Julius Caesar.

C. Iulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum. Caesar's Commentaries: the Gallic war, books I-Iv, with selections from books V-VII and from the civil war; online

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iam sanguis viresque deficiunt. Proinde abite, dum est
25 facultas, vosque ad legi5nem recipite.'

Ita pugnans, post paulum concidit ac suis saluti fuit.

7. quod, etc. : ' the customary sign indicating those at peace.' How
lit.?

8. sul: 154, b. B. 339, 5 ; A. 504, c\ H. 626, 3.

12. eiusdem legionis : the 8th ; see chap. 47, 1. 19. excidere :
<to hew down.'

14. manipularibus : dative after inquit.

16. Quoniam, etc.: 211, b, (2). m6 : 158, b. vobiscum :
125, c.

17. vestrae vitae, quos : * for the lives of you, whom. 1 How lit. ?
92, b, and 164, b.

23. meae vitae, quem : i. e. vitae met (genitive), quem.

25. vos: object of recipite. 158, b.

26. ac, etc. : 'and saved his men. 1 How lit. ? 112, b.



vii, 51] Caesar's Retirement from Gergovia 389



The Romans retire, with severe losses.

51. Nostri, cum undique premerentur, xlvi centurioni-
bus amissis, deiecti sunt loco. Sed intolerantius Gallos
Insequentes legio x tardavit, quae pro subsidio paulo ae-
quiore loco constiterat. Hanc rursus xiii legionis cohortes
exceperunt, quae, ex castris min5ribus eductae, cum T. s
Sextio legat5 ceperant locum superiorem. Legi5nes, ubi
primum planitiem attigerunt, infestis contra hostes signis
constiterunt. Vercingetorlx ab radicibus collis suos intra
muniti5nes reduxit.

E5 die milites sunt paulo minus dcc desiderati. ic

51. i. XLVI: quadrdginta sex. As the centurions led their men,
the percentage of casualties was proportionately much higher than
among the common soldiers (1. io).

2. deiecti sunt loco: 'were forced down from their position/
intolerantius : i with considerable violence. 1

3. paulo aequiore loco: see Map 15, 10th Legion, 3d Position.

6. locum superiorem: see Map 15, Sextius, 2d Position.

7. Infestis, etc. : i they halted and faced the enemy.' How lit. ?
325, and 144> b, (2). That the soldiers, swept down the slope by an
overwhelming force,, rallied even when supported by the 10th and 13th
legions, is all the more remarkable in view of the severe losses among
their officers.

10. DCC: septingenti. 129, b. If the losses among the common
soldiers had been in proportion to those among the centurions, the
number would have been considerably above two thousand.

52-56. Summary. , Caesar addressed his soldiers, rebuking them for not
obeying the order to halt, but nevertheless paying a tribute to their bravery.
Afterwards he drew up in battle order, but Vercingetorix did not come down
to tight. Caesar retired from Gergovia, and recrossed the Elaver (Allier), to
the east side.

Two prominent Aeduans, who had heretofore been loyal to Caesar, now
left him, and joined their countrymen in declaring for Vercingetorix; they
destroyed Caesar's supplies at Noviodunum (Nevers), burning the town.
Caesar pushed rapidly northward, and forded the Liger {Loire) in the face
of the enemy.



390



Caesar's Gallic War



[B.C. 52



General Uprising, with Vercingetorix in Command. 63-68

The Aeduans lead; Vercingetorix assumes command.

63. Defectione Aeduorum cognita, bellum augetur.
Legationes in omnes partes circummittuntur ; quantum
gratia, auctoritate, pecunia valent, ad sollicitandas civitates
nituntur ; nacti obsides, quos Caesar apud eos deposuerat,
5 horum supplicio dubitantes territant. Petunt a Vercinge-
torige AeduT, ut ad se veniat rationesque belli gerendi
communicet. Re impetrata contendunt, ut ipsls summa
imperii tradatur, et, re in contr5versiam deducta, totius
Galliae concilium Bibracte indlcitur.
10 Eodem conveniunt undique frequentes. Multitudinis
suffrages res permittitur ; ad unum omnes Vercingetorlgem
probant imperatorem.

