Julius Caesar.

C. Iulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum. Caesar's Commentaries: the Gallic war, books I-Iv, with selections from books V-VII and from the civil war; online

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4. 1. superius incommodum: the first sea-fight, described C. I.
56-58.

2. eundem numerum: 'the same number,' 17, as in the first sea-
fight ; Nasidius, counting the ship seized at Messana, also had 17 ships.

4. piscatorias [naves] : ' fishing-smacks.'

5. contgxerant: 'had covered (them)' with decks, to protect the
rowers underneath ; the fishing-smacks, like those of the Mediterranean
to-day, were open.

7. seniorum: 'older men,' unfit for military or naval service.

8. virginum: t£, d. extrgmo tempore: ' in utmost peril. ,

9. subvenirent, etc. : ' (begging) them to help the state ' ; the idea
of asking is implied in precibus. 200, a.

10. Communi, etc. : ' For it is a common failing of human nature
that we are swayed by unseen and unknown factors to overconfidence
and to too great fear.' How lit. ? 136, a, and 208, (1).



C. II, 3-7



MAP 18
The Second Sea-Fight off Massilia

To face page 426




J^



SCALE OF ENGLISH MILES



SCALE OF ROMAN MILES

2 I r»



EXPLANATION

Nasidius, admiral of Pompey, had come to Taurois with 17 galleys. Here he
was joined by the Massilian fleet, consisting of an equal number of galleys and
some protected fishing-smacks.

To oppose this formidable squadron Brutus had only 18 galleys, some of which,
newly built, could be less easily maneuvered than the ships of the enemy. His
rowers, too, were inferior to those of the enemy, lacking experience.

Nevertheless Brutus left his anchorage, near an island opposite the harbor of
Massilia, and led his fleet in the direction of Taurois.

In the battle an attempt to ram Brutus's flagship from opposite sides disabled
two of the enemy's ships by collision. Brutus's men showed themselves specially
skillful in the seizing of hostile ships by grappling-hooks and boarding, with
hand-to-hand fighting. The fleet of Nasidius fled.

On the land side Massilia was shut in by the siege works of Trebonius, whose
camp was on high ground on the northwest side of the city (chap. 5, 1. 8).



11,5] The Second Sea-fight off Massilia 427

accidit Adventus enim L. Nasidii summa spe et volun-
tate civitatem compleverat.

Nacti idoneum ventum, ex portu exeunt et Tauroenta, is
quod est castellum Massiliensium, ad Nasidium perveniunt ;
ibique naves expediunt rursusque se ad confligendum
animo confirmant et consilia communicant. Dextra pars
attribuitur Massiliensibus, sinistra Nasidio.

Brutus, in command of Caesar's fleet, comes out to join battle.

5. Eodem Brutus contendit, aucto navium numero.
Nam ad eas, quae factae erant Arelate per Caesarem,
captivae Massiliensium accesserant VI. Has superioribus
diebus refecerat atque omnibus rebus Instruxerat. Itaque



13. voluntate : ' eagerness ' to fight.

15. idoneum ventum: from the north; see Map 18. Tau-
roenta: 18, g, and 119, a.

16. castellum : Tauro'is was a fortified port. Nasidius had stopped
there, instead of proceeding to Massilia, in order not to expose his fleet,
in passing the islands, to the risk of an
attack by Brutus; Map 18.

17. expediunt: i made ready for action. 1
175, b.



18. animo: 1.



consilia com-



municant : ' worked out together their plan '
of battle. pars : l formation.'

5. 1. contendit: from his naval base,
at the island opposite" Massilia.

2. Arelate: 14.5,6. per Caesarem :
1 on Caesar's order ' ; 1 2 galleys were built at
Arelas (C. I. 36), and in the first sea-fight
these alone formed the fleet of Brutus.

3. captivae; sc. naves; < captured' in
the first sea-fight. In all, Brutus now had
18 galleys as against 34 galleys and the
protected fishing-smacks in the combined
fleet of the Massilians and Nasidius.




