat, de oppugnatione desperavit, de obsessione non prius
agendum constituit, quam rem frumentariam expedisset. 5

At Vercingetorix, castris prope oppidum positis, medi-
ocribus circum se intervallis separatim singularum civitatum

chief had been obeyed, and Avaricum had been burned, as he wished
to have it, Caesar and his army would have had the lot of Napoleon after
the burning of Moscow."

29-35. Summary. Vercingetorix, calling together the Gallic leaders,
reminded them that at the outset he had opposed the defense of Avaricum,
and encouraged them with the hope of ultimate victory. He undertook to
win over the remaining states that had not yet joined in the revolt, and levied
more troops.

Representative Aeduans appealed to Caesar to settle a dispute between
two claimants for the office of Vergobret; he proceeded to Decetia (Decize),
ascertained the facts, and gave the office to Convictolitavis. He sent four
legions north under Labienus, and himself led six legions southward into the
Arvernian country. He marched first along the east bank of the Elaver
(Allier), Vercingetorix marching on the opposite side; by a clever ruse (p. xv)
he crossed the river behind Vercingetorix, who proceeded rapidly toward
Gergovia, Caesar following (Map 13).

36. 1. eo loco: the place where Caesar encamped after crossing
the Elaver (Altier). qulntis castris: 'in five marches, 1 encamp-
ments being counted as marches because at the close of each day's
march a camp was fortified. 147, c, and 331, a. Gergoviam: 119, a.

2. equestri, etc. : Vercingetorix had reached Gergovia first.

3. monte, etc. : Gergovia lay on a high, narrow plateau, accessible
only from the south and southeast. See Map 15.

4. oppugnatione, obsessione : 340.

5. expedisset: ' had arranged for.' 189, b.

6. castris . . . positis : on an elevated terrace, adjoining the town
on the south; marked Gallic Encampment on Map 15.

7. separatim : the soldiers of each state had a separate camp.



382 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 52

copias collocaverat, atque omnibus eius iugi collibus occu-
patis, qua despici poterat, horribilem speciem praebebat :

10 principesque earum civitatum, quos sibi ad consilium
capiendum delegerat, prima luce cotldie ad se convenlre
iubebat, seu quid communicandum, seu quid administran-
dum videretur ; neque ullum fere diem intermittebat, quln
equestrl proelio, interiectis sagittariis, quid in quoque esset

15 animi ac yirtutis suorum, periclitaretur.

Erat e regione oppidi collis sub ipsis radlcibus montis,
egregie munitus atque ex omni parte circumcisus ; quern si
tenerent nostrl, et aquae magna parte et pabulatione libera
prohibituri hostes videbantur. Sed is locus praesidio ab

20 his non nimis flrmo tenebatur. Tamen silentio noctis
Caesar, ex castris egressus, prius quam subsidio ex oppido
veniri posset, deiecto praesidio, potitus loco, duas ibi
legiones collocavit fossamque duplicem duodenum pedum



8. eius iugi collibus : ' the minor elevations of the height,' the
points of vantage on the mountain, about and below the town. 160, d.

9. qu5, etc. : ' where a view over the plain could be had.' How
lit.? 78, d. horribilem :' formidable.' #/.

13. neque, etc. : 'and he allowed hardly a day to pass without try-
ing.' 201, a.

14. interiectis sagittariis : ' placing archers among (the cavalry).'
How lit. ? quid, etc : i.e. quid animi ac virtutis (97, b) in quoque
suorum (97, a) esset (204, 2).

16. e regione oppidi: 'directly opposite the town,' on the south.
collis : White Rock (La Roche Blanche), near the village of the same
name (Map 15).

17. munitus : principally by nature. circumcisus : ' precipitous.'

18. aquae, etc. : the Gauls probably obtained water from the Auzon.

19. hostes : accusative. ab his : ab hostibus.

