Julius Caesar.

C. Iulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum. Caesar's Commentaries: the Gallic war, books I-Iv, with selections from books V-VII and from the civil war; online

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In the plain west of the city, and at other points where required, there were
two systems of defenses, one to protect Caesar's men against the attacks of Ver-
cingetorix in the city, the other as a defense against the relieving army.

Camps of infantry were probably located at A, B, C, D; of cavalry, at G, H, I,
K. The redoubts, castella (chap. 69), are numbered 1 to 23.

On the west, along the edge of the plain, a trench, or moat, 20 feet wide, with
vertical sides, was constructed (chap. 72, 11. 3-5). Further west, in this order,
'goads,' stimuli; 'wolf-holes,' lllia ; 'boundary posts,' cippl ; two V-shaped
'trenches,' fossae; 'rampart,' agger, and 'palisade,' vallus, with a 'breastwork,'
lSrlca, and ' battlements,' pinnae ; also ' towers,' turres, at intervals of 80 feet.
These defenses formed the line of contravallation (chap. 72-73).

The same defenses, in a reverse series, the ' goads ' being furthest outside, the
rampart inside, formed the line of circumvallation (chap. 74).

vii, 72] The Siege and Fall of Alesia 401

altitudine, perduxit ; quarum interiorem campestribus ac
demissis locis aqua, ex flumine derivata, complevit.

Post eas aggerem ac vallum xn pedum exstruxit. Huic
lorlcam pifinasque adiecit, grandibus cervis eminentibus ad 15
commissuras pluteorum atque aggeris, qui ascensum hos-
tium tardarent, et turres toto opere circumdedit, quae
pedes lxxx inter se distarent.

forming a part of the contra vallation. eadem altitudine : of the
same depth, 8 or 9 feet ; these trenches were V-shaped.

12. interiorem: sc. fossam. campestribus: 'in the plain.'

13. demissis: Mow.' flumine: the Oserain. derivata:
' drawn.' Silt, evidencing the action of running water, was found in
the inner trench.

14. Post eas : ' Behind these,' on the side away from the town.
aggerem : ' bank,' made of the earth thrown out of the nearer trench,
vallum : masculine, i palisade,' like the palisade of a camp (333).
XII pedum : measured from the surface of the ground beside the
'bank' to the top of the 'palisade.' Huic: singular because the
'bank 1 and the 'palisade' are thought of as forming one fortification;
'to this rampart.'

15. lorlcam: a 'breastwork,'* made by weaving supple branches
closely together on the exposed side of the palisade. pinnas : ' bat-
tlements,' covered with wickerwork and projecting above the palisade,
behind which the soldiers could find shelter after hurling their weapons
over the palisade. cervis : ' stags,' large limbs of trees and tops of
young trees, from which the foliage and twigs had been removed, the
branches being stripped of their bark and sharpened ; these were
planted along the bank at the foot of the palisade, projecting outwards
over the trench and towards the town (Plate IX, 1, the projecting
branches at the foot of the tower). eminentibus : 'projecting.'

16. ad commissuras, etc.: 'along the line where the wood con-
struction was fitted to the bank," 1 pluteorum here including the ' palisade '
(vd//us), the 'breastwork' (Idrica), and the 'battlements' (fiinnds).
How lit. ?

17. tardarent: 193, a. opere: 'the line of works.' quae,
etc. : 194, a.

18. pedes LXXX: artillery was mounted in the towers (chap. 81, 11.
14-15; chap. 82, 11. 1-5); the spaces between the towers could be


Caesar's Gallic War

[B.C. 52

73. Erat eodem tempore et materiari et frumentari ev
tantas munitiones fieri necesse,deminutis nostris copils, quae
longius a castrls progrediebantur ; ac non numquam opera
nostra Galli temptare atque eruptionem ex oppido pluri-
s bus portis summa vi facere conabantur. Quare ad haec
rursus opera addendum Caesar putavit, quo minore numero
militum munitiones defend! possent.