Ab hoc concilia Rem!, Lingones, Treveri af uerunt : illi,

57-62. Summary. While Caesar was engaged in the operations about
Gergovia and in checking the first attempts of the revolting Aeduans, Labienus
with four legions advanced from Agedincum (modern Sens) toward the north-
west and captured Metlosedum (Me/un ; Map 13). Thence he proceeded to
the neighborhood of Lutecia, a town of the Parisii on an island in the Seine,
which forms the heart of modern Paris (Fig. 133). He defeated the Parisii
and their allies in battle, and marching sou'h rejoined Caesar (at 9 on Map 13).

63. 1. Dgfectione AeduSrum : the Aeduans, after much dissen-
sion, had finally cast in their lot
with Vercingetorix.

2. circummittuntur: 'were
sent in all directions ' by the
Aeduans. quantum, etc. : ' to
the limit of their influence.'

5. dubitantSs territant : cf.
chap. 4, 11. 25-30 and NN.

6. rationfis, etc. : ' work out
the plan of campaign with (them)/
See Fig. 41, p. 42.




Figure 133. — Coin of the Parisii.
Gold. Fanciful designs.

9. Bibracte ; 1^5, &> and 10, c.



13. illi; <the former,' including both the Remi and the Lingones.



VII, 64]



Vercingetorix in Command



391



quod amlcitiam Romandrum sequebantur ; Treveri, quod
aberant longius et a Germanis premebantur, quae fuit 15
causa, quare toto abessent bello et neutris auxilia mitterent.

Magno dolore Aedui ferunt se deiectos principatu,
queruntur fortunae commutationem et Caesaris in se in-
dulgentiam requirunt, neque tamen, suscepto bello, suum
consilium ab reliquls separare audent. Invitl summae 20
spei adulescentes, Eporedorix et Viridomarus, Vercinge-
torlgi parent.

64. I lie imperat reliquls civitatibus obsides itemque el
rei constituit diem ; omnes equites, xv mllia numero, celeri-
ter convenire iubet. Peditatu, quern antea habuerit, se,
fore contentum dlcit, neque fortunam temptaturum aut in
acie dimicaturum ; 5

Sed y quoniam abundet equitdtu, perfacile esse factil fru-
mentdtionibus pdbuldtionibusque Romdnos prohibere; aequo
modo animo sua ipsl frumenta corrumpant acdificiaque in-
cendant, qua ret familiaris iacturd perpetuum imperium
libertatemque se consequi videant. 10



16. toto bello: 14.7, c. abessent: 'they held aloof.'

17. se deiectos [esse] principatu: 'that they had been forced



out of their position of leadership

19. indulgentiam : 'favor. 1

20. Invitl: 'Unwillingly.'
summae spei : ' of the greatest prom-
ise. 1 100, a.

64. 1 . Ille : Vercingetorix. el
rei : the delivery of the hostages to him.

3. Peditatu: 135, a. B. 219, 1.

4. neque . . . videant : the policy
of Vercingetorix was to avoid a decisive
battle with infantry.

6. friimentationibus :
ting grain. 1

9. qua .
this sacrifice of property.'



I cf. VI, 12, 11. 27-28.

requirunt: 'they greatly misccd.
151.




Figure 134. — Coin of the

Senones.

Bronze. Fanciful designs taken

from get- from animals ; reverse, wolf and boar.

On the obverse, four Greek letters,

. . . ArHA, abbreviation of Agedillus or

lactura: 'since by sorn e similar name.



