Julius Caesar.

C. Iulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum. Caesar's Commentaries: the Gallic war, books I-Iv, with selections from books V-VII and from the civil war; online

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io. oratione : the words must have been repeated several times,
probably by Caesar himself, riding along the line ; no single utterance
could have been heard over so extended a front. exposcentibus :
sc. signum. Caesar's watchword in this battle was venus victrix,
* Venus Bringer of Victory. 1 He vowed a temple to this goddess if he
should be victorious, and afterwards fulfilled his vow by erecting a
temple to Venus in Rome. 244-

ii. ardentibus : a strong word ; < burning.' tuba, etc. : 826, a,
(i), and b. The date was August 9, unreformed calendar. 261,
and 241, c.

91. 1. Crastinus: 76, b. evocatus: 316.

2. pilum : from pilus ; see Vocab., and 315, b. X: 38, b.

4. manipulares, etc. : ' who were the men of my maniple ' (when
I was first centurion).

6. quo confecto: i when this is over.' How lit.? dignitatem:
'his position' in the state; sc. recuperdbit.

7. nostram libertatem : jeopardized by Pompey.

9. Faciam, etc. : ' General, you will to-day have occasion to thank
me, living or dead.' How lit.? 203, (3).

12. voluntaril: 'who were serving as volunteers'; like Crastinus,
they were 'veterans,' evocati.



452 Caesar's Civil War [B.C. 48

Caesar's veterans halt to take breath, hurl themselves on the foe.

92. Inter duas acies tantum erat rellctum spatil, ut satis
esset ad concursum utriusque exercitus. Sed Pompeius
suis praedixerat, ut Caesaris impetum exciperent, neve se
loco moverent aciemque eius distrahl paterentur; idque

s admonitu C. Triarii fecisse dicebatur, ut primus excursus
visque militum infringeretur aciesque distenderetur, atque
in suis ordinibus dispositi dispersos adorlrentur; leviusque
casura pila sperabat, in loco retentis militibus, quam si ipsi
immissis telis occurrissent ; simul fore, ut, duplicato cursu,

io Caesaris milites exanimarentur et lassitudine conficerentur.

Quod nobis quidem nulla ratione factum a Pompeio

videtur, propterea quod est quaedam animi incitatio atque

92. i. tantum spatii: ' (only) so much space 1 ; probably about
loo passus, somewhat less than 500 English feet. 97, b, and 2/fi, b.
ut, etc. : ' as to enable each army to charge.' How lit. ? 197, b.

3. praedixerat, etc.: 'had given orders in advance 1 (i.e. not to
countercharge when they saw the enemy advancing but) 'to await
Caesar's attack and not to move from their position. 1 199, d.

4. aciem, etc.: 'his line to become disordered, 1 as his soldiers
should rush forward in the charge.

5. primus, etc.: 'that the initial vigor of attack of (Caesars)
soldiers might be lessened. 1 How lit. ?

7. dispositi dispersos: sc. sin (i.e. PompeianI mf&tis) eos
{Caesaris ?mlites) ; ' that his own men with ranks in perfect order might
fall upon them when in confusion. 1 How lit.? levius casura
[esse] : ' would fall with less effect, 1 than if his soldiers should charge
against them as they were hurled.

8. in, etc. : ' if his soldiers should be held in position. 1 144< b % (4).

9. duplicato cursu : ' having twice as far to run ' in the charge, cover-
ing the whole distance between the two armies instead of half the distance.

10. exanimarentur, etc. : 'would get out of breath and be weak-
ened by fatigue. 1

11. Quod: 'Now this. 1 167. nulla ratione: 'quite without
reason.' How lit.? 135, a. factum: sc. esse.

12. est, etc. : 'all men have by nature a kind of latent capacity for be-
ing spurred to action, and this is kindled by the heat of battle. 1 How lit. ?



in, 93] „ The Battle of Pharsalus 453

alacritas naturaliter innata omnibus, quae studio pugnae
incenditur. Hanc non reprimere, sed augere imperatores
debent ; neque f rustra antiquitus Institutum est, ut signa is
undique concinerent clamoremque universl tollerent ; qui-
bus rebus et hostes terreri et suos incitarl existimaverunt.