Itaque, truncis arborum aut admodum firmls ramls

abscisis, atque h5rum delibratis ac praeacutis cacuminibus,

ioperpetuae fossae quinos pedes altae ducebantur. Hue illi

stipites demissi, et ab infimo revincti, ne revelli possent,

covered also by hand-thrown missiles, in case the enemy should burst

through the palisade.

73. i. Erat — necesse : as subject materiari (Fig. 136) and

friimentari are coordinated with munitiones fieri ; 'it was necessary
both to get timber and to secure grain and
to carry on the construction of these ex-
tensive fortifications.' 1 How lit.?

2. deminutis, etc. : ' with (consequent)
weakening of our forces. 1 How lit.?

3. longius: the supplies of timber and
grain near the camp were soon exhausted.

6. addendum [esse] : ' that an addition
ought to be made.' 73> e.

8. admodum firmls ramls : 'very
large limbs,' probably not less than four
or five inches in diameter.

9. horum, etc. : ' the ends (of their
branches) barked and sharpened to a point.'

10. perpetuae : 'continuous,' running
parallel with the rampart, at the points
where needed, on the side toward the town.
quinos: distributive; 'each five feet deep.'

36. Hue: 'Into these,' the parallel trenches. ill! stipitgs : 'the
stocks ' of trees, prepared as described. 160, d.

1 1 . revincti : ' fastened down ' ; how the stocks were fastened at
the bottom we do not know. ab infimo : 126, c, and 164, <*•








'M' 'jfcyAtG


Figure 136. — A Roman
soldier cutting timber.

vii, 73] The Siege and Fall of Alesia 403

ab ramis eminebant. Quinl erant ordines, coniunctl inter
se atque implicati ; qu5 qui intraverant, se ipsi acutissimis
vallis induebant. Hds cippos appellabant.

Ante hos, obliquis ordinibus in qulncuncem dispositis, is
scrobes in altitudinem trium pedum fodiebantur, paulatim
angustiore ad infimum fastigio. Hue teretes stipites femi-
nis crassitudine, ab summo praeacuti et praeusti, demitte-
bantur ita, ut non amplius digitis mi ex terra eminerent ;
simul, conflrmandl et stabiliendl causa, singuli ab Infimo 2 c
solo pedes terra exculcabantur ; reliqua pars scrobis ad

12. ab, etc.: 'had their branches' (these having been barked
and sharpened) 'projecting 1 above the ground. How lit.? 126, c.
Quinl ordines: 'five rows,' one in 'each (trench) 1 ; cf. Plate IX, i.

13. implicati: 'interwoven, 1 the parallel trenches being near to-
gether, quo, etc. : ' and any who tried to enter these 1 rows of
branches, corresponding with the barbed wire entanglements of modern
fortifications. How lit.?

14. vallis : ' points. 1 se induebant : ' would pierce themselves. 1
cippos : ' boundary posts, 1 jestingly named from their resemblance to
the firmly set stocks of trees and posts used by surveyors to mark
boundaries, especially in regions where boundary posts of stone were
hard to procure. appellabant: ' the soldiers called. 1 172, c.

15. Ante : ' In front of, 1 on the side toward the town. obliquis,
etc. : 'in slanting rows having a quincuncial arrangement. 1 How lit.?

16. scrobes: 'holes. 1 fodiebantur: 'were dug. 1 57, b.

17. angustiore, etc.: 'the side gradually narrowing toward the
bottom, 1 like a funnel. How lit.? Hue: 'Into these. 1 teretgs :
'smooth. 1 feminis crassitudine: 'of the thickness of a thigh. 1
18, d, and 14s, a.

18. ab, etc. : 'sharpened at the top and hardened (at the point) by
burning. 1

19. amplius, etc. : 'more than four finger-breadths, 1 about equiva-
lent to three inches. 243, a.