392 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 52

His constitutes rebus, Aeduis Segusiavisque, qui sunt
finitiml provinciae, x milia peditum imperat; hue addit
equites dccc. His praeficit fratrem Eporedorigis bellum-
que Inferrl Allobrogibus iubet. Altera ex parte Gabalos

15 proximosque pagos Arvernorum in Helvios, item Rutenos
Cadurcosque ad fines Volcarum Arecomicorum depopu-
landos mittit. Nihilo minus clandestlnis nuntiis legationi-
busque Allobrogas sollicitat, quorum mentes nondum ab
superi5re bello resedisse sperabat. Horum principibus pe-

20 cunias, clvitati autem imperium totlus provinciae pollicetur.

Caesar takes account of his forces, sends for German cavalry.

65. Ad hos omnes casus provisa erant praesidia cohor-
tium duarum et viginti, quae, ex ipsa coacta provincia ab
L. Caesare legato, ad omnes partes opponebantur. Helvii
sua sponte cum finitimis proelio congressi pelluntur et,
5 C. Valerio Donnotauro, Caburi filio, principe civitatis,
compluribusque aliis interfectls, intra oppida murosque
compelluntur. Allobroges, crebrls ad Rhodanum disposi-
tis praesidiis, magna cura et dlligentia suos fines tuentur.

Caesar, quod hostes equitatu superiores esse intellege-

10 bat et, interclusis omnibus itineribus, nulla re ex provincia

atque Italia sublevari poterat, trans Rhenum in Germa-

niam mittit ad eas civitates, quas superioribus annis paca-

verat, equitesque ab his arcessit et levis armaturae pedites,

12. provinciae: 290. hue: for his, 'to these.'

15. Helvios : west of the Rhone ; see Map Gallia.

19. superiore bello : the uprising of the Allobroges in 61 B.C.

65. 1. Ad hos omnes casus : « To meet all these conditions. '

3. ad . . . opponebantur: 'were posted to secure every point.'

5. Caburi filio: see I, 47, 11. 10-13. principe :* first magistrate.'

6. intra, etc. : 'into their fortified towns and behind walls.'
10. interclusis, etc.: 'since all the roads were blocked.'

12. eas clvitatgs: the Ubii were friendly to Caesar (IV, 16, 11.
19-20) ; what other German states are here referred to we do not know
superioribus annis \ 55 and 53 b. c. (IV, 16-19, and VI » 9- 28 )-



MAP 16

Victory of Caesar over Vercingetorix
Book VII, 66-68 To face page 3Q2




Scale of English Miles.



Scale of Roman Miles.



3 4



EXPLANATION

Vercingetorix drew up his infantry in front of his three camps, on the bank of
a river, and ordered his cavalry to attack Caesar's army, which was marching
toward the river on the opposite side.

Caesar's legionaries, though surprised, held their own until finally the German
cavalry in Caesar's employ hurled back the Gallic cavalry, which suffered complete
defeat.



vii, 66] Vercingetorix in Command 393

qui inter eos proelian consuerant. Eorum adventu, quod
minus idoneis equis utebantur, a tribunis mllitum reliquls- is
que equitibus Romanls atque evocatis equos sumit Ger-
manisque distribuit.

Vercingetorix encamps near Caesar, addresses his troops.

66. Interea, dum haec geruntur, hostium copiae ex
Arvernis equitesque, qui toti Galliae erant imperatl, conve-
niunt. Magno horum coact5 numero, cum Caesar in Se-
quanos per extremos Lingonum fines iter faceret, quo
facilius subsidium provinciae ferri posset, circiter mllias
passuum x ab Romanls trims castris Vercingetorix con-
sedit, convocatisque ad concilium praefectis equitum,
venisse tempus victoriae demonstrat :

Fugere in provinciam Romdnos Gallidqite excedere. Id
sibi ad praesentem obtinendam libertdtem satis esse ; ad io
reliqiii temporis pdcem atqice otiurn parum profici ; maiori-
bus enim codctls copiis reversuros neque flnem bellandl
facturos.

Proinde in agmine impedltos adoriantur. Si pedites suls

14. qui . . consuerant : in the manner previously described (I,
48, 11. 12-20). Caesar had previously had a division of German cavalry.

