Julius Caesar.

C. Iulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum. Caesar's Commentaries: the Gallic war, books I-Iv, with selections from books V-VII and from the civil war; online

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intentl pugnae proventum exspectabant.

Galli inter equites raros sagittarios expeditosque levis
armaturae interiecerant, qui suls cedentibus auxilio suc-
currerent et nostrorum equitum impetus sustinerent.
Ab his complures, de impr5viso vulnerati, proelio ex- io
cedebant.

6. planitiem, etc. ; see chap. 69, 11. 5-8.

8. abditas: < drew back and. 1 228, a.

9. Concurrunt : i They 1 (the Gauls in the town) ' rushed together.'
12. proximam fossam: the trench nearest the city; "Trench

20 feet wide" on Map 17.

80. 1. utramque, etc. : both the inner and the outer lines of works.

3. castrls: the cavalry camps were probably those marked G, H,
I, K on Map 17.

4. castrls, etc.: the infantry camps (A, B, C, D), in which were
the milites.

6. proventum: 'issue. 1

7. inter equites, etc. : n. to chap. 18, 1. 4.

8. qui, etc. : ' in order that these might furnish support. 1 198, a,
and 112, a.

10. complures: of Caesar's cavalry.



414 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 52

Cum su5s pugna superiores esse Galli confiderent et
nostros multitudine premi viderent, ex omnibus partibus et
ei, qui munitionibus continebantur, et hi, qui ad auxilium

is convenerant, clamore et ululatu suorum animos confirma-
bant. Quod in conspectu omnium res gerebatur neque
recte aut turpiter factum celari poterat, utrosque et laudis
cupiditas et timor ign5miniae ad virtutem excitabat.

Cum a meridie prope ad solis occasum dubia victoria

20 pugnaretur, Germani una in parte confertis turmis in
hostes impetum fecerunt eosque propulerunt ; quibus in
fugam coniectis, sagittarii- circumventi interfectique sunt.
Item ex reliquis partibus nostri, cedentes usque ad castra
insecuti, sui colligendi facultatem non dederunt.

25 At el, qui ab Alesia processerant, maesti, prope victoria
desperata, se in oppidum receperunt.



13. nostros : equites ; the infantry did not go into action.

14. munitionibus : of the town.

15. ululatu: n. to V, 37, 1. 8. If upwards of 200,000 men were
shouting and shrieking at once, the noise in the Roman lines across the
plain, where the sounds from both sides met, must have been terrific ;
even the noise at one of the great football games would furnish no
standard of comparison. The Romans underarms in the camps were
probably silent, awaiting a signal for action.

16. r§s gerebatur : 'the engagement was going on.'

17. r§ct§, etc. : 'and no brave or cowardly action. 1 How lit.?

18. ignominiae : 'disgrace.' 81.

19. Cum, etc. : 'After the battle had been raging . . . with victory
in doubt.' How lit. ?

20. Germani: the German cavalry rendered effective service on
several critical occasions (chap. 67, 11. 12-15, anc * 7o> H- 5"" 12 )*

22. sagittSrii, etc.: among the cavalry; they had not yet learned
to keep up with the horsemen by taking hold of the horses' manes,
as the Germans did (I, 48, 11. 18-20).

23. cfidentes : < the enemy in retreat.' How lit.? 227, a, (4).

24. sui: 154, b. B. 339, 5 ; A. 504, c ; H. 626, 3.

25. maesti: 'in sadness.' 151.



vii, 8ij The Siege and Fall of Alesia



415



A second attack, by night, is equally unsuccessful.

81. Uno die intermisso, Galll, atque h5c spatio magn5
cratium, scalarum, harpagonum numero effects, media
nocte silentio ex castris egressi, ad campestres munltiones
accedunt. Subit5 clamore sublato, qua significatione, qui
in oppido obsidebantur, de suo adventu cognoscere pos-5
sent, crates pr5icere, fundls, sagittis, lapidibus nostros de
vallo proturbare reliquaque, quae ad oppugnationem per-
tinent, parant administrate. Eodem tempore, clamore ex-
audito, dat tuba signum suis Vercingetorix atque ex oppido
educit. ic

NostrT, ut superioribus diebus suus cuique erat locus
attributus, ad munltiones accedunt ; fundls librilibus sudi-

81. 1. hoc spatio: 'dur-
ing this interval.' 147, c.

2. scalarum: Madders.'
harpagonum: 'grappling-
hooks,' for pulling down the
Roman breastworks and pali-
sades. 12, c.

