Julius Caesar.

C. Iulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum. Caesar's Commentaries: the Gallic war, books I-Iv, with selections from books V-VII and from the civil war; online

. (page 38 of 73)
Online LibraryJulius CaesarC. Iulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum. Caesar's Commentaries: the Gallic war, books I-Iv, with selections from books V-VII and from the civil war; → online text (page 38 of 73)
Font size
QR-code for this ebook


troops.

64. Hoc tumultu nuntiato, Marcellinus cobortes . . .
subsidio nostris laborantibus summittit ex castris ; quae,

21 . sui consilii participes : ' as associates in the plot.' How lit. ?
26, 6, and 115, b.

61. 1. Quos: ob)zct o( circumduxit . 167. loc6 : 128, a.

2. instructl liberaliter : ' generously supplied, 1 as explained in the
next clause. comitatu: 'retinue.' Cf. chap. 84, 11. 20-23.

4. novum, etc. : i as something new and without precedent.''

5. circumduxit: with two accusatives. 114, a.

8. perfugerent: 'men were deserting. 1 187. vulgo : 'in large
numbers. 1

9. milit6s : sc. perfugerent . earum regionum : sc. milites.
64. 1. tumultu: 'sudden attack 1 at one end of Caesar's line of

works, near the sea ; two cohorts of the ninth legion, on guard duty,
were driven back. cohortSs : a word, giving the number of the
cohorts sent as reenforcement, has been lost.

2. subsidio nostris: 112, b. castris: one of Caesar's camps,
in charge of the quaestor Marcellinus and near the point of attack.
quae, etc.: 'but these (cohorts), when they saw our men fleeing. 1
How lit.?



in, 64] Last Operations about Dyrrachium 439

fugientes c5nspicatae, neque illos suo adventu confirmare
potuerunt, neque ipsae hostium impetum tulerunt. Itaque
quodcumque addebatur subsidio, id, correptum timore fugi-s
entium, terrorem et perlculum augebat; hominum enim
multitudine receptus impediebatur.

In eo proelio cum gravl vulnere esset affectus aquilifer
et a vlribus deficeretur, conspicatus equites nostros,

1 Hanc ego,' inquit, ' et vivus multos per annos magna io
diligentia defend! et nunc, moriens, eadem fide Caesari
restitu5. Nollte, obsecro, committere, quod ante in exer-
citu Caesaris non accidit, ut rei militaris dedecus admitta-
tur, incolumemque ad eum deferte.'

Hoc casu aquila conservatur, omnibus prlmae cohortis 15
centurionibus interfectis praeter prlncipem priorem.

5. quodcumque, etc.: ' every additional detachment sent as rein-
forcement, seized by the panic of those in flight, (only) increased. 1
How lit.?

8. aquilifer: ' eagle-bearer/ always accompanying the first cohort
of a legion. 324, b, (0-

9. a vlribus deficergtur : ' his strength began to fail.' How lit.?
equites : perhaps belonging to the cavalry detachment of the ninth
legion. 309, a.

10. Hanc: hanc aquilam. 211, a, b, (3).

12. Nolite, etc. : ' Do not permit the incurring of a military dis-
grace. 1 How lit.? 181, b.

14. incolumen : sc. hanc aquilam. The cavalrymen heeded his
plea, and took the eagle. -que : 234, b. deferte : 69, b.

15. Hoc casu: the appearance of the cavalrymen at the opportune
moment.

1 6. prlncipem priorem : ' the first centurion of the second maniple . 1
315, b.

65-83. Dyrrachium to Pharsalus. While at Dyrrachium \261) Caesar
sent Domitius Calvinus with two legions eastward into Macedonia in order to
check the advance of Scipio (father of Pompey's fifth and last wife, Cornelia),
who was bringing an army westward to Pompey.

Forced finally to withdraw from Dyrrachium, Caesar fell back on Apollonia
(Map 19); thence he marched southeast, effected a junction with Domitius at



440 Caesar's Civil War [B.C. 48

The Battle of Pharsalus. III. 82-99
Caesar draws up his army near Pompey' s camp, tests his cavalry.