21. castris: marked Laroe Camp on Map 15. subsidio. etc.:
' before relief could come.' How lit. ? 78, d, and / 12, a.

22. loco: 131, c. ibi: on White Rock.

23. fossam, etc. : 'two (parallel) trenches, each 12 feet wide.' How
lit. ? According to the excavations, which have brought to light many



VII, 36]



The Siege of Gefgovia



383



a mai5ribus castrls ad minora perduxit, ut tut5 ab repen-
tlno hostium incursu etiam singuli commeare possent. 25




Figure 132. — Gergovia.
East end of the plateau of Gergovia and upper half of slope down toward White Rock,
as seen from an elevation just above the village of Jussat.

traces of Caesar's works near Gergovia, the hastily dug trenches were
hardly more than six feet wide. duodenum : 22, c.

24. minora [castra] : on White Rock, marked Small Camp on
Map 15. As this contained two legions, in the large camp there must
have been stationed four legions besides the cavalry and auxiliaries.

37-45. Summary. Leading Aeduans, including Convictolitavis, turned
against Caesar, and a body of 10,000 Aeduan soldiers, sent to serve under him,
was moved to defection. Caesar by prompt action won back the allegiance
of the soldiers, but in his absence from Gergovia the Gauls fiercely attacked
both camps. The Aeduan revolt was temporarily checked.

Anticipating more serious trouble, however, Caesar began to plan how he
could withdraw from Gergovia, and reunite his forces, without giving the
impression that he was fleeing from the enemy. In order to frighten the
Gauls he resolved to make a feint assault. He sent part of his forces around,
as if to threaten an exposed point west of the town (D on Map 15), thus
drawing off the Gauls from their encampment, which he prepared to attack
in force.



384 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 52

46. Murus oppidi a planitie atque initio ascensus recta
regione, si nullus anfractus intercederet, mcc passus
aberat ; quicquid hue circuities ad molliendum clivum
accesserat, id spatium itineris augebat. A medio fere

5 colle in longitudinem, ut natura montis ferebat, ex grandi-
bus saxis vi pedum murum, qui nostrorum impetum tar-
daret, praeduxerant Galll atque, Inferiore omni spatio vacuo
relicto, superiorem partem collis, usque ad murum oppidi,
densissimis castris compleverant.

10 Mllites, dato signo, celeriter ad munltionem perveniunt
eamque transgressi trinls castris potiuntur ; ac tanta fuit
in castris capiendls celeritas, ut Teutomatus, rex Nitio-
brogum, subito in tabernaculo oppressus, ut merldie con-

46. 1. planitie, etc. : the lower ground at the right of the Small
Camp and just above the Parallel Trenches; E on Map 15. recta
regione : * in a straight line.'

2. si, etc. : ' if there should be no deviation. 1 How lit. ? anfractus :
79, d. MCC : mille ducentos, somewhat more than an English mile.
38, a, b, and 243, b.

3. quicquid . . . augebat: 'the distance to be traversed was in-
creased by every detour (made) in order to render (the ascent of) the
slope easy.' How lit.? The wall of Gergovia lay almost 1000 feet
above the point where the legions started.

4. A, etc. : * about halfway up the height. 1 126, c, and 152, a.

5. in, etc. : i following the long side of the mountain as the contour
permitted. 1 How lit. ?

6. murum : marked Wall 6 feet high on Map 15. tardaret :
193, a.

7. inferiore spatio: the sloping mountain side below the wall.
vacuo: predicative. 1^8, c. •

8. superiorem partem collis: Gallic Encampment on Map 15.

9. densissimis castris: 'with camps (standing) close together* :
each camp contained the troops of a single state, in accordance with
the arrangement described in chap. 36, 11. 6-8. 153, a.

1 1. trims castris : 'three camps. 1 37, e, and 131, c.
13. conquieverat : \ he was having a nap * ; lit. ' had taken complete
rest. 1




Lfe m.