93. Sed nostri milites, sign5 dato, cum Infestls pills
procucurrissent atque animum advertissent non concurri a
Pompeianls, usu periti ac superioribus pugnis exercitatl, sua
sponte cursum represserunt et ad medium fere spatium
constiterunt, ne consumptis viribus appropinquarent ; par- s
voque intermisso temporis spatio, ac rursus renovatd cursu,
pila miserunt celeriterque, ut erat praeceptum a Caesare,
gladios strinxerunt.

Neque vero Pompeiani huic rei defuerunt. Nam et tela
missa exceperunt et impetum legionum tulerunt et ordines io
conservarunt, pllisque missis, ad gladios redierunt.

15. signa :< signals ' with the trumpet. 326, a, b.

16. undique concinerent : 'should in all parts (of the line) sound
at the same time.' universl: ' (the soldiers) in a body.'

17. quibus rebus: 'and by these means.' existimaverunt:
as subject supply antiqia, ' men of the olden time.'

93. 1. cum: 185, c. infestls pills : 'with pikes raised,' ready
for hurling. How lit.?

2. non concurri, etc. : 'that no advance was made by the soldiers
of Pompey,' who had been ordered to stand still and let Caesar's sol-
diers come on.

4. ad medium fere spatium: 'about half-way between' the two
armies. These experienced soldiers covered nearly the distance of
our 100-yard dash, stopped of their own accord to take breath, ran
again a like distance and hurled their pikes, then 'drew their swords.'
Pompey had again miscalculated, in assuming that Caesar's men would
allow themselves to be exhausted by a charge of twice the ordinary
length.

9. Neque, etc : ' And in truth the soldiers of Pompey did not fail
to meet this movement.' How lit.? tela: the pikes hurled by
Caesar's men.

10. exceperunt: with their shields. ordines: 'ranks. 1



454 Caesars Civil War [B.C. 48

Caesar's cavalry is defeated; his fourth line routs Pompey's cav-
alry and attacks Pompey's left wing in the rear.

Eodem tempore equites ab sinistro Pompei cornu, ut erat
imperatum, universi procucurrerunt, omnisque multitudo
sagittariorum se profudit. Quorum impetum noster equi-

istatus non tulit, sed paulatim loco motus cessit; equitesque
Pompei hoc acrius Instare et se turmatim explicare aciem-
que nostram ab latere aperto circumlre coeperunt.

Quod ubi Caesar animum advertit, quartae aciel, quam
instituerat, cohortibus dedit signum.

20 Illae celeriter prdcucurrerunt Infestisque signls tanta vi
in Pompei equites impetum fecerunt, ut eorum nemo con-
sisteret, omnesque conversl non solum loco excederent, sed
protinus incitatl fuga montes altissim5s peterent. Quibus
summotis, omnes sagittarii funditoresque destituti, inermes,

25 sine praesidio, interfecti sunt.

12. EquitSs, etc. : see chap. 86, 11. 8-15 ; chap. 88, 11. 17-18. Pom-
pey's cavalry was commanded by Labienus, who soon forgot his oath
(chap. 87, 11. 16-17). See Map .20.

14. se profudit : ' rushed forward.'

16. hoc: 135, a. se turmatim explicare : i to deploy by squad-
rons.' The cavalry had charged in clo. c e formation ; it now deployed
by squadrons in order the more easily to execute the flanking movement
ordered by Pompey. 309, c.

18. aci§I: dependent on cohortibus', see chap. 89, 11. 14-16, and
Map 20, Fourth line.

20. Infestis signls : 325. Cavalry are at a disadvantage in with-
standing a charge of infantry.

22. -que: 'but.' 234, b. conversl: ' wheeling about.' How
lit.?

23. incitatl fuga : 'scurrying in flight.' How lit.? Their probable
course is shown on Map 20, Route of Pompey's Cavalry in Flight.

24. dSstitutl: by the flight of the cavalry, inermfis : without de-
fensive weapons.

25. sine praesidio : in- the open plain, without a rampart to shield
them.



111,94] The Battle of Pharsalus 455

Eodem impetu cohortes sinistrum cornu, pugnantibus
etiam turn ac resistentibus in acie Pompeianis, circumierunt
eosque a tergo sunt adortae.