84. Re frumentaria praeparata c6n f irmatlsque militibus,
et satis longo spatio temporis a DyrrachLiIs proelils inter-
miss5, quo satis perspectum habere militum animum vide-
retur, temptandum Caesar existimavit, quidnam Pompeius

5 propositi aut voluntatis ad dimicandum haberet. Itaque
exercitum ex castris eduxit aciemque instruxit, prlmo
suis locis pauloque a castris Pompei longius, continentibus
vero diebus, ut progrederetur a castris suis collibusque
Pompeianis aciem subiceret. Quae res in dies confirma-

iotiorem eius exercitum efficiebat.



Aeginium in Thessaly (301, and Map 19), and led the united army to Gomphi,
which, because its gates were closed, he stormed and gave over to looting.
From Gomphi Caesar marched by way of Metropolis to the vicinity of Phar-
salus, where he encamped, in a plain rich with ripening harvests, resolved
there to await the coming of Pompey (Map 20).

Pompey, taking a northerly route (Map 19) by way of Heraclea (modern
Monastir) , joined the army of Scipio with his own, entered Thessaly from the
north, and encamped not far from Caesar (Map 20).

84. 1. Rg, etc. : trans, by clauses commencing with * when.' con-
firmatis : ' encouraged.'

2. satis, etc. : ' a sufficiently long period had elapsed since the en-
gagements at Dyrrachium to enable him to issure himself of the spirit
of his soldiers. 1 How lit. ?

3. perspectum: 229, a. videretur : sc. sibi. 194, a.

4. temptandum [esse]: sc. sibi i 'that he ought to find out.'
quidnam : etc : ' what intention or desire.' J^.8, c, and 97, b. ]

7. suis locis : l in a position favorable to himself.' in front of his
own camp. castris Pompei : on an-elevation, east of Caesar's camp
(Map 20). 8, b. continentibus: 'successive.'

8. ut : it a instruxit ut ; trans. ' in such a way that he moved forward.'
collibus, etc. : 'pushed his line up to the hills occupied by Pompey.'

9. r§s : the fact that Pompey did not offer battle when Caesar's line
moved up near biro- cpnfirmStiorem : ' more confident.'



111,84] The Battle of Pharsalus 441

Superius tamen institutum in equitibus, quod demon-
stravimus, servabat, ut, quoniam numero multis partibus
esset inferior, adulescentes atque expedites ex antesigna-
nis, electis ad pernlcitatem armls, inter equites proeliari
iuberet, qui cotidiana consuetudine usum quoque eiusis
generis proeliorum perciperent.

His erat rebus effectum, ut equites mille, etiam aperti5-
ribus locls, vn milium Pompeianorum impetum, cum ades-
set usus, sustinere auderent, neque magnopere eorum
multitudine terrerentur. Namque etiam per eos dies proe- 20
Hum secundum equestre fecit, atque unum Allobrogem ex
duobus, quos perfugisse ad Pompeium supra docuimus,
cum quibusdam interfecit.

1 1 . Superius institutum : ' the former arrangement.' demfin-
stravimus : in chapter 75 ; there Caesar relates how he interspersed
400 light-armed footmen among his cavalry which, thus strengthened,
defeated Pompey's cavalry with much slaughter.

12. numero: sc. equitum. 1^2, a. multis partibus: 'much. 1
How lit.? 140.

13. expeditos: * with light equipment,' in place of the heavy
weapons ordinarily carried by the legionary. antesignanls : in each
legion the ' men before the standards ' formed a select contingent
of the best fighters who were charged to protect the standards and
in battle were posted in the parts of the line that were in front of the
standards.

14. electis, etc. : 'with arms selected for quickness of movement.'