3. campestres : west of the
town, and nearest the Gallic
encampment.

4. qua significatione : tit
ea significatione, 'that by this
sign.' 193, a.

5. obsidebantur : vivid use
of the indicative. Cf. 220.

7. valid : of the circum-
vallation, running from the Ose
to Flavigny Heights. pro-
turbare : 'dislodge.'

9. dat tuba signum : Ver-
cingetorix had adopted the
Roman system of signals. 326,
a, (1), and II, 20, 1. 3.




Figure 142.



Statue of Vercingetorix at
Alesia.



12. fundls librilibus: 'pound- weight slings'; whether these were



416 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 52

busque, quas in opere disposuerant, ac glandibus Gallos
proterrent. Prospectu tenebris adempto, multa utrimque

*5 vulnera accipiuntur. Complura tormentis tela coniciuntur.
At M. Antonius et C. Trebonius legati, quibus hae partes
ad defendendum obvenerant, qua ex parte nostros premi
intellexerant, his auxilio ex ulterioribus castellis deductos
summittebant.

82. Dum longius a munitione aberant Galli, plus mul-
titudine telorum proficiebant ; postea quam propius suc-
cesserunt, aut se stimulis inopinantes induebant aut in
scrobes delati transfodiebantur aut ex vallo ac turribus

straiecti pilis muralibus interibant. Multis undique vulne-
ribus acceptis, nulla munlti5ne perrupta, cum lux appe-
teret, veriti, ne ab latere aperto ex superioribus castris
erupti5ne circumvenirentur, se ad su5s receperunt.

At interiores, dum ea, quae a Vercingetorige ad erup-

iotionem praeparata erant, proferunt, priores fossas explent,

slingshots of stone weighing about a Roman pound, or stones of a pound
weight hurled with the help of a cord attached to them, we do not
know ; Balearic slingers were trained to hurl stones weighing a pound.
85. sudibus ; * stakes,' with pointed ends hardened by fire, for use as
javelins (praeiistae sudes ; cf. V, 40, 1. 14 and n.).

13. disposuerant : <■ had piled at intervals,' as reserve ammunition.
79, d. glandibus: probably leaden 'bullets' ; N. to II, 10, 1. 2.

14. proterrent: ' drove back.' tenebris: * by the darkness';
the attack began at midnight (1. 2). multa, etc. : the soldiers could
not parry the blows with their shields because they could not see the
missiles coming.

16. M. Antonius: the first mention of Mark Antony by Caesar,
hae partes : < this portion ' of the fortifications, in the plain.
82. 3. stimulis, etc. : chap. 73, 11. 25-28, and Notes.

4. scrobes: chap. 73,11. 15-24. dSlStl: 'stumbling.' How
lit. ? transfodiSbantur : i were impaled.' 67, b.

5. traiectl, etc. : 'transfixed by wall pikes' ; N. to V, 40, I. 14.
7. superioribus castris : on Flavigny Heights ; marked A, B.

9. interiores : the Gallic army in Alesia.

10. priorgs fossas : precisely what trenches are meant we do



vii, 83] The Siege and Fall of Alesia 417

diutius in his rebus administrandis morati, prius suos dis-
cessisse cognoverunt, quam munltionibus appropinquarent.
Ita re infecta in oppidum reverterunt.

TJie Gauls plan a surprise, and make a last desperate assault.

83. Bis magnd cum detrimento repulsi, Galli, quid agant,
consulunt; locorum peritos adhibent; ex his superiorum
castr5rum situs munitionesque cognoscunt.

Erat a septentrionibus collis, quern propter magnitudi-
nem circuitus opere circumplectl non potuerant nostrijs




Figure 143. — A characteristic bit of the slope at Alesia.
On the south side, near the top, facing Flavigny Heights.

not know; evidently not the same as ftroxima?n fossam, chap. 79,
1. 12.

13. re infecta: ' without accomplishing their purpose.'

83. 1. Bis . . . repulsi: first in an attack with cavalry (chap. 80),
then in an attack with infantry (chap. 81-82).

2. locorum, etc.: 'they brought in men who knew the ground.'
How lit.? 102.

4. a septentrionibus : 'on the north.' collis: Mont Rda.



418 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 52

necessario paene iniquo loco et* leniter declivi castra fece-
rant. Haec C. Antistius Reginus et C. Caninius Rebilus
legati cum duabus legionibus obtinebant.