20. stabiliendl, etc.: 'to g : ve them a solid setting. 1 How lit.?
singuli, etc. : ' earth was packed about them by treading, to the depth
of a foot from the bottom, 1 lit. ' feet in each case from the bottom were
trodden with earth. 1 Cf. Figures 1 and 2.


Caesar's Gallic War

fB.C. 53

occultandas insidias viminibus ac virgultis integebatur.
Huius generis octoni ordines ducti ternos inter se pedes
distabant. Id, ex similitudine floris, lilium appellabant.
25 Ante haec taleae, pedem longae, ferrels harms Infixis,
totae in terram infodiebantur, mediocribusque intermis-
sls spatiis, omnibus locis disserebantur, quos stimulos

Caesar completes a similar outer line of works.

74. His rebus perfectls, regiones secutus quam potuit
aequissimas pro loci natura, xiiii mllia passuum com plexus



" goad,'

137. — A

a. Wooden block,
talea, in which the
barbed hook was set.

b. Barbed hook, of

the st;

insidias: ^ the pitfall. 1 integebatur: < was covered up. 1
octoni ordines : ' eight rows in each case, 1 wherever the wolf-
holes were used ; they were not needed at all points
of the contravallation.

24. floris : 13, c. lilium : ' lily, 1 the name being
suggested by the appearance of the stalk of the lily
rising from its funnel-shaped
circlet of leaves ; now "wolf-
pit 11 or "wolf-hole. 11 .

25. taleae: 'blocks 1
(Fig. 137). ferrels, etc. :
* with barbed hooks, of iron,
set in.'

26. infodiebantur, etc. :
' were buried in the earth, 1
only the barbed iron pro-
jecting. How lit.?

27. disserebantur : < were planted here
and there. 1 Several of the irons have been
found (Fig. 138). stimulos: < goads, 1 so

called from the likeness of the projecting points
to the sharp end of a goad.

74. 1. regiongs, etc. :' following a course
over the most nearly level stretches that the configuration of the country
afforded. 1 How lit.?

2. complexus : participle; -he embraced (a circuit of) fourteen
miles and. 1 228, a.

Figure 138. — Barbed

Barbed iron hooks, found
at Alesia. The wooden blocks
had rotted away.

vii, 75] The Siege and Fall of Alesia 405

pares eiusdem generis munitiones, diversas ab his, contra
exteriorem hostem perfecit, ut ne magna quidem multitu-
dine, si ita accidat, munitionum praesidia circumf undi pos- 5
sent ; ac ne cum periculo ex castris egredi cogatur, dierum
xxx pabulum frumentumque habere omnes convectum

The Gauls gather a great army for the relief of Alesia.

75. Dum haec ad Alesiam geruntur, Galli, concilio prin-
cipum indicto, non omnes, qui arma ferre possent, ut
censuit Vercingetorix, convocandos statuunt, sed certum
numerum cuique civitati imperandum, ne, tanta multitu-
dine confusa, nee moderarl nee discernere suos nee frumen-5
tandi rationem habere possent.

Imperant Aeduls atque eorum clientibus, Segusiavis,
Ambivaretis, Aulercis Brannovlcibus, mllia xxxv; parem

3. pares: 'corresponding. 1 diversas: 'facing in the opposite
direction ' from the inner line of works ; see Map 17, Circumvallation.

4. exteriorem hostem : a relieving force. A view of a section
of the outer works is shown in Fig. I . multitudine : sc. hostium.

5. si, etc.: si magna multitudo venial. circumfundi: 'be
completely surrounded.'

6. ex castris egredi : in order to secure forage and grain.

7. XXX : cf. chap. 71, 1. 10,
and N. omnes: * all , his forces.
convectum: 'collected.' 229, a.

75. 1. ad: 120, a. Galli,

etc. : in response to the appeal
of Vercingetorix (chap. 71).