15. qui: 'in order that they.' 193, a. quoque, etc.: 'in that
kind of fighting also,' as well as in the methods in which they were
trained as legionaries. The interspersing of agile footmen among
cavalry Caesar had learned from the Germans (I, 48, 11. 12-20) ; in the
latter part of the Gallic War Caesar had employed German horsemen
(n. to VII, 70, 1. 5).

17. apertioribus locis : 'on more open ground,' where Pompey's
much larger force of cavalry could be deployed to the best advantage.
146, c.

18. cum adesset usus : ' when the necessity presented itself. 1 220.
22. duobus: Roucillus and Egus. supra: chapters 59-61.



442 Caesar's Civil War [B.C. 48

Pompey remains stationary ; finally, as Caesar breaks camp, he

advances.

85. Pompeius, qui castra in colle habebat, ad Infimas
radices montis aciem Instruebat, semper, lit videbatur,
exspectans, si iniquls locls Caesar se subiceret.

Caesar, nulla ratione ad pugnam elicl posse Pompeium
5 exlstimans, hanc sibi commodissimam belli rationem iudi-
cavit, uti castra ex eo loco moveret semperque esset in
itineribus, haec spectans, ut movendis castrls pluribusque
adeundis locls commodiore re frumentaria uteretur ; simul-
que in itinere ut aliquam occasionem dimicandl nancisce-
io retur, et Insolitum ad laborem Pompel exercitum cotldianls
itineribus defatlgaret.

His constitutes rebus, signo iam profectionis dato, taber-

nacullsque detensls, animadversum est, paulo ante, extra

cotidianam consuetudinem longius a vallo esse aciem Pompel

i 5 pr5gressam, ut non inlquo loco posse dlmicari videretur.

Turn Caesar apud suos, cum iam esset agmen in portis,

85. 2. montis : « elevation.' aciem : Map 20, Pompey's First
Position. instruebat: on successive days. 175, d.

3. exspectans : \ waiting (to see) whether Caesar would move close
up to the unfavorable ground.' 204, (4).

4. glici: * be lured forth.' 57, d.

5. belli rationem : < plan of campaign.'

7. in itineribus: 'on the march.' haec spectans: 'having
this in view.' movendis castrls : ' by constantly moving his camp.'
280, (4).

10. insolitum ad laborem : < not used to hard work.'

12. His, etc. : Caesar probably reached his decision on August 8,
and gave orders to break camp early the next morning.

13. dStSnsis : ' struck.' paulo, etc. : the movement of Pompey's
line, ' contrary to his daily practice,' was noticed ' a little before ' the
packing and loading of the tents was completed.

15. ut, etc. : 'so that it seemed possible to fight in a not disadvan
tageous position,' the advantages being more nearly equalized by Pom-



in, 86] The Battle of Pharsalus 443

1 Differendum est,' inquit, 'iter in praesentia nobis, et de
proelio cogitandum, slcut semper depoposcimus. Animo
slmus ad dimicandum paratl ; non facile occasionem postea
reperiemus ; ' 20

confestimque expedites copias educit.

Pompey believed that his cavalry alone would win the battle.

86. Pompeius quoque, ut postea cognitum est, suorum
omnium hortatu, statuerat proelio decertare. Namque
etiam in consilio superioribus diebus dixerat, Prius quam
concurrerent acies, fore, utl exercitus Caesaris pelleretur.
Id cum essent plerlque admlrati, 5

' Scio me,' inquit, ' paene incredibilem rem pollicerl; sed
rationem consilii mei accipite, quo flrmiore anim5 in proe-
lium prodeatis. PersuasI equitibus nostrls (idque mihi
facturos conflrmaverunt), ut, cum propius sit accessum,

pey's advance further into the plain from his camp on higher ground.
73, d, and 239, g.

18. depoposcimus: < we have earnestly desired.' How lit.?
Animo : ' in spirit.'

21. expedltas: 'in fighting trim'; lit. ' unencumbered,' having
laid aside the burdens which they had started to carry on the march.

86. 2. hortatu: i in consequence of the urging.' 135, a.