Figure 146. — Coin of
Quintus Nasidius.

Silver, denarius, struck 38-
36 B.c Galley with beak, oars,
and sail. The pilot stands on
the prow; at the stern sits the
helmsman, controlling a large
steering-paddle thrust down
into the sea. For obverse see
Fig. 160.



428 Caesar's Civil War [B.C. 49

5SU0S cohortatus, quos integros superavissent, ut victos
contemnerent, plenus spel bonae atque animi, adversus eos
proficiscitur.

The inhabitants of Massilia offer prayers for victory.

Facile erat, ex castrls C. Trebonii atque omnibus superio-
ribus locis, prospicere in urbem, ut omnis iuventus, quae

10 in oppido remanserat, omnesque superioris aetatis cum
liberis atque uxoribus ex publicis locis custodilsque aut
muro ad caelum manus tenderent aut templa deorum im-
mortalium adirent et, ante simulacra proiectl, victoriam ab
dis exposcerent.

is Neque erat quisquam omnium, quln in eius diei casu
suarum omnium fortunarum eventum consistere existi-
maret. Nam et honestl ex iuventute, et cuiusque aetatis
amplissimi, nominatim evocati atque obsecratl, naves con-
scenderant, ut, si quid adversi accidisset, ne ad conandum

aoquidem sibi quicquam reliquT fore viderent; si superavis-

5. suos, etc. ; suds cohortatus ut {eos), quos integros ('at their full
strength') superavissent, victos ('as beaten ') contemnerent. 199, a.

8. castrls: on the northwest side of the city; Map. 18.

9. ut: 'how. 1 204, (3). quae, etc. : cf. 220.

10. superioris aetatis : ' of more advanced age.'

11. custodiis : 'watch stations,' where watchmen were on duty.

12. ad . . . tenderent: in the attitude of prayer.

13. simulacra: ' images ' of the gods. 7^d. proiectl: 'cast-
ing themselves down.' 171,.

14. exposcerent: ' were imploring.' 204,(3)-

15. quln : = qui non. 195. in . . . casu: ' upon the issue."

16. eventum consistere : 'that the destiny . . . rested.'

17. honestl ex iuventute: 'the youth of good family.' How
lit. ? 97, d.

18. amplissimi : ' the most prominent men,' the leading men of the
city.

19. adversi, reliqul: 97, b. n8 . . . fore: 'that even the
possibility of making another attempt would be cut off.' How lit. ?



ii,6] The Second Sea-fight off Massilia 429

sent, vel domesticis opibus vel externls auxiliis de salute
urbis c5nfiderent.

The Massilians and their allies, the Albici, fight desperately.

6. Commisso proelio, Massiliensibus res nulla ad virtu-
tem defuit ; sed memores eorum praeceptorum, quae paul5
ante ab suis acceperant, hoc animo decertabant, ut nullum
aliud tempus ad conandum habiturl viderentur et, quibus in
pugna vitae periculum accideret, non ita multo se reliquo- 5
rum civium fatum antecedere exlstimarent, quibus, urbe
capta, eadem esset belli fortuna patienda.

Diductisque nostrls paulatim navibus, et artiflcio guber-
natorum et mobilitati navium locus dabatur ; et si quand5
nostri, facultatem nacti, ferreis manibus iniectis, navem 10
religaverant, undique suis laborantibus succurrebant.
Neque vero coniuncti Albici comminus pugnando deficie-
bant neque multum cedebant virtute nostris.

21. externls: i foreign.' de, etc.: 'they confidently expected
to assure the safety of the city' against Trebonius.

6. 1. Commisso proelio: 'After the engagement had begun.'
The probable formation in battle order is indicated on Map 18.

4. habiturl viderentur: sc. sibi, l it seemed to them that they were
going to have.' quibus . . . accideret : ' if they should risk their
lives.' How lit.?