15. minus idoneis equis : cf. IV, 2, 11. 3-7, and p. xxviii.

66. 1 . dum, etc. : while Caesar was collecting forces from the
Province and from Germany. 190, a.

4. extremos Lingonum fines : * the most distant (part of the)
country of the Lingones ' ; i.e. the southeastern part, < most distant ' from
Agedincum, chief city of the Senones (Fig. 134), which was Caesar's
principal base for the operations of 52 B.C. See Map 13.

6. trinis castris: marked V, V, V, on Map 16, which represents
the location as fixed by Napoleon, about 40 miles northeast of Dijon.
The battle was probably fought north of Dijon, and much nearer ; but
Napoleon's plan indicates the relative positions clearly. trims : 37, e.

9. Fugere, etc. : 213, b. Id : the retreat to the Province.

12. reversuros [esse] : sc. Romdnos.

14. impedltos : sc. ^^ { = Romdnos). If the legionaries, thus caught
at a disadvantage, should attempt to defend the baggage-train, their



394 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 52

15 auxilium ferant atque in eo morentur, iterfacere iwn posse ;
si, id quod magis futurum confldat, relictis impediments
suae saluti consulant, et usfi rerum necessdridrum et digni-
tdte spolidtum iri. Nam de equitibus Jiostium, quin nemo
eorum progredl modo extra agmen audeat, ne ipsos quidem

20 debere dubitdre.

Id quo maiore faciant animo, copids se omnes pro castris
habiturum et terrorl hostibus futurum.

N Conclamant equites, sanctissimo iure iurando confirmari
oportere, ne tect5 recipiatur, ne ad llberos, ne ad parentes,

25 ne ad uxorem aditum habeat, qui non bis per agmen hos-
tium perequitarit.

The cavalry of Vercingetorix is defeated by Caesar's cavalry.

67. Probata re atque omnibus iure iurando adactis,

postero die, in tres partes distributo equitatu, duae se acies

ab du5bus lateribus ostendunt, una a primo agmine iter

impedire coepit. Qua re nuntiata, Caesar suum quoque

sequitatum, tripertito di visum, contra hostem ire iubet.

Pugnatur una omnibus in partibus. Consistit agmen ;
impedimenta intra legiones recipiuntur. Si qua in parte

retreat would be stopped ; if they should abandon the baggage-train and
try to defend only themselves, they would be cut off from their supplies.

1 8. dignitate spoliatum iri : 'would be despoiled of their pres-
tige.' hostium : the Romans.

SI. Id faciant : < That they might make the attack. 1 How lit. ?

23. Iure iurando : explained by the ^/-clauses following. Cf. p.
446, 11. 16-19, an d N. 13, h.

24. recipiatur: cf. qui in 1. 25, '(the man) who.'

67. 1. iure iurando : the oath given in 11. 23-26 above.

2. duae acies. una [acies] : the three divisions of Gallic cavalry,
marked g, g, g, on Map 16.

3. lateribus, primo agmine : 'flanks,' 'van,' of the Romans.

5. equitatum, tripertito divisum : marked e, e, e, on Map 16.
7. impedimenta, etc. : each legion formed a hollow square (orhis.
888) about its baggage {328). Caesar was surprised.



vii, 68] Vercingetorix Defeated 395

nostri laborare aut gravius premi videbantur, eo signa In-
ferrl Caesar aciemque constitui iubebat ; quae res et hostes
ad Insequendum tardabat et nostros spe auxilii con-io
firmabat.

Tandem German! ab dextro latere summum iugum nacti
hostes loco depellunt; fugientes usque ad flumen, ubi Ver-
cingetorix cum pedestribus copils consederat, persequuntur
compluresque internciunt. Qua re animadversa, reliqui, 15
ne circumirentur, veritl, se fugae mandant. Omnibus
locls fit caedes.