3. consilio: a meeting of officers. superioribus diebus : from
in posterum diem (1. 16) we are led to infer that the meeting of officers
took place on August 8, the day before the battle.

4. concurrerent : present subjunctive in the direct form. 189, b.
acies : the two opposing lines, Caesar's and Pompey's. fore, etc. :
203, (1).

6. Scio, etc. : Fig. 147. 211, b, (3).

7. rationem consilii mei : ' the explanation of my plan. 1 quo,
etc. : 193, b.

8. PersuasI : as if Pompey had only to ' persuade ' the cavalry to
carry out the movement — and the battle would be won !

9. cum, etc. : ' when the lines have drawn nearer.' How lit. ?
73, d.



444



Caesar's Civil War



[B.C. 48



iodextrum Caesaris cornu ab latere aperto aggrederentur, et,
circumventa a tergo acie, prius perturbatum exercitum
pellerent, quam a nobis telum in hostem iaceretur.

' Ita sine perlculo legionum, et paene sine vulnere, bellum
conficiemus. Id autem difficile non est, cum tantum equi-

15 tatu valeamus.'

Simul denuntiavit, ut essent animo parati in posterum
diem et, quoniam fieret dimicandi potestas, ut saepe
rogitavissent, ne suam neu reliquorum opinionem fal-
lerent.




Figure



Pompey.



10. ab latere aperto : N.
to I, 25, 1. 17. Pompey's huge
force of cavalry was to out-
flank Caesar's line of infantry
and attack it from the rear.
The outflanking was planned
for Caesar's right wing because
his left would be protected by
the river Enipeus (cf. Map
20).

1 1 . perturbatum : ' throw
his army into confusion and. 1
228, a.

14. cum, etc. : ' since we
are so much stronger in cav-
alry.' Pompey's horsemen
numbered 7000, Caesar's 1000.
184, a.

16. denuntiavit: 'he en-
joined (them).'

18. n6, etc. : 'and not dis-
appoint his own expectation
or that of the others. 1 157, d.
reliquorum : senators and
other civilians of standing who



Marble bust in the Jacobsen Museum, Copen
hagen ; from a photograph courteously furnished were With Pompey. falle-

by the Director of the Museum. rent : 199, a.



in, 86] The Battle of Pharsalus 445

Even Labienus, over-confident, had expressed his contempt for
Caesar's troops.

87 Hunc Labienus excepit et, cum Caesaris copias
despiceret, Pompei consilium summis laudibus efferret,

1 Noli,' inquit, ' exlstimare, Pompei, hunc esse exercitum,
qui Galliam Germaniamque devicerit. Omnibus interfui
proeliis neque temere incognitam rem pronuntio. s

' Perexigua pars illius exercitus superest ; magna pars
deperiit (quod accidere tot proeliis fuit necesse), multos
autumni pestilentia in Italia consumpsit, multi domum
discesserunt, multi sunt relict! in continenti.

' An non audistis, ex eis, qui per causam valetudinis re- io



87. i. Labienus: Labienus had gone over to the side of Pompey
and had already shown himself an implacable enemy of Caesar. So
long as he was under the direction of Caesar he was an efficient officer,
displaying military talents of a high order. When, however, he came
to act more independently he showed lack of insight, as in the present
instance ; and he failed to realize the expectations of his new friends.
excepit : ' followed, 1 in speaking. cum . . . despiceret : ' dis-

paraging. 1 185, c.

3. Noli: 181, b. Pompei: 8, c. B. 25, 1; A. 49, c\ H.

83,5-

4. devicerit : ' subdued. 1 The statement is an exaggeration, to
heighten the effect ; Germany was far from being subdued. There is
similar exaggeration in the following statement, that Labienus took part
in all the battles in Gaul and Germany.

5. neque, etc. : ; and I am not recklessly asserting something that
I do not know. 1 How lit. ?

6. Perexigua pars : ' An exceedingly small remnant. 1

7. deperiit: <■ has been destroyed. 1 qxiod.: = id quod. 160, c.