6. exlstimarent: 203,(4). urbe capta : 144, d, (4).

7. eadem fortuna : they expected an indiscriminate slaughter, like
that at Avaricum (VII. 28), if the city should be taken.

8. Diductis, etc. : the gradual drawing apart of Brutus's fleet in
the course of the engagement gave to the Massilian steersmen, who
were very skillful, a favorable opportunity to manoeuver their ships,
which were seasoned and more easily handled than the new battle-
ships of Brutus, gubernatorum : 84.

10. ferreis, etc.: 'had thrown grappling-hooks upon a ship and
held it fast.' 144, b, (2), and 346, d.

12. coniuncti Albici : l the Albici serving with (them),' as marines.
pugnando: dative after deficieba,7it ; trans, 'fail in hand-to-hand fight-
ing,' when Brutus's men boarded a Massilian ship.



430 Caesar's Civil War [B.C. 49

Simul ex minoribus navibus magna vis eminus missa
15 telorum multa nostrls de improvlso, imprudentibus atque
impeditis, vulnera Inferebant. Conspicataeque naves tri-
remes duae navem D. Bruti, quae ex insignl facile agnosci
poterat, duabus ex partibus sese in earn incitaverunt. Sed
tantum, re provlsa, Brutus celeritate navis enisus est, ut
2oparv5 momento antecederet. Illae adeo graviter inter se
incitatae conflixerunt, ut vehementissime utraque ex con-
cursu laborarent, altera vero, praefracto rostrd, tota collabe-
fieret. Qua re animadversa, quae proximae ei loco ex
Bruti classe naves erant, in eas impedltas impetum faciunt
25 ceieriterque ambas deprimunt.

Brutus wins the victory; grief Jills the city.

7. Sed Nasidianae naves nulli usui fuerunt ceieriterque

pugna excesserunt ; non enim has aut c5nspectus patriae

aut propinquorum praecepta ad extremum vitae perlculum

adire cogebant ; itaque ex eo numero navium nulla deside-

s rata est. Ex Massiliensium classe v sunt depressae, nil

14. minoribus navibus : the protected fishing-smacks (chap. 4,
11. 4-6).

16. InferSbant: 173, b. Conspicatae : i sighting 1 ; the ships
are personified. 226, c, and 239, h. navSs triremSs : i triremes.'
846, a.

17. Insignl: a red banner. 346, d. agnosci: * be recognized.'

18. duabus ex partibus: i from opposite sides.' 347.

19. tantum, etc. : ' Brutus, seeing what would happen, by a quick
movement of his ship just managed, by a narrow margin, to drive
ahead,' so that the two attacking ships rammed each other. How lit. ?

22. praefracto, etc: 'had had its beak broken off and was quite
shattered.' 346, c, and Fig. 146.

25. deprimunt: 'sunk.'

7. 1. Nasidianae: < of Nasidius.' -que: 'but.' 234, b.

2. has [naves] : personification, as in chap. 6, 1. 16.

4. eo numero navium: i.e. numero earum navium, 17 (chap. 3 }
11. 1-7).



Plate XI An Ancient Sea-fight between Galleys




A bireme, with two banks of oars, is ramming a quinquereme, with five banks.

Fighting-tops were used in the later Roman days, but not in Caesar's time.

The boat in the foreground, with one bank of oars on each side and deck
along the middle, would pass very well for one of the protected fishing-smacks
used by the Massilians, enlarged (C. III. 4).



in, 47] Heroic Endurance of Caesar's Soldiers 431

captae, una cum Nasidianis profugit; quae omnes citeri-
orem Hispaniam petiverunt.

At ex reliquis una, praemissa Massiliam huius nuntii
perferendi gratia, cum iam appropinquaret urbf, omnis sese
multitudo ad cognoscendum effudit ; et, re cognita, tantus 10
luctus excepit, ut urbs ab hostibus capta eodem vestigi5
videretur.