Cognitis per exploratores regi5nibus, duces hostium lx

lomilia ex omni numer5 deligunt earum civitatum, quae
maximam virtutis oplnionem habebant ; quid quoque pact5
agi placeat, occulte inter se constituunt; adeundi tempus
definiunt, cum meridies esse videatur. His copiis Vercas-
sivellaunum Arvernum, unum ex mi ducibus, propinquum

is Vercingetorigis, praeficiunt.

Ille ex castris prima vigilia egressus, prope confecto sub
lucem itinere, post montem se occultavit, militesque ex
nocturn5 labore sese reficere iussit. Cum iam meridies
appropinquare videretur, ad ea castra, quae supra demon-

20 stravimus, contendit ; eodemque tempore equitatus ad cam-
pestres munltiones accedere et reliquae copiae pro castris
sese ostendere coeperunt.

Vercingetorix attacks the Roman works on the inner side.

84. Vercingetorix, ex arce Alesiae suos conspicatus, ex
oppido egreditur; crates, longuri5s, musculos, falces reli-
quaque, quae eruptionis causa paraverat, profert.

6. Igniter dgclivi : ' gently sloping ' toward the city ; hence offer-
ing an advantage to a force attacking from the north. castra : D on
Map 17.

11. virtutis oplnionem: ' reputation for courage.' quid, etc. :
1 what plan they would deem it best to carry out, and in what way. 1

12. adeundi, etc. : 'they fixed as the hour of attack.'

14. nil ducibus: 'the four commanders' named in chap. 76,
11. H-13,

16. sub lucem: ' toward daybreak.'

17. itinere: shown on Map 17, Route of Attacking Force
under Vercassivellaunus. post montem : behind Mont Re'a.

19. castra: marked D ; described in lines 4-8.

20. campestrgs: chap. 72, 1. 12, and N.

84. 2. longurios: 'poles,' sharpened at the end, for thrusting;



vii, 85] The Siege and Fall of Alesia 419

Pugnatur uno tempore omnibus locis, atque omnia temp-
tantur ; quae minime visa pars firma est, hue concurritur. 5
Romanorum manus tantis munltionibus distinetur nee facile
pluribus locis occurrit. Multum ad terrendos nostros valet
clamor, qui post tergum pugnantibus exsistit, quod suum
perlculum in aliena vident virtute c5nstare ; omnia enim
plerumque, quae absunt, vehementius hominum mentes 10
perturbant.

Caesar surveys the field, meets crises wherever they arise.

85. Caesar idoneum locum nactus, quid quaque in parte
geratur, cognoscit ; labdrantibus subsidium summittit.

Utrlsque ad animum occurrit, unum esse illud tempus,
quo maxime contend! conveniat : GallT, nisi perfregerint
munitiones, de omni salute desperant ; Roman!, si rem 5
obtinuerint, finem laborum omnium exspectant.

Maxime ad superiores munitiones laboratur, quo Ver-
cassivellaunum missum dem5nstravimus. Iniquum loci ad

much longer than the ordinary javelin. musculos : l mousies ' ;
Vercingetorix had adopted the Roman siege appliances (342, a).
falces : fakes milrales; n. to chap. 22, 1. 4. 3J>2, c, and Figure 188.

6. nee, etc. : ' could not easily meet (the enemy) at several points
(at the same time). 1

8. post tergum pugnantibus : .' at the rear of the men in action ' ;
the shouting of those righting on the outer line of works was heard
by those defending the inner line, and vice versa. 109, a.

10. absunt, perturbant : 175, c.

85. 1. locum, etc. : Caesar's post of observation was probably on
the Flavigny Heights, at the point marked with a cross on Map 17.

3. Utrlsque, etc. : i To both sides came the conviction, that now
was the time for a supreme final effort.' How lit. ?

5. si, etc.: 'if they could (only) maintain their position, looked
forward to. 1

8. demonstravimus : chap. 83, 11. 9-20. Iniquum, etc : 'The
unfavorable ground' (above the camp marked D), 'sloping down-
wards 1 (cf. chap. 83, 1. 6), 'proved a serious factor.' How lit.?



420



Caesar's Gallic War



[B.C. 52



declivitatem fastigium magnum habet momentum. Alii
10 tela coniciunt, alii, testudine facta, subeunt ; defatigatis in

vicem integri succedunt. Agger, ab universls in munitio-

nem coniectus, et ascensum dat Gallis et ea, quae in terra

occultaverant Romani, contegit ; nee iam arma nostrls nee

vires suppetunt.