8. autumni pestilentia : * the autumn sickness, 1 fevers, from which,
in the autumn of 49 B.C., Caesars army had suffered in Apulia and the
region of Brundisium (C. Ill, 2).

9. in continenti : in Italy.

10. An: 179, a, (2). B. 162,4,^ ; A. 335,^; H. 380, 3. audistis:
64, a, (3).



446 Caesar's Civil War [B.C. 48

manserunt, cohortes esse Brundisii factas ? Hae copiae,
quas videtis, ex dilectibus horum ann5rum in citeriore
Gallia sunt refectae, et plerique sunt ex coloniis Trans-
padanls. Ac tamen, quod fuit roboris, duobus proeliis

15 Dyrrachinis interiit.'

Haec cum dixisset, iuravit, se nisi victorem in castra non
reversurum, reliquosque, ut idem facerent, hortatus est.

Hoc laudans, Pompeius idem iuravit ; nee ver5 ex reliquis
fuit quisquam, qui iurare dubitaret.

20 Haec turn facta sunt in c5nsilio, magnaque spe et laetitia
omnium discessum est ; ac iam animo victoriam praecipie-
bant, quod de re tanta et a tarn peritd imperatore nihil
frustra confirmarl videbatur.

11. cohortes, etc. : l that (whole) cohorts at Brundisium have been
made up of those who were left behind on account of sickness.' 146.

12. horum annorum : i.e. of the last two years, since the outbreak
of the Civil War. citeriore Gallia : 28 %.

13. sunt refectae : 'have been recruited.'

14. quod fuit roboris: 'all the (real) strength there was' in
Caesar's army ; the small nucleus of veterans which, after the reductions
mentioned, Labienus thought that Caesar had been able to bring across
the Adriatic. 97, b.

15. interiit: how badly mistaken Labienus was, he afterwards
learned to his sorrow ; the brunt of the fighting at Pharsalus was borne
by Caesar's veterans.

16. iur5vit, etc. : the oath was not unlike that taken by the Gauls
under Vercingetorix (VII, 66, 11. 23-26; 67, I. 1) ; the result was in
both cases the same. Similar, too, was the proclamation of General
Ducrot, addressed to his soldiers in beleaguered Paris November 28, 1870,
when he was trying to break through the Prussian "ring of iron" about
the city. " For myself," the proclamation says, " I am fully resolved,
I make my oath before you and before the entire nation, that I will re-
enter Paris either dead or victorious ; you may see me fall, but you will
not see me retreat." Vercingetorix and his officers, Pompey, Labienus,
Ducrot — all alike survived overwhelming defeat.

21. omnium : including, besides the officers, prominent civilians.

22. tam perito imperatore : Labienus. nihil, etc. : sc. sibi ; ' the)



Ill, 88]



The Battle of Pharsalus



447



Caesar notes the arrangement of Pompey's line of battle.

88. Caesar, cum Pompel castrls appropinquasset, ad
hunc modum aciem eius Instructam animum advertit :

Erant in sinistro cornu legiones duae, traditae a Caesare
initio dissensionis ex senatus consulto; quarum una prima,
altera tertia appellabatur. In e5 loc5 ipse erat Pompeius. 5
Mediam aciem Sclpio cum legionibus Syriacis tenebat.
Ciliciensis legio coniuncta cum cohortibus Hispanis, quas

thought that confident assurances were not given without good grounds. 1
How lit.?

88. 2. hunc: 161, a. animum advertit : 113, c.

3. traditae : 'which had been handed over (to him).' 227, a, (4).

4. initio dissensionis :
'at the beginning of the
strife, 1 in 50 B.C. 147, b.
ex senatus consulto : ' in
accordance with a decree of
the Senate. 1 258. prima,
tertia : predicative. A legion
transferred to another con>
mander received a new num-
ber. Pompey^ ' First Legion 1
had been legio VI in Caesar's
army, and his ' Third Legion 1
had been Caesars legio XV;
both legions entered the service
of Caesar in 53 B.C. 307, g.