Massilienses tamen nihilo setius ad defensionem urbis
reliqua apparare coeperunt.

Heroic Endurance of Caesar's Soldiers before Dyrrachium.
III. 47-49, 53

Caesar with a smaller army shuts Pompey up at Dyrrachium.
47. Erat nova et inusitata belli ratio, cum tot castello-
rum numerd tantoque spatio et tantis munitionibus et toto
obsidionis genere, turn etiam reliquis rebus.

6. captae : sc. sunt naves. The losses of Brutus are not reported,
quae omnes : 97, c. citeriorem Hispaniam : 296.

10. multitudo : ' population. 1 ad cognoscendum : ' to learn the
news.'

ii. luctus excepit: ' lamentation followed.' capta: 148, e.

eodem vestigio : ' at that moment.' How lit.?

47-53. Caesar before Dyrrachium. When, early in 49 B.C., Pompey fled
with his army from Italy (259), he established his base in the region of
Dyrrachium, now Durazzo (Map 19). Here he had easy communication by
sea with coastal regions, and by land also with Greece and the wealthy prov-
inces of the Orient (261 s ). Before the end of 49 Caesar had vanquished
Pompey 's forces in Spain and had received the capitulation of Massilia; in
January, 48 B.C. (Unreformed Calendar; 241, c), he landed an army at
Palaeste (Map 19), and took possession of Apollonia. By the middle of
April, 48, military operations were concentrated at Dyrrachium, where Caesar,
though he had a smaller army, shut Pompey in by an extended line of works
on the land side.

After a long and bitter struggle Caesar was obliged to retire from before
Dyrrachium ; but the difficulties of the undertaking served only to bring out
in clearer light the loyalty and endurance of his soldiers.

47. 1. inusitata: 'unprecedented.' cum, etc.: 'considering

not only the great number of redoubts.' How lit. ? castellorum:



432 Caesar's Civil War [B.C. 48

Nam quicumque alterum obsidere conati sunt, perculsos
s atque Inflrmos hostes adorti, aut proelio superatos aut ali-
qua offensione permotos, continuerunt, cum ipsi numero
equitum militumque praestarent ; causa autem obsidionis
haec fere esse consuevit, ut frumento hostes prohiberent.
At turn integras atque incolumes copias Caesar inferiore
10 mllitum numero continebat, cum ill! omnium rerum copia
abundarent ; cotidie enim magnus undique navium nu-
merus conveniebat, quae commeatum supportarent, neque
ullus flare ventus poterat, quin aliqua ex parte secundum
cursum haberent. Ipse autem, consumptls omnibus longe
15 lateque frumentis, summls erat in angustiis.

His men, half-starved, say they will live on bark rather than let
Pompey escape.

Sed tamen haec singularl patientia milites ferebant.
Recordabantur enim eadem se superiore anno in Hispania
perpessos labore et patientia maximum bellum confecisse,
meminerant ad Alesiam magnam se inopiam perpessos,

the number of redoubts in Caesar's lines we do not know; Pompey,
hemmed in by Caesar, built 24 for defense.

2. spatio : the area included between Caesar's lines and the sea ex-
ceeded 20 square miles. munitionibus : Caesar's lines extended 17
Roman miles. For about two thirds of the distance they ran along
higher ground ; for the rest, on lower ground, where parallel trenches
and ramparts were constructed, 600 feet apart.

3. reliquis r6bus : t other conditions. 1

4. quicumque, etc. : ' commanders who heretofore have attempted
to blockade an opponent.' How lit.? perculsos: i demoralized ' ;
the reason is given in aut . . . permotos.

5. aliqua offensione : 'by some other reverse. 1

10. ill! : the soldiers of Pompey, whose fleets controlled the sea.
15. frumentis: here 'stores of grain.'