86. His rebus cognitis, Caesar Labienum cum cohorti-

bus vi subsidi5 laborantibus mittit ; imperat, si sustinere

non possit, deductis cohortibus eruptione pugnet; id, nisi

necessario, ne faciat.
s Ipse adit reliquos ; cohortatur, ne labor! succumbant;

omnium superiorum dimicationum fructum in eo die atque

hora docet consistere.

io. testudine facta: ' formed a turtle-shell roof (in the Roman
fashion) 'and.' 144, &, (2), and 338, 345.

1 1 . Agger : < earth ' ; no
regular siege embankment was
made.

12. ea, quae, etc. : chap.
73 , 11. 8-28.

13. contegit: ' covered
up. 1

86. 2. laborantibus : the
troops under Antistius Reginus
and Caninius Rebilus, in the
fiercely assaulted camp at D.

3. deductis, etc. : 'to draw-
off the cohorts (from the en-
gagement) and make a sortie.''
A similar tactic had saved the
day for Galba at Octodurus
(III,5,11.8-i 5 ).

5. Ipse : 'in person.' re-
liquos : the other divisions
besides that to which Labienus
had been sent.
144. — Heads and butts of lances 6. dimicationum: * corn-
found at Alesia. bats.'



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Figure



Vii, 87] The Siege and Fall of Alesia 421

The attack of Vercingetorix is repulsed.

Interiores, desperatis campestribus locis propter magni-
tudinem munltionum, loca praerupta ascensu temptant;
hue ea, quae paraverant, conferunt. Multitudine telorum 10
ex turribus propugnantes deturbant, aggere et cratibus
fossas explent, falcibus vallum ac loricam rescindunt.

87. Mittit prim5 Brutum adulescentem cum cohortibus
Caesar, post cum alils C. Fabium legatum ; postremo ipse,
cum vehementius pugnaretur, integros subsidio adducit.

A charge and a flank movement on the north rout the enemy.

Restituto proelio ac repulsls hostibus, eo, quo Labienum
mlserat, contendit ; cohortes mi ex proximo castello dedu- s
cit, equitum partem se sequi, partem circumire exteriores
munitiones et a tergo hostes adorlri iubet.

Labienus, postquam neque aggeres neque fossae vim
hostium sustinere poterant, coactis una xi cohortibus, quas

8. Interiores : as in chap. 82, 1. 9.

9. loca, etc. : ' places with a steep ascent 1 (lit. i steep in respect to
ascent 1 ), along the side of Flavigny Heights, which it had not been
thought necessary to provide with defenses as elaborate as those in
the plain of Les Laumes.

10. ea, quae, etc. : see chap. 84, 11. 2-3.

11. propugnantes, etc. : ' forced back (our) men (who were) fight-
ing from the towers. 1

12. falcibus: chap. 84, 1. 2. vallum, loricam: chap. 72,
11. 14-15.

87. 1. Mittit: to the point attacked by Vercingetorix. cohor-
tibus : the number is not given.

4. Restituto, etc. : reenforced, the men defending the ramparts
attacked by Vercingetorix rallied and beat him off.

6. partem circumire : sc. equitum. The division of cavalry ordered
to execute the flank movement probably started from the camp at G;
Map 17, Route of Caesar's Cavalry.

8. aggeres : here * ramparts, 1 at camp D.



422 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 52

ioex proximls praesidiis deductas fors obtulit, Caesarem per
nuntios facit certiorem, quid faciendum existimet. Acce-
lerat Caesar, ut proelio intersit.

88. Eius adventu ex colore vestitus cognito, quo insigni

in proeliis uti consuerat, turmisque equitum et cohortibus

visis, quas se sequl iusserat, ut de locis superioribus haec

declivia et devexa cernebantur, hostes proelium commit-

s tunt.

Utrimque clamore sublato, excipit rursus ex valid atque
omnibus munltionibus clamor.

Nostrl, omissis pilis, gladils rem gerunt.

Repente post tergum equitatus cernitur ; cohortes aliae
ioappropinquant.

Hostes terga vertunt; fugientibus equites occurrunt.
Fit magna caedes.

Sedulius, dux et princeps Lemovicum, occiditur; Ver-
cassivellaunus Arvernus vivus in fuga comprehenditur ;

io. praesidiis : detachments under arms at the redoubts ; cf. chap.
69, 1. 17, and N.

11. Accelerat: 'hastened.'

88. 1. colore: scarlet. vestitus: cloak ( paluddmentum) .

821. cognito : by the enemy. insigni : i as a distinguishing mark.'