5. eo loco: Pompey's left
wing, facing Caesar's right.

6. legionibus Syriacis :
two legions that had been
serving in Syria, that Scipio
had conducted to Pompey in
Macedonia.

7. Ciliciensis: 'fromCili-
cia ' ; this was a veteran legion.
quas . . . docuimus : the
passage here referred to has




Figure 148. — Legionary's cuirass.
Pompey's soldiers had the same armor and
weapons as Caesar's ; there was no such disparity
in equipment as there had been between Caesar's
soldiers and the Gauls.



448 Caesar's Civil War [B.C. 48

traductas ab Afranio docuimus, in dextro cornu erant col-
locatae. Has flrmissimas se habere Pompeius existimabat.

10 Reliquas inter aciem mediam cornuaque interiecerat
numeroque cohortes ex expleverat. Haec erant numerd
milia xlv; evocatorum circiter duo, quae ex beneficiariis
superiorum exercituum ad eum convenerant, quae t5ta
acie disperserat.

15 Reliquas cohortes vn castrls propinqulsque castellis prae-
sidio disposuerat. Dextrum cornu eius rivus quidam impe-
ditis ripls muniebat ; quam ob causam cunctum equitatum,
sagittarios funditoresque omnes sinistro cornu adiecerat.

Caesar arranges his troops in order of battle.

89. Caesar, superius Institutum servans, x legionem in
dextr5 cornu, n5nam in sinistro collocaverat, tametsi erat

been lost. Afranius and Petreius commanded forces of Pompey in
Spain, but were conquered by Caesar in 49 B.C.

8. erant collocatae : the subject grammatically is legio, but in
thought the ' Spanish cohorts ' also are included, as if legio et HispCunie
cohortes had been written. 173, b.

9. HSs : the five legions mentioned, and the Spanish cohorts ; 'that
these were the strongest legions which he had.' How lit. ?

10. Reliquas: sc. legiones (Fig. 148).

11. numero, etc.: Pompey had no cohorts, the equivalent of
1 1 legions, in his battle line (Map 20) ; these comprised 47,000 regular
soldiers, besides cavalry and light-armed troops.

12. evocatorum: 'veteran volunteers.' 316. duo: sc. viilia-
erant. beneficiariis : ' privileged soldiers ' ; see Vocab.

13. superiorum exercituum: 'of (his) former armies,' as in the
war with Mithridates.

15. castellis : marked A A A on Map 20.

16. rivus quidam: probably the Enipeus ; see Map 20. inipe-
ditis ripls : ' with banks hard to cross.'

89. 1. superius institutum : ' his earlier arrangement ' of having
the tenth legion in the place of honor on the right wing, as in the battle
with Ariovistus, eleven years before (Map 4). X: decimam. 88,6.

2. erat, etc. : 'it had been greatly reduced in strength.' 191, a.



Ill, 89]



The Battle of Pharsalus



449



Dyrrachinfs proelils vehementer attenuata, et huic sic
adiunxerat octavam, ut paene unam ex duabus efficeret,
atque alteram alterl praesidi5 esse iusserat. s

Cohortes in acie lxxx constitutas habebat, quae summa
erat milium xxn ; cohortes vn castris praesidio reliquerat.
Sinistro cornu Antonium, dextro P. Sullam, mediae aciel
Cn. Domitium praeposuerat Ipse contra Pompeium
constitit. ic

Simul his rebus animadversis, quas demonstravimus,
timens, ne a multitudine equitum dextrum cornu circum-
veniretur, celeriter ex tertia acie singulas cohortes detraxit

5. alterl : sc. legioni ; ' that, the one (legion) should support the
other.' 23, a, and 112, b.

6. LXXX : 36. quae summa : trans, as if quarum summa (cf.
I, 29, 1. s).

7. milium XXII: Caesar's 80 cohorts, 8 legions (Map 20), con-
taining a total of only 22,000
men, averaged less than 300
men to a cohort ; Pompey's no
cohorts averaged above 400 men
each. 100, b, and 307, b, c.