Caesar's third line enters the action; Pompey' s infantry gives
way, and Pompey Jlees to his camp.

94. Eodem tempore tertiam aciem Caesar, quae quieta
fuerat et se ad id tempus loco tenuerat, procurrere iussit.
Ita cum recentes atque integri defessis successissent, alii
autem a tergo adorirentur, sustinere Pompeiani non po-
tuerunt atque universi terga verterunt. s

Sed Pompeius, ut equitatum suum pulsum vidit atque earn
partem, cui maxime confidebat, perterritam animum ad-
vertit, alils diffisus acie excessit protinusque se in castra
equo contulit et eis centurion ibus, quos in statione ad prae-
t5riam portam posuerat, clare, ut mllites exaudirent, ic

26. Eodem impetu: 'Continuing their movement.' How lit.?
cohortes : of the fourth line. sinistrum cornu : of Pompey.

27. Pompeianis : Pompey's legionaries ; his cavalry and light-armed
troops were already disposed of.

28. a tergo : by forming a fourth line, notwithstanding his inferior
numbers, Caesar was enabled not only to defeat Pompey's plan to out-
flank him but to turn the tables and outflank Pompey.

94. 1 . tertiam aciem : the third line had been ordered to await
Caesar's signal with the red banner (chap. 89, 11. 17-18).

3. recentes atque integri: the soldiers of Caesar's third line.
defessis : the soldiers of the first and second lines, fighting against
superior numbers, until now without reinforcements. 337, b. alii:
Caesar's fourth line.

6. ut : 188, a. atque: 'and (thus).' earn partem: the

cavalry.

8. alils diffisus: 'losing confidence in his other troops.' 62, and
105. acie: 127, a. s§ equo contulit: 'rode on horseback.'
How lit.? 131, a.

io. praetoriam portam : here the west gate of the camp (Map 20).
334, a. clare : ' in a loud voice.'



456 Caesar's Civil War [B.C. 48

' Tuemini,' inquit, ' castra et defendite diligenter, si quid
durius accident. Ego reliquas portas circumeo et castrorum
praesidia confirmo.'

Haec cum dixisset, se in praetorium contulit, summae
is rei diffldens et tamen eventum exspectans.

Caesar takes Pompey's camp, finding many evidences
of luxury.

95. Caesar, Pompeianis ex fuga intra vallum compulsis,
nullum spatium perterritis dari oportere existimans, milites
cohortatus est, ut beneficio fortunae uterentur castraque
oppugnarent. Qui, etsi magno aestu fatigati — nam ad
s meridiem res erat perducta — tamen, ad omnem laborem
animo parati, imperio paruerunt.

Castra a cohortibus, quae ibi praesidio erant rellctae, in-

dustrie defendebantur, multo etiam acrius a Thracibus

barbarisque auxiliis. Nam qui ex acie refugerant milites,

ioet animo perterriti et lassitudine confecti, dimissis plerlque

ii. Tuemim: 61, a, (2). si, etc. : ' if any unusual difficulty pre-
sents itself.' How lit. ? 206.

13. confirmo : ' encourage' ; vivid use of the present tense.

14. praetorium: < general's quarters.' 33 4, b. summae: da-
tive, with rei, genitive, depending on it ; ' distrustful of the final issue.'
How lit.?

95. 1. vallum: of Pompey's camp; his men had been forced back
to the elevation on which the camp was, and up the slope (Map 20).

3. ut, etc. : * to take advantage of fortune's favor.'

4. magno aestu : in the plain of Pharsalus the heat in summer is
intense.

5. rSs: 'the struggle.' tamen, etc : notwithstanding the physi-
cal exhaustion of Caesar's soldiers, their grit did not fail them.

7. cohortibus : 7 in number, for the camp and redoubts (chap. 88,
11. 15-16).

9. barbarisque auxiliis: <and (other) barbarian auxiliary troops.'
Nam : < (The defense was left to these) for.'

10. dimissis, etc. : * in most cases throwing away.' How lit. ?



111,96] The Battle of Pharsalus 457

armis signisque mllitaribus, magis de reliqua fuga quam de
castrorum defensione cogitabant.

Neque