17. Recordabantur: 'They recalled the fact. 1 259. eadem:
object of perpessos ; 'having experienced the same hardships. 1



in, 49] Heroic Endurance of Caesar's Soldiers 433

multo etiam maiorem ad Avaricum, maximarum gentium 20
victores discessisse. Non ill! hordeum, cum daretur, non
legumina recusabant ; pecus vero, cuius rei summa erat ex
EpTr5 copia, magno in honore habebant.

48. Est etiam genus radicis inventum ab eis, qui fuerant
in vallibus, quod appellator chara, quod admixtum lacte
multum inopiam levabat.

Id ad similitudinem panis efficiebant. Eius erat magna
copia. Ex hoc effect5s panes, cum in colloquiis Pompeianis
famem nostris obiectarent, vulgo in eos iaciebant, ut spem
eorum minuerent.

49. Iamque frumenta maturescere incipiebant, atque
ipsa spes inopiam sustentabat, quod celeriter se habituros
copiam confidebant; crebraeque voces mllitum in vigilils
colloquiisque audiebantur, prius se cortice ex arboribus
victuros, quam Pompeium e manibus dimissuros ... s

20. maiorem: sc. inopiam perpessos (VII. 17).

21. hordeum: ' barley, 1 not considered a fair substitute for wheat
in the soldier's rations. 817.

22. legumina: 'pulse, 1 including beans, lentils, etc. pecus,
etc. : Caesar's soldiers counted it a hardship to have fresh meat as the
staple of diet.

23. Epiro : mountainous, well adapted for raising cattle.

48. 2. vallibus : numerous ravines cut the surface of the higher
ground on which Caesar extended his lines. chara : probably a
species of arum, the tubers of which contained starch but were bitter to
the taste and had to be mixed with milk, or cooked with milk, to make
them edible. admixtum: 'mixed. 1 139.

4 Id, etc. : ' This they made into a kind of bread. 1 How lit. ?

5. pangs: 'loaves. 1 colloquiis: the opposing lines were within
calling distance. Pompeiani: 'the soldiers of Pompey. 1

6. famem, etc : ' would taunt our men with hunger. 1

49. 1. frumenta: 'fields of grain. 1 The blockade of Pompey
dragged on from April to July.

3. crebrae: 151. vigilils : when on guard duty at night.

4. cortice, etc. : 'that they would live on bark off the trees. 1 Cf.
ex: ISO, d.



434 Caesar's Civil War [B.C. 48

One day' s fighting before Dyrrachium.

53. Ita uno die vi proelils factls, tribus ad Dyrrachium,
tribus ad munitiones, cum horum omnium ratio haberetur,
ad duo milia numero ex Pompeianis cecidisse reperiebamus,
evocatos centurionesque complures (in eo fuit numero Va-
slerius Flaccus, L. filius, eius, qui praetor Asiam obtinue-
rat) ; signaque sunt militaria sex relata.

Nostrl non amplius xx omnibus sunt proeliis desideratl.

The extraordinary bravery of Scaeva, centurion, and his men.

Sed in castell5 illo nemo fuit omnino mllitum, quin
vulneraretur, quattuorque ex una cohorte centuriones oculos
amiserunt.

to

Et cum laboris sui pericullque testimonium afferre vel-
lent, milia sagittarum circiter xxx, in castellum coniecta,

49-53. Summary. Pompey's water supply was cut off by Caesar, so that
his troops were obliged to dig wells, which proved to be inadequate; the
baggage-animals died, and there was much sickness among the soldiers.
Pompey finally ordered an attack upon several of Caesar's redoubts at the same
time, in order that reinforcements might not be sent from one to the other.

53. i. iino dig: the day on which Pompey attacked several re-
doubts at the same time; the offensive cost him heavily. Dyrra-
chium : near the upper end of the area hemmed in by Caesar, on a
peninsula projecting into the Adriatic sea.