Tres nobilissiml Aedul capti ad Caesarem perducuntur :
Cotus, praefectus equitum, qui controversiam cum Con-
victolitavl proximis comitiis habuerat, et Cavarillus, qui 20
post defectionem Litavicci pedestribus copils praefuerat,
et Eporedorlx, quo duce ante adventum Caesaris Aedul
cum Sequanls bello contenderant.

Vercingetorix and his army take refuge at Alesia.

68. Fugat5 omni equitatu, Vercingetorix copias suas,
ut pro castris collocaverat, reduxit protinusque Alesiam,
quod est oppidum Mandubiorum, iter facere coepit celeri-
terque impedimenta ex castris educl et se subsequl iussit.

Caesar, impedimentis in proximum collem deductis, dua-5
bus legionibus praesidio relictis, seciitus hostes, quantum
die! tempus est passum, circiter in milibus ex novissimo
agmine interfectis, altero die ad Alesiam castra fecit.

Perspecto urbis situ perterritisque hostibus, quod equitatu,
qua maxime parte exercitus confidebant, erant pulsi, adhor- 10
tatus ad laborem milites circumvallare instituit.

12. German!: from the favorable position which they had reached
on the height (x on Map 16) the German cavalry charged the Gallic
cavalry with irresistible momentum. Cf. chap. 70, 11. 5-10 ; 80, 11. 19-22.

14. pedestribus copils : Map 16, G, G, G.

68. 6. legionibus: abl. abs. with relictis. praesidio: 112, a.

8. altero die: = poster o die, 'the next day.' Cf. Map 13.



.396 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 52

The Siege and Fall of Alesia. 69-90
Caesar commences to surround Alesia with a line of works.

69. Ipsum erat oppidum Alesia in colle summo, ad-
modum edito loco, ut nisi obsidione expugnari non posse
videretur. Cuius collis radices duo duabus ex partibus
flumina subluebant.
5 Ante oppidum planities circiter milia passuum in in lon-
gitudinem patebat; reliquis ex omnibus partibus colles,
mediocri interiecto spatio, pari altitudinis fastigio oppidum
cingebant.

Sub muro, quae pars collis ad orientem solem spectabat,
iohunc omnem locum copiae Gallorum compleverant fos-
samque et maceriam in altitudinem vi pedum praeduxe-
rant.

Eius munitionis, quae ab Romanls instituebatur, circuitus

69. 1. Alesia, etc. : Alesia was situated on the top of an oval hill
now called Mont Auxois, a part of which is occupied by the village of
Alise-Ste-Reine (see Map 17). The highest point is more than 500
feet above the beds of the small streams on either side (Fig. 135).
The accuracy of Caesar's description has been attested by discoveries
made in the course of excavations in 1862-65, and since 1900.

Various objects found at Alesia are reproduced in this book; see
Figures 44, 49, 50, 138, 144, 190; cf. also Fig. 1.

2. obsidione: 840.

4. flumina: the Ose and the Oserain. subluebant: 'washed.'

5. planities : * the plain ' of Les Laumes (pronounced la 16m).

7. spatio : the average distance between the height of Alesia and
the tops of the surrounding hills is about a mile. pari, etc. : ' having
a like elevation.' How lit. ?

9. Sub muro, etc. : ' Below the wall,' on the side facing the east.

10. nunc omnem locum: * all the space.' 10(K </•

11. maceriam: 'wall of loose stones,' without mortar; Map 17.
13. Eius munitionis: 4 of the line of investment,' a series 6i

fortified camps, between which at intervals were the 'redoubts,'
cast el/a.



vii, 70] The Siege and Fall of Alesia



397



xi milia passuum tenebat. Castra opportunis locis erant
posita ibique castella xxni facta ; quibus in castellis interdiu 15
stationes ponebantur, ne qua subito eruptio fieret; haec
eadem noctu excubitoribus ac flrmis praesidils tenebantur.

Tlie Gauls attempt to stop the work, and are driven back.