3. locis superioribus : Mont Rda. haec dgclivia et dSvexa :
1 these descending slopes, 1 on the northwest side of Flavigny Heights,
down which Caesar passed, on horseback, in full view of the enemy.

4. committunt : with the division under Labienus just coming into
action.

6. Utrimque, etc. : the extraordinary vividness of the following de-
scription is due in part to the brevity of the sentences, some of which
a writer of less restraint would have expanded into paragraphs ; to the
omission of connectives (238, a), and to the sparing use of adjectives,
excipit — clamor: 'the cheering was taken up' by those not in the
action. How lit. ? 353, a.

8. omissis pills : the legionaries were charging up hill, so that
pikes could not be hurled to advantage.

9. tergum : sc. hostium. equitatus : from camp G-. cohor-
t6s aliae : the fresh cohorts with Caesar (1. 2).



vii, 89] The Siege and Fall of Alesia 423

signa militaria lxxiiii ad Caesarem referuntur ; pauci ex 15
tanto numero se incolumes in castra recipiunt.

Conspicati ex oppido caedem et fugam suorum, despe-
rata salute, copias a munltionibus reducunt.

Fit protinus, hac re audita, ex castris Gallorum fuga.
Quod nisi crebris subsidils ac totlus die! labore mllites 20
essent defessl, omnes hostium copiae deleri potuissent.
De media nocte missus equitatus novissimum agmen conse-
quitur ; magnus numerus capitur atque interficitur, reliqui
ex fuga in clvitates discedunt.

Vercingetorix surrenders.

89. Postero die Vercingetorix, concilio convocato, id
bellum se suscepisse non suarum necessitatum, sed com-
munis libertatis causa demonstrat, et quoniam sit fortunae
cedendum, ad utramque rem se illis offerre, seu morte sua
Romanis satisfacere seu vlvum tradere velint. s

Mittuntur de his rebus ad Caesarem legatl. Iubet arma
tradl, prlncipes producl. Ipse in munitione pro castris
consedit ; eo duces producuntur. Vercingetorix deditur,
arma proiciuntur.

15. signa militaria : see Figures 30 and 42.

16. numero : 60,000 (chap. 83, 1. 9).

17. Conspicati ex oppido: brief for el, qui in oppido sunt, con-
spicati, etc.

20. Quod: 118, d. nisi, etc.: 208, a, (2). crSbris sub-
sidils : 'with frequent (service in) supporting forces.'
22. De media nocte : 242, d.
89. 4. ad utramque rem : 'for either alternative' (Fig. 145).

7. Ipse : Caesar.

8. Vercingetorix, etc. : Vercingetorix, as we learn from Plutarch, having
arrayed himself in splendid armor, mounted a horse adorned with trappings,
passed slowly out from Alesia, and rode around Caesar sitting to receive the
prisoners ; then, halting before Caesar, he sprang from his horse, laid off his
armor, and without a word seated himself at the feet of his conqueror,
" every inch a king ! "



424



Caesar's Gallic War



[B.C. 52



Reservatis Aeduls atque Arvernls, si per eos civitates
recuperare posset, ex reliquis captivls totl exercitui capita
singula praedae nomine distribuit.




For six years after this Vercingetorix was confined in a Roman prison.*
At length, in 46 B.C., he was led along the streets of Rome to grace Caesar's
great triumph; then, in accordance with Roman
custom, "while his conqueror was offering
solemn thanks to the gods on the summit of
the Capitol, Vercingetorix was beheaded at its
foot as guilty of high treason against the
Roman nation" (Fig. 145).

Thus ended the career of the greatest of the
Gauls, the first national hero of France.

10. Reservatis, etc. : afterwards 20,000
prisoners were returned to the Aeduans and
Arvernians (chap. 90, 1. 5). si : '(to see)
whether.' 204, (4). B. 300, 3 ; A. 576, a ;
H. 649, 3.

1 1 . capita singula, etc. : each soldier
in Caesar's army received a prisoner as his
share of the booty (318) ; the number was
probably not far from 50,000. On receipt

of Caesar's dispatches announcing the victory, a thanksgiving of 20
days was declared at Rome (chap. 90, 11. 17-18).

Historical Significance of the Siege of Alesia. Caesar's devices for ren-
dering impassable his lines of defense at Alesia, in ingenuity and adaptation to
the purpose for which they were intended, have never been excelled in the
annals of military engineering.

Caesar's success, again, well illustrates the superiority of generalship, disci-
pline, persistency, and hard work over vastly greater numbers, even in the face
of every disadvantage of position and surroundings.