4. SvocStos : 316.

5. L. : Lucii. 8, a. eius: sc Valerii Flacci. This Lucius
Valerius Flaccus was praetor in the year of Cicero's Consulship, 63 B.C.
Asiam : the province Asia. 302, c. obtinuerat : ex-praetors, as
well as ex-consuls, went out as governors of provinces.

6. signa militaria : of Pompey, ' brought back ' by Caesar's men.
324, b, (2).

7. XX: vigintl. 129, b. omnibus proeliis : lJ+7.b.

8. castello 1II6 : apparently a redoubt held by the eighth cohort of
the sixth legion.

12. in castellum coniecta: 'that had been shot against there-
doubt.'



in, 59] Caesar's Treatment of Two " Grafters " 435

Caesari numeraverunt, scutoque ad eum relato Scaevae,
centurionis, inventa sunt in eo foramina cxx. Quern Cae-
sar, ut erat de se meritus et de re publica, donatum mllibus 15
cc . . . atque ab octavis ordinibus ad primipilum se tradu-
cere pronuntiavit (eius enim opera castellum magna ex
parte conservatum esse constabat) cohortemque postea"
duplicl stipendi5, frumento, veste, cibarris militaribusque
donls amplissime donavit. 20

Caesar's Treatment of Two " Grafters." III. 59-61

Two " grafters" Gauls, are found in Caesar's cavalry.

59. Erant apud Caesarem in equitum numero Allobro-
ges duo, fratres, Roucillus et Egus, Adbucilll filil, qui
principatum in civitate multis annis obtinuerat, singular!
virtute homines, quorum opera Caesar omnibus Gallicis

13. numeraverunt: ' they counted out.' scuto, etc. : Scaeva, we
are elsewhere told, held his post, at the gate of the redoubt, to the end
of the engagement, though one eye was put out and he was wounded in
shoulder and thigh (Suetonius, Caesar, 68).

14. foramina : < holes, 1 made by arrows. Scaeva must have parried
with marvelous steadiness and quickness. Quern : trans, as if et
eum.

15. donatum, etc. : filling the gap in the text as Meusel suggests
we may read, donatum (228, a) milibus diicentls sestertium (see Vocab.)
pro contione laudavit, ■* presented him with 200,000 sesterces and praised
him before the assembly of the soldiers.' The value of the gift exceeded
$8000 in our money.

16. ab, etc. : 'announced his promotion from the rank of centurion
in the eighth cohort to the position of first centurion. ' How lit.?

18. cohortem: all the men of the cohort had their pay doubled,
besides receiving other gifts and decorations. 318.

59. 1. Erant, etc.: the incidents related in chapters 59-61 took
place while Caesar was still before Dyrrachium. 90, a. in equitum
numero : ' among the cavalry,' apparently a contingent raised among
the Allobroges.

3. annis: 147, c. singular! virtute: 143, a.



436 Caesar's Civil War [B.C. 48

5 bellis optima fortissimaque erat usus. His domi ob has
causas amplissimos magistratus mandaverat atque eos extra
ordinem in senatum legendos curaverat, agrosque in Gallia,
ex hostibus captos, praemiaque rel pecuniariae magna tri-
buerat, locupletesque ex egentibus fecerat.

io Hi propter virtutem non solum apud Caesarem in ho-
nore erant, sed etiam apud exercitum carl habebantur;
sed, freti amicitia Caesaris, et stulta ac barbara arrogantia
elatl, despiciebant suos, stlpendiumque equitum fraudabant
et praedam omnem domum avertebant. Quibus ill! rebus

15 permotl, universl Caesarem adierunt palamque de eorum
iniuriis sunt quest!, et ad cetera addiderunt, falsum ab els
equitum numerum deferri, quorum stipendium averterent.

Caesar disciplines them privately.

60. Caesar, neque tempus illud animadversionis esse
exlstimans, et multa virtutl eorum concedens, rem totam
distulit ; illos secreto castigavit, quod quaestui equites

5. bellis: 'campaigns. 1 domi: in their own country. 146.