4. ne, etc. : < (fearing) that . . . Figure i 39 ._Coin of the Aulerci
they would not be able either to Cenomani.

manage (it) or . . . or.' tanta, Gold> Reverse, human headed horse

etc.: ' if SO enormous a host should gallopingover a prostrate man. The driver
be massed together.' 144, b, (4). above holds a branch, perhaps of mistletoe.

5. frumentandi, etc. : 'to make systematic provision for supplying

7. clientibus: 'dependent states.'

406 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 52

numerum Arvernis, adiunctis Eleutetls, Cadurcis, Gaballs,

ioVellavils, qui sub imperio Arvernorum esse consuerunt ;
Sequanis, Senonibus, Biturigibus, Santonis, Rutenis, Car-
nutibus duodena milia ; Bellovacls x ; totidem Lemovici-
bus ; octona Pictonibus et Turonis et Parlsiis et Helvetils ;
sena Andibus, Ambianis, Medio matricls, Petrocoriis, Ner-

isvils, MorinTs, Nitiobrogibus ; quinque milia Aulercls Ceno-
manis ; totidem Atrebatibus ; mi Veliocassis ; Aulercls
Eburovicibus in ; Rauracis et Boiis blna : xxx universis
civitatibus, quae Oceanum attingunt quaeque edrum con-
suetudine Aremoricae appellantur, quo sunt in numero

20 Coriosolites, Redones, Ambibarii, Caletes, Osisrni, Veneti,
Lexovii, Venelli.

Ex his Bellovaci suum numerum non compleverunt, quod
se suo nomine atque arbitrio cum Romanis bellum gestu-
ros dlcerent neque cuiusquam imperio obtemperaturos ;

25rogati tamen a Commio, pro eius hospitio duo milia una

12. duodena milia : ' twelve thousand each,' or 72,000 for these
six states. The total levy, amounting to 287,000 men, shows that after
six years of war the population of Gaul must have been considerably
larger than is ordinarily supposed. The population, in Caesar's time,
of the territory west of the Rhine has been estimated as high as " 20 to
30 millions."

15. Aulercls Cgnomanis : Fig. 139.

21. Venelli: in the list of revolting states we do not find the
Remi and the Lingones, who remained friendly, nor the Treverans,
who were pressed by the Germans (chap. 63, 11. 13-17), nor the
Aquitanian states.

22. numerum: * contingent. , quod . . . dlcerent: 183, b.

23. su6, etc. : 'on their own responsibility and in their own way.'
How lit.?

25. pro eius hospitiS : 'in consideration of their relations of hos-
pitality with him 1 ; N. to I, 31, 1. 23. una : 'at the same time'
with the other states.

vii, 76] The Siege and Fall of Alesia


Commius, Viridomarus, Eporedorix, and Vercassivellaunus are
placed in command of the Gallic army of relief.

76. Huius opera Commii, ut antea demonstravimus,
fideli atque utill superioribus annis erat usus in Britannia
Caesar ; quibus ille pro meritis civitatem eius immunfem
esse iusserat, iura legesque reddiderat atque ipsi Morinos
attribuerat. Tanta tamen universae Galliae consensio f uit 5
libertatis vindicandae, et pristinae belli laudis recuperandae,
ut neque beneficiis. neque amicitiae memoria moverentur,
omnesque et animo et opibus in id bellum incumberent.

Coactis equitum mllibus vin et peditum circiter ccl,
haec in Aeduorum flnibus recensebantur, numerusque io
inibatur, praefecti constituebantur ; Commio Atrebati,

76. 1 . Commii : after the final defeat of the Gauls Commius seems
to have established himself as a ruler in Britain, and to have left sons
who were rulers, who issued coins in
imitation of Roman coins struck near
the beginning of the Empire. Three
sons of Commius are named on coins,
Verica or Virica, Tincommius, and
Eppillus (294, and Fig. 140).

3. quibus, etc. : trans, as if et
. - j- ■.- . .... ,1 Figure 140. British coin, struck

pro his mentis. civitatem : the &

A . . , r c by a son of Commius.