70. Opere Instituto fit equestre proelium in ea pla-
nitie, quam, intermissam collibus, tria milia passuum in Ion-




Figure 135. — The hill of Alesia, as seen from the southeast.

14. tenebat: 'extended. 1 Castra: plural. The infantry camps
are those marked A, B, C, D on Map 17 ; the camps marked G, H, I, K
were probably occupied by cavalry.

16. stationes: 'outposts. 1

17. excubitoribus ac flrmis praesidils: 'by strong garrisons of
men in bivouac, 1 sleeping under arms in the open ; the redoubts were
fortified enclosures without tents. 238 d.

70. 2. intermissam collibus: 'free from hills/ lit. 'left off by
hills. 1



398 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 52

gitudinem patere supra demonstravimus. Summa vl ab

utrisque contenditur.
5 Laborantibus nostris Caesar Germanos summittit le-

gionesque pro castrls constituit, ne qua subito irruptio ab

hostium peditatu fiat. Praesidio legi5num addit5, nostris

animus augetur; hostes,in fugam coniecti, seipsi multitudine

impediunt atque angustioribus portls relictis coartantur.
10 German! acrius usque ad munitiones persequuntur. Fit

magna caedes ; n5n nulli, relictis equls, fossam transire et

maceriam transcendere conantur.

Paulum legiones Caesar, quas pr5 vallo constituerat,

promoverl iubet. Non minus, qui intra munitiones erant,
is Galli perturbantur ; venlri ad se confestim existimantes, ad

arma conclamant ; non nulli, perterritl, in oppidum irrumpunt.

VercingetorTx iubet portas claudi, ne castra nudentur.

Multls interfectis, compluribus equis captls, German! sese

recipiunt.

3. supra: chap. 69, 11. 5-8. Summa, etc. : 'Both sides fought
with their utmost strength.' How lit; ?

5. Laborantibus: 'hard pressed. 1 How lit.? Germanos:
mercenaries, consisting of cavalry, and light-armed troops, trained to
fight with them, brought from Germany to offset the superiority of
Vercingetorix in cavalry (chap. 65, 11. 9-17).

6. castrls: plural, as in chap. 69, 1 . 14. irruptio: 'attack. 1

7. Praesidio: 'support. 1 nostris: 109, a.

9. portls, etc. : 'gate-openings 1 in the wall of loose stones (chap. 69,
ll. io-ii ; a, b, c, on Map 17), ' (which had been) left rather narrow 1 ;
it is not probable that gates had been placed in the openings. co-
artantur : ' were jammed together. 1 852, a.

13. pro vallo : probably the rampart of the infantry camps alone
(A, B, C, D, on Map 17) is meant.

15. venlri: trans, 'that the Romans were coming. 1 78, d.

17. portas : here 'gates 1 of the town, through which panic-stricken
Gauls rushed, in the effort to escape from their threatened camp into
the city. castra : on the east side of Alesia, between the city wall
and the wall of loose stones.



Hi, 7i] The Siege and Fall of Alesia 399

Vercingetorix summons all Gaul to the rescue, and apportions
the available provisions.

71. Vercingetorix, prius quam munltiones ab Romanis
perficiantur, consilium capit, omnem ab se equitatum noctu
dimittere. Discedentibus mandat, ut suam quisque eorum
civitatem adeat omnesque, qui per aetatem arma ferre
possint, ad bellum cogant. Sua in illos merita proponit s
obtestaturque, ut suae salutis rationem habeant, neu se,
optime de communi libertate meritum, hostibus in cruciatum
dedant. Quod si indiligentiores fuerint, milia hominum
delecta lxxx una. secum interitura demonstrat ; ratione
initd, se exigue dierum xxx habere friimentum, sed paulo io
etiam longius tolerdri posse parcendo.