6. amplissimos : i highest.' extra ordinem : ' out of due
course.'

7. senatum : sc. Allobrogum. 289, b. legendos : 229, b.

8. praemia rel pecuniariae : 'rewards in money.'

12. amicitia: 181, e. stulta : 'stupid.'

13. dgspiciebant : 'looked down upon their fellow-countrymen.'
fraudabant : * were appropriating.'

14. domum avertebant: they turned aside to private use what
should have been divided up among all. ill! : the aggrieved cavalry-
men.

17. equitum, etc: by turning in a 'fictitious number of cavalry-
men ' they drew pay for soldiers who did not exist. averterent :
193, a.

60. 1. neque, etc.: 'that that (time) was not the (proper) time
for punishment.' 94, d.

3. quaestui, etc. : ' they made booty of the cavalrymen.' 112, a.



in, 60] Caesar's Treatment of Two " Grafters " 437

haberent, monuitque, ut ex sua amlcitia omnia exspectarent
et ex praeteritis suis officiis reliqua sperarent. s

Resentful, they borrow money, buy horses, go over to Pompey.

Magnam tamen haec res illis offensionem et contemp-
tionem ad omnes attulit, idque ita esse cum ex aliorum
obiectationibus, turn etiam ex domestico iudicio atque animi
conscientia intellegebant. Quo pudore adducti, et fortasse
non se liberarl, sed in aliud tempus reservari, arbitrati, dis- 10
cedere ab nobis et novam temptare fortunam novasque
amicitias experlri constituerunt.

Et cum paucis collocuti clientibus suis, quibus tantum
facinus committere audebant, primum conati sunt praefec-
tum equitum, C. Volusenum, interficere, ut postea, bello con- 15
fecto, cognitum est, ut cum munere aliqu5 perfugisse ad
Pompeium viderentur ; postquam id facinus difficilius visum
est, neque facultas perficiendl dabatur, quam maximas
potuerunt pecunias mutuati, proinde ac si suis satisfacere
et f raudata restituere vellent, multis coemptis equis ad 20

5. praeteritis suis officiis : 'his good offices in the past.'

7. ad omnes : ' before all.' id, etc. : ' and that this was so.'

8. obiectationibus: 'reproaches.' domestico iudicio: 'the
judgment (of those) of their own household. 1 animi conscientia :
* (their own) conscience.'

10. liber ari: sc. poena.

13. cum, etc.: 'after conferring with a few of their clients.' How
lit.?

14. committere: 'to entrust (the knowledge of).' praefectum
equitum : 309, c.

15. C. Volusenum : he had distinguished himself in the Gallic
war; cf. Ill, 5, 11. 7-10.

16. munere aliquo : 'some service' rendered, to commend them
to Pompey.

18. quam, etc. : ' having borrowed the largest sums of money that
they could.'

20. fraudata: 'the embezzled funds.' vellent: 210.



438 Caesar's Civil War [B.C. 48

Pompeium transierunt cum els, quos sui consilii participes
habebant.

61. Quos Pompeius, quod erant honesto loco nati et
instructl liberaliter, magnoque comitatu et multls iumentls
venerant, virlque fortes habebantur et in honore apud Cae-
sarem f uerant, quodque novum id, et praeter consuetudirLem,

s acciderat, omnia sua praesidia circumduxit atque ostentavit.
Nam ante id tempus nemo, aut miles aut eques, a Caesare
ad Pompeium transierat, cum paene cotidie a Pompeio ad
Caesarem perfugerent, vulg5 vero in Epiro atque Aetolia
conscript! milites, earumque regionum omnium, quae a

io Caesare tenebantur.

Last Operations about Dyrrachium. III. 64

Bravery of a dying standard-bearer in a panic of Caesar's



Online LibraryJulius CaesarC. Iulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum. Caesar's Commentaries: the Gallic war, books I-Iv, with selections from books V-VII and from the civil war; → online text (page 37 of 73)