Atrebates. immunem : 'free from '

tribute.' Apparently, as implied also Gold ; dated about the beginning of

, _ /,. , , A the Christian era. Inscription: VIR

by iura legesque reddiderat, the Atre- [ica] rex com[mi] f[ilius]i . Viricai

bates had become a dependency of king, son of Commius.'

some other state.

4. ipsi: to Commius ; the Morini had been hard to manage.

5. Tanta, etc. : ' So strong was the common purpose of entire Gaul
to recover its liberty.'

7. moverentur: the subject is implied in Galliae-, 'men were in-

8. -que: 'but.' 234, o. incumberent: 'were devoting them-

10. recensebantur : ' were reviewed ' ; we say ' mobilized.'

408 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 52

Viridomar5 et Eporedorigl Aeduis, Vercassivellauno Ar-
verno, consobrino Vercingetorigis, summa imperil traditur.
His delecti ex clvitatibus attribuuntur, quorum consilio

is bellum administraretur.

Omnes alacres et fiduciae plenl ad Alesiam proficlscuntur ;
neque erat omnium quisquam, qui aspectum modo tantae
multitudinis sustineri posse arbitraretur, praesertim ancipiti
proelio, cum ex oppido eruptione pugnaretur, forls tantae

20 copiae equitatus peditatusque cernerentur.

Tlie Gallic force in Alesia faces starvation; Critognatus pro-
poses to sustain life by eating the non-combatants.

77. At ei, qui Alesiae obsidebantur, praeterita die,
qua auxilia suorum exspectaverant, c5nsumpto omni
frumentd, Insch, quid in Aeduis gereretur, concilio coacto
de exitu suarum fortunarum consultabant. Ac variis dic-
s tis sententiis, quarum pars deditidnem, pars, dum vires
suppeterent, eruptionem censebat, non praetereunda oratio
CritognatT videtur propter eius singularem et nefariam

Hie, summo in ArvernTs ortus loco et magnae habitus
10 auctoritatis,

13. consobrino: 'cousin.' summa imperii: the commander-
in-chief, Vercingetorix, was shut up in Alesia.

14. delecti: 'men chosen'; delegates, forming a kind of general
staff. quorum consilio: 'in accordance with whose counsel.'
193, a.

16. fiduciae: 'confidence.' ad: 'for.' 120, a.

18. ancipiti proelio : 'with fighting on two sides.'

19. foris : ' on the outer side.'

77. 1. Alesiae: 146. praeterita dig : the limit of 30 days had
passed (chap. 71, 1. 10). 21, a.

6. suppeterent: subjunctive in implied indirect discourse. 21 4> t>-

7. vidStur, etc.: sc. ///////; 'the speech of Critognatus should not,
I think, be passed over.' nefariam : 'atrocious.'

9. loco : 128, a. magnae auctoritatis : 100, b.

vii, 77] The Siege and Fall of Alesia


' Nihil,' inquit, ' de e5rum sententia dicturus sum, qui
turpissimam servitutem deditionis nomine appellant; neque
hos habendos clvium loco neque ad concilium adhibendos
censeo. Cum his mihi res sit, qui eruptionem probant;
quorum in consilio, omnium vestrum consensu, pristinae
residere virtutis memoria videtur. Animi est ista mollitia,
n5n virtus, paulisper inopiam ferre non posse. Qui se
ultro mortl offerant, facilius reperiuntur, quam qui dolorem
patienter ferant.

Figure 141. — Alise-Ste-Reine, the modern city on the site of Alesia.
The point against the sky-line at the left is the statue of Vercingetorix (Fig. 142).

II. Nihil, etc. : 211, b, (3), and 280.

14. Cum, etc. : ' Let me deal (only) with those. 1 180, b.

15. omnium, etc: i according to the common feeling of you all.'
97, c, and 138.