For the Gauls the fall of Alesia was the crowning disaster of a hopeless
struggle. They staked all on the relief of the city, and lost. But if Caesar
had here suffered complete defeat, probably Gaul would long have remained
unconquered, and the course of European history would have been changed.

The siege of Alesia may well rank among the decisive military operations
of the world.

* Doubtless the Mamertine Prison ; for which see the editor's Select Orations
and Letters of Cicero, p. 115 and N. to p. 115, 15.



Figure 145. — Vercin-
getorix.

Denarius, struck while Ver-
cingetorix was in prison, in
Rome. He is represented with
pointed beard and flowing hair,
and with a chain about his neck.
Behind the head is a shield.



Plate X



Bust of Caesar at Naples







■■-^ISSJ^S^^




i'J~" -.-.•(• Viii'^R : I *,*"


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Truly a wonderful man was Caius Julius Caesar.
Better be first, he said, in a little Iberian village
Than be second in Rome; and I think he was right when he said it.

Longfellow, Courtship of Miles Standish.



SELECTIONS FROM CAESAR'S CIVIL WAR



The Second Sea-fight off Massilia. II. 3-7

The Massilian fleet is reenforced by ships sent by Pompey.

3. Interim L. Nasidius, ab Cn. Pompeio cum classe
navium xvi, in quibus paucae erant aeratae, L. Domitio
Massiliensibusque subsidio missus, freto Siciliae, impru-
dente atque inopinante Curione, pervehitur, appulsisque
Messanam navibus atque, inde propter repentlnum terrorem 5

3-7. The circumstances. On his way to Spain in April, 49 B.C. {259 s )
Caesar sought the allegiance of Massilia {293, a), but the Massilians decided
to cast in their lot with Pompey. Caesar directed Trebonius to besiege the
city and Decimus Brutus, who had won the sea-fight with the Venetans, to
destroy their formidable fleet. In June, when his ships were ready, Brutus
took up a position at the island opposite Massilia (Map 18); the much larger
Massilian fleet came out to fight, but proved to be no match for Brutus, who
sank some ships, captured others, and drove the rest back into the harbor.

The second sea-fight, even more disastrous to the Massilians, took place in
July; it is described in the following chapters.

3. 1. L. Nasidius: apparently the same as Q. Nasidius named on
coins (Figures 146 and 160). Pompeio: Pompey, having fled from
Italy (259), was on the east side of the Adriatic, in Macedonia (299).

2. aeratae : 'sheathed with copper,' particularly the beaks (3^6, c).
L. Domitio : at Massilia. The enemies of Caesar had arranged the
appointment of Domitius to succeed Caesar in Gaul in 49 B.C., and he
had helped the Massilians in the first sea-fight. 112, b.

3. freto: ' strait, 1 between Italy and Sicily ; Map 12. 184, a.

4. Curione : Curio was engaged in crushing the Pompeian party in
Sicily, whence, in August of 49, he crossed over to Africa. 12, c.
pervehitur: 'sailed along.' How lit. ? appulsis, etc. : he landed
at Messana, now Messina.

425



426 Caesar's Civil War [B.C. 49

principum ac senatus f uga facta, navem ex navalibus eorum
deducit.

Hac adiuncta ad reliquas naves, cursum Massiliam versus
perficit, praemissaque clam navicula, Domitium Massilen
iosesque de su5 adventu certiores facit, eosque magnopere
hortatur, ut rursus cum Bruti classe, additis suis auxilils,
confligant.

4. Massilienses, post superius incommodum, veteres ad
eundem numerum ex navalibus productas naves refecerant
summaque industria armaverant (remigum, gubernatorum
magna copia suppetebat) piscatoriasque adiecerant atque
5 contexerant, ut essent ab ictu telorum remiges tuti ; has
sagittarils tormentisque compleverunt.

Tall modo Instructa classe, omnium seniorum, matrum
familiae, virginum precibus et fletu excitatl, extremo tem-
pore civitati subvenirent, non min5re animo ac fiducia,
ioquam ante dimicaverant, naves conscendunt. Communi
enim fit vitio naturae, ut invisitatis atque incognitis rebus
magis confidamus vehementiusque exterreamur ; ut turn

6. n£v51ibus : l shipyards.' eorum: of the Messanians.
9. nSvicula : a small sailing vessel, faster than the fleet.



Online LibraryJulius CaesarC. Iulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum. Caesar's Commentaries: the Gallic war, books I-Iv, with selections from books V-VII and from the civil war; → online text (page 36 of 73)