8. cornu: dative. 20, b.
Antonium : Mark Antony.

9. contra Pompeium:
Caesar was with the tenth legion
on the right wing, facing Pom-
pey's left wing, where Pompey
was (chap. 88, 1. 5).

11. his rebus : Pompey's
disposition of forces, especially
the massing of cavalry and light
infantry over against Caesar's
right wing (chap. 88, 11. 17-18) ;
Caesar saw at a glance that
a flanking movement was in-
tended, and with amazing quickness of decision devised a means to
resist it.

13. tertia acie : 337.




Figure 149. — Banner, vexillum.



450 Caesar's Civil War [B.C. 48

atque ex his quartam Instituit equitatulque opposuit, et,
is quid fieri vellet, ostendit, monuitque eius diei victoriam in
earum cohortium virtute c5nstare.

Simul tertiae aciel imperavit, ne iniussu suo concurreret ;
se, cum id fieri vellet, vexillo signum daturum.

Caesar briefly addresses his soldiers and gives the signal
to attack.

90. Exercitum cum militari more ad pugnam cohorta-
retur suaque in eum perpetui temporis officia praedicaret,
in prlmls commemoravit :

Testibus se militibus utl posse, quant o studio pdcem
5 petlsset ; quae per Vatlnium in colloquils, quae per A. Clo-
dium cum Sclpione egisset y quibus modis ad Oricum cum
Libone de mittendis legatis contendisset. Neque se um-
quam abuti mllitum sanguine neque rem publicam alterutro
exercitu privare voluisse.



14. quartam [aciem] : this line was made up of eight cohorts, less
than 3000 men ; see Map 20, Fourth Line.

18. vexillo: used generally to give the signal 'to arms' (II, 20,
1. 2, and Fig. 149) ; in this instance, to order a division into action.

90. 1 . militari more : ' in accordance with military custom ' ; N. to
I, 25, 1. 3. 136, c.

2. sua, etc. : * was setting forth his kindnesses to it, an unbroken
series ' (lit. 'of unbroken time 1 ). 100, a.

4. Testibus, etc. : i that he could call upon his soldiers to bear
witness. 1 How lit.? 131, /, and 212, c, (2).

5. per Vatlnium, etc. : the efforts made by Caesar to arrange
terms of peace through the agency of Publius Vatininus and Aulus
Clodius are narrated in chapters 19 and 57 of Book III.

7. dS, etc. : ' had endeavored to arrange the sending of envoys 1 for
a peace conference ; cf. C III, 16-17. 204, (3)-

8. abuti: < waste. 1 131, c. alterutrS : 51.

9. exercitu: 127, a. B. 214; H. 462. privare: 'deprive.*



111,91] The Battle of Pharsalus 451

Hac habita oratione, exposcentibus militibus et studio io
pugnae ardentibus, tuba signum dedit.

With heroic words, Crasti7ius leads the charge.

91. Erat Crastinus, evocatus, in exercitu Caesaris, qui
superiore anno apud eum primum pilum in legione x duxe-
rat, vir singular! virtute. Hie, signo dato,

1 Sequimini me,' inquit, ' manipulates mei qui fuistis, et
vestro imperatorl, quam consuevistis, operam date. Unum 5
hoc proelium superest ; qu5 confecto, et ille suam dignita-
tem, et nos nostram libertatem recuperabimus.'

Simul respiciens Caesarem,

1 Faciam,' inquit, 'hodie, imperator, ut aut vivo mihi aut
mortuo gratias agas.' io

Haec cum dixisset, primus ex dextro cornu procucurrit,
atque eum electi milites circiter exx voluntaril sunt proseciiti.



Online LibraryJulius CaesarC. Iulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum. Caesar's Commentaries: the Gallic war, books I-Iv, with selections from books V-VII and from the civil war; → online text (page 38 of 73)