16. residere — videtur: l is seen to linger.' ista: for istud, ad-
dressed to those who would risk all by an immediate sortie, explained
by the appositional infinitive &a.v&Q. paulisper . . . posse ; ; that is lack
of resolution on your part.' 160, a, and e.

18. offerant: 194, a. reperiuntur: sc. ei. quam: quam el.

410 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 52

20 ' Atque ego hanc sententiam probarem (tantum apud me
dignitas potest), si nullam praeterquam vltae nostrae iactu-
ram fieri viderem ; sed in consili5 capiendo omnem Galliam
respiciamus, quam ad nostrum auxilium concijavimus.
Quid, hominum mllibus lxxx uno loco interfectls, propin-

25 quis consanguineisque nostris animi fore existimatis, si
paene in ipsis cadaveribus proelio decertare cogentur ?
Nolite hos vestrd auxili5 exspoliare, qui vestrae salutis
causa suum periculum neglexerunt, nee stultitia ac temeri-
tate vestra aut animi imbecillitate omnem Galliam proster-

3onere et perpetuae servituti subicere.

1 An, quod ad diem non venerunt, de eorum fide con-
stantiaque dubitatis ? Quid ergo ? Romanos in illis
ulterioribus muniti5nibus animine causa cotidie exerceri
putatis ? Si illorum nuntiis confirmari non potestis, omni

35 aditu praesaepto, his utimini testibus, appropinquare eorum

20. ego : 87, b. hanc sententiam : in favor of a sortie. tan-
tum, etc. : 'so great weight does the standing (of its advocates) carry
with me.'

21 . iacturam : ' loss ' ; nullam iacturam praeterquam vltae nostrae
(Jacturam) .

23. respiciamus: 180, a. concitavimus : 'we have sum-
moned. 1

24. Quid — animi: ' what feelings.' mllibus LXXX : the number
of the army of Vercingetorix, not counting the inhabitants of Alesia
(chap. 7i>l-9)-

27. Nolite — exspoliare: 'do not rob.' 181,6. auxilio : 127, a.
qui, etc.: the relieving force.

28. stultitia, etc. : ' by your folly and rashness or weakness of reso-
lution, utterly cast down.'

31. An: 179, a, (2). B. 162, 4, a; A. 335, <*; H. 380, 3. v6nS-
runt: 176, a.

33. animi causa : ' for the sake of amusement.' -ne : 179, a, (1).
exercSri : 'are exerting themselves.' 174-

34. illorum : the Gallic forces on the way.

35. praesaepto: 'shut off.' his : the Romans.

vii, 77] The Siege and Fall of Alesia 411

adventum ; cuius rei timore exterriti, diem noctemque in
opere versantur.

' Quid ergo mel consilii est ? Facere, quod nostri ma-
iores nequaquam pari bell5 Cimbrorum Teutonumque fece-
runt ; qui in oppida compulsi ac simill inopia subacti, 4°
eorum corporibus, qui aetate ad bellum inutiles videbantur,
vitam toleraverunt neque se hostibus tradiderunt. Cuius
rei si exemplum n5n haberemus, tamen Hbertatis causa
InstituI et posterls prodi pulcherrimum iudicarem.

1 Nam quid ill! simile bello fuit ? Depopulate Gallia, 45
Cimbrf, magnaque illata calamitate, flnibus quidem nostris
aliquando excesserunt atque alias terras petierunt ; iura,
leges, agros, Hbertatem nobis reliquerunt. RomanI vero
quid petunt aliud aut quid volunt, nisi, invidia adductl,
quos fama nobiles potentesque bello cognoverunt, horum 50
in agrls civitatibusque considere atque his aeternam iniun-
gere servitutem ? Neque enim umquam alia condicione
bella gesserunt. Quod si ea, quae in longinquis nati5nibus
geruntur, igndratis, respicite finitimam Galliam, quae, in

38. Quid, etc.: ' What, then, is my proposal?' Facere: i.e.
meum consilium est facere.

39. Cimbrorum: i with the Cimbrians 1 and Teutons ; N. to 1,33,1. 17.

40. subacti: ' reduced to straits.'