-



vii, 47] Siege of Gergovia 385

quieverat, superiore corporis parte nuda, vtilnerato equo,
vix se ex manibus praedantium militum eriperet. is

Flushed with victory, the soldiers do not retreat as ordered.

47. Consecutus id, quod animo proposuerat, Caesar
receptui can! iussit, legionisque x, quacum erat, continuo
signa constituit. At reliquarum legionum milites, non
exaudlto sono tubae, quod satis magna valles intercedebat,
tamen a tribunis militum legatlsque, ut erat a Caesare s
praeceptum, retinebantur ; sed, elati spe celeris victoriae et
hostium fuga et superiorum temporum secundis proeliis,
nihil adeo arduum sibi esse existimaverunt, quod non vir-
tute consequl possent, neque flnem prius sequendi fecerunt
quam muro oppldl portlsque appropinquarunt. io

Turn vero, ex omnibus urbis partibus orto clamore, qui
longius aberant, repentln5 tumultu perterritl, cum hostem
intra portas esse existimarent, sese ex oppido eiecerunt.
Matres familiae de muro vestem argentumque iactabant
et, pectore nudo prominentes, passls manibus obtestabantur is

47. i. id, etc. : 'what he had in mind,' that is, to give the enemy
a good scare by a bold dash, so as to be able to retire from Gergovia
without discredit.

2. receptui, etc : 'gave orders that the recall be sounded. 1 826, c.
How lit? 112, a, and 73, d.

3. signa constituit : ' brought to a halt the standards.' 324, b, (2).
non exaudlto : 'though they did not hear.' How lit. ? 144, b, (5).

4. tubae: 326, a, (1). valles: a depression in the slope, just
west of the village of Gergovie ; Caesar with the tenth legion was east
of this depression (Map 15, 10th Legion, 1st Position).

6. retinebantur : ' an attempt was being made ... to hold the
soldiers . . . back.' How lit.? 175, e.

10. portis : probably at the points marked A and B on Map 15.

12. longius, etc. : the Gauls who were some distance inside the
wall. hostem : the Romans.

14. vestem: 'clothing. 1 argentum : 'silver.'

15. pectore: 'breast.' prominentes :' leaning forward.' pas-
sis manibus : N. to II, 13, 1. 13,



386 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 52

Romanos, ut sibi parcerent neu, sicut Avarici fecissent, ne
a mulieribus quidem atque Tnfantibus abstinerent ; non
nullae de muro per manus demissae sese militibus tradebant.
L. Fabius, centurio legionis vm, quern inter suds eo die
aodixisse constabat, excitarl se Avaricensibus praemils neque
commissurum, ut prius quisquam murum ascenderet, tres
su5s nactus manipulares atque ab eis sublevatus, murum
ascendit ; hos ipse rursus singulos exceptans in murum
extulit.

The Gauls rally and attack the Romans.

48. Interim el, qui ad alteram partem oppidi, ut supra

demonstravimus, munitionis causa convenerant, prlmo

exaudltd clamore, inde etiam crebrls nuntiis incitatl, oppi-

dum a Romanis teneri, praemissis equitibus magno cursu

5 eo contenderunt.

Eorum ut quisque primus venerat, sub muro consistebat
suorumque pugnantium numerum augebat. Quorum cum
magna multitudo convenisset, matres familiae, quae paulo
ante Romanis de muro manus tendebant, suos obtestarl et
io more Gallico passum capillum ostentare liberosque in con-
spectum pr5ferre coeperunt.

16. neu, etc.: 'and not refuse to spare even women. 1 How lit.?
199, d. Avarici: 146. fgcissent : 220.

1 8. demissae : < being let down ' outside the wall.

20. Avaricensibus praemils : < the prizes (offered) at Avaricum ' ;
see chap. 27, 11. 6-9. neque, etc.: 'and that he was not going to
let any one scale the wall ahead of him.' How lit.?