His datls mandatis, qua erat nostrum opus intermissum,
secunda vigilia silentio equitatum dimittit. Friimentum
omne ad se referri iubet; capitis poenam eis, qui non pa-
ruerint, c5nstituit; pecus, cuius magna erat copia a Man- is
dubils compulsa, viritim distribuit; friimentum parce et

71. 2. perficiantur: 189, b. B. 292; A. 551, b, N. 2 ; H. 605, 1.

3. Discedentibus: sc. eis (equitibus), implied in the preceding
equitatum.

4. omnes : object of cogant. per aetatem: 'by reason of age.'

7. meritum: participle; 'who had rendered most excellent service
in behalf of their common liberty. 1 How lit. ? _

8. Quod: 118, d. indiligentiores: 'too remiss.'

9. ratione inita : ' (he said that), having made calculation.' 213, b.
10 dierum XXX : * (to last) 30 days.' How lit. ? 100, a.

11. parcendo: 'by reducing the rations,' we should say. How
lit. ? 230, (4).

12. erat, etc. : 'there was a break in our line of works,' the contra-
vallation, which there had not been time to complete.

13. secunda vigilia : 242, c. Friimentum omne: in the city;
Vercingetorix put the inhabitants under martial law.

14. capitis poenam : ' the penalty of death.' paruerint : sub-
junctive in implied indirect discourse, as part of the notice given to the
Alesians.



400 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 52

paulatim metiri Tnstituit. C5pias omnes, quas pro oppido
collocaverat, in oppidum recipit. His rationibus auxilia
Galliae exspectare et bellum administrate parat.

Description of the inner line of Caesar's siege works.
72. Quibus rebus cognitis ex perf ugis et captivis, Caesar
haec genera munitionis instituit.

Fossam pedum xx derectis lateribus duxit, ut eius fossae
solum tantundem pateret, quantum summae fossae labra
5 distarent. Reliquas omnes munltiones ab ea fossa pedes
cccc reduxit, hoc consilio, quoniam tantum esset necessario
spatium complexus, nee facile totum opus corona mllitum
cingeretur, ne de imprdviso aut noctu ad munltiones multi-
tudo hostium advolaret, aut interdiu tela in nostros, operi
10 destinatos, conicere possent.

Hoc intermiss5 spatio, duas v fossas xv pedes latas, eadem

17. pro oppido : in the encampment on the east side.

72. 2. haec: 'the following.' 161, a. munitionis: 'works,'

together forming the contravallation, the purpose of which was to hem
in Vercingetorix and protect Caesar's forces against attack from within
(Map 17, Contravallation). 92, b.

3. Fossam, etc.: -a trench twenty feet (in width), with vertical
sides,' much harder for an enemy to fill and cross than the ordinary
triangular trench (333) ; it ran across the plain west of the town, be-
tween the Ose and the Oserain (Map 17, Trench 20 Feet Wide).

4. solum, etc. : ' the bottom was as broad as the distance between
the edges at the top.' How lit. ?

6. CCCC : quadringentos. The distance, as shown by excavation,
averages so much more than 400 Roman feet, that it has been suggested
that Caesar intended to write passns or passibus. hoc, etc. : i.e. hoc
consilio, ne, quoniam . . . cingeretur, de imprdviso . . . posse///.
esset — complexus, cingerStur : 220.

7. nee, etc. : * and the whole line of works could not easily be
manned with a continuous cordon of soldiers.' How lit.?

II. spatio: refers to pedes CCCC above. du5s fossSs : Map 17.
where it will be observed that the outer trench ran only to the edges
of the plain, while the inner trench was continued around the town,



MAP 17
The Siege of Alesia



Book VII, 69-90



To face page 400




SCALE OF ENGLISH MILES



SCALE OF ROMAN MILES



T



EXPLANATION

Caesar's lines of works about Alesia encompassed a circuit of 1 1 Roman miles
on the inside, 14 miles on the outside.



Online LibraryJulius CaesarC. Iulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum. Caesar's Commentaries: the Gallic war, books I-Iv, with selections from books V-VII and from the civil war; → online text (page 34 of 73)