42. Cuius, etc. : 'And if we had no precedent for such a course.'
How lit. ?

44. InstituI: sc. exemplum, 'that a precedent be established.'
pulcherrimum: 'a. most noble thing.' 28, a.

45. quid, etc.: 'what resemblance had that war to the present
one?' How lit.? Depopulate : 59, b.

49. invidia: 'envy.'

50. fama nobiles potentesque bello : 239, c.

51. iniungere : 'to fasten upon,' as a yoke is fastened upon

52. alia condicione: 'on (any) other principle.'

54. finitimam Galliam : ' the neighboring (part of Gaul) .'
152, &.

412 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 52

55pr6vinciam redacta, iure et legibus commutatis, securibus
subiecta, perpetua* premitur servitude.'

The residents of Alesia with wives and children are driven
outside the walls; Caesar refuses to receive them.

78. Sententils dictls, constituting ut el, qui valetudine
aut aetate inGtiles sint bell5, oppido excedant, atque omnia
prius experiantur, quam ad CritognatI sententiam descen-
dant ; Hid tamen potins utendum consilio, si res cogat atque

sauxilia morentur, quam aut deditionis aut pads subeundam

Mandubii, qui eos oppido receperant, cum liberls atque

uxoribus exire coguntur. Hi, cum ad munitiones Roma-

norum accessissent, flentes omnibus precibus orabant, ut

10 se in servitutem receptos cib5 iuvarent. At Caesar,

dispositis in vallo custodils, recipl prohibebat.

The cavalry of the Gallic army of relief attacks fiercely, is repulsed.

79. Interea Comniius reliquique duces, quibus summa
imperii permissa erat, cum omnibus copiis ad Alesiam
perveniunt et, colle exteriore occupato, non longius mille
passibus ab nostris munitionibus considunt.

55. securibus: 'the axes 1 of the lictors, symbols of authority; see
Plate II, 4.

78. 1. valgtudine : ' by reason of health/

5. subeundam [esse] condicionem: 'submit to terms.''
7. Mandubii: the inhabitants of Alesia and those who had fled
into the city from the surrounding country.

10. s§ — receptos :< receive them — and.' 228, a.

11. recipl: sc. eos. Cast out by Vercingetorix and rejected by
Caesar, the women and children and men unfit for war perished miser-
ably in the spaces between the town walls and the Roman contravalla-
tion. Caesar's army at the time was suffering from lack of supplies
(C. 111,47,11. 16-21). 223, a.

79. 1. Commius: chap. 76,1. I. duc6s : chap. 76. 11. 11-13.
3. colle exteriore: southwest of Alesia; see Map 17, Encamp-
ment of Gallic Relieving Army.

vii, 80] The Siege and Fall of Alesia 413

Postero die, equitatu ex castrls educto, omnem earn
planitiem, quam in longitudinem tria mllia passuum patere
demonstravimus, complent, pedestresque copias, paulum
ab eo loco abditas, in locis superi5ribus constituunt.

Erat ex oppid5 Alesia despectus in campum. Con-
currunt, his auxilhs vlsis ; fit gratulatio inter eos atque 10
omnium animi ad laetitiam excitantur. Itaque, pr5ductis
copils, ante oppidum consldunt et proximam fossam crati-
bus atque aggere explent seque ad eruptionem atque omnes
casus comparant.

80. Caesar, omni exercitu ad-utramque partem munltio-
num disposito, ut, si usus veniat, suum quisque locum
teneat et noverit, equitatum ex castrls educi et proelium
committi iubet. Erat ex omnibus castrls, quae summum
undique iugum tenebant, despectus, atque omnes mllitess

Online LibraryJulius CaesarC. Iulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum. Caesar's Commentaries: the Gallic war, books I-Iv, with selections from books V-VII and from the civil war; → online text (page 35 of 73)