22. suos manipulares: i men of his maniple.'

23. hos singulos exceptans : < taking hold of them, one at a time.'
48. 1. el: Galll. alteram partem : see chap. 44, 1. 11. supra:

chap. 44, 11. 10-16, and chap. 45, 11. 13—14.

6. Eorum, etc. : 'In succession as each came up.' sub muro;
'at the foot of the wall,' on the outside.

10. passum capillum : ' their hair disheveled. 1

11. proferre : 'to bring out. 1 69, 6.



VII, 50] Siege of Gergovia 387

Erat Romanis nee loc5 nee numer5 aequa contentio ,
simul et cursu et spatio pugnae defatlgati, non facile re-
centes atque integrSs sustinebant.

49. Caesar cum iniquo loco pugnari hostiumque copias
augeri videret, praemetuens suis, ad T. Sextium legatum,
quern minoribus castris praesidio reliquerat, mlsit, ut co-
hortes ex castris celeriter educeret et sub infim5 colle ab
dextro latere hostium constitueret, ut, si nostros loc5 depul-5
sos vidisset, quo minus libere hostes Insequerentur, terreret.

Ipse, paulum ex e5 loco cum legione pr5gressus, ubi
constiterat, eventum pugnae exspectabat.

The Romans fight stubbornly, though against overwhelming odds.

50. Cum acerrime comminus pugnaretur, hostes loco et
numero, nostri virtute conflderent, subito sunt Aedui visi
ab latere nostris aperto, quos Caesar ab dextra parte ali5
ascensu, manias distinendae causa, mlserat.

Hi similitudine armorum vehementer nostros perterrue-s
runt, ac tametsi dextris umerls exsertis animadvertebantur,

13. spatio: 'duration.' non, etc.: 'they could not easily hold
out against.'

49. 2. praemetuens suis : * becoming anxious about his men.'

4. sub infimo colle : ' at the foot of the hill ' on which the small
camp was; see Map 15, Sextius, 1st Position.

5. loco depulsos : ' forced from their position.'

6. quo, etc. : ' deter the enemy from pursuing them further.' How
lit.? 201, a.

7. progressus, etc. : see Map 15, 10th Legion, 2d Position.

50. 1. hostes: sc. conflderent. loco: 135, a.

2. Aedui, etc. : see chap. 45,11. 24-25 ; Map 15, Aeduans.

4. manus, etc. : 'to separate the (enemy's) forces ' by a diversion.

5. similitudine armorum: 'from the likeness of their arms 1 to
those of the hostile Gauls.

6. dextris, etc. : ' it was noticed that they had their right shoulders
bare.' How lit.? 172, d\ also 191, a.



388 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 52

quod insigne pacatorum esse consuerat, tamen id ipsum

sul fallendi causa milites ab hostibus factum existimabant.

Eodem tempore L. Fabius centurio, qulque una murum

ioascenderant, circumventl atque interfectl, muro praecipita-

bantur.

TJie heroic self-sacrifice of Marcus Petronius.

M. Petronius, eiusdem legionis centurio, cum portas ex-
cldere conatus esset, a multitudine oppressus ac sibi de-
sperans, multis iam vulneribus acceptis, manipularibus
15 suis, qui ilium secutl erant,

' Quoniam,' inquit, ' me una v5blscum servare non pos-
sum, vestrae quidem certe vitae prospiciam, quos, cupiditate
gloriae adductus, in periculum deduxi. Vos, data facultate,
vobis consulite.'
20 Simul in medios hostes irrupit duobusque interfectls re-
liquos a porta paulum summovit. Conantibus auxiliari
suis,

' Frustra,' inquit, ' meae vitae subvenire conamini, quern



Online LibraryJulius CaesarC. Iulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum. Caesar's Commentaries: the Gallic war, books I-Iv, with selections from books V-VII and from the civil war; → online text (page 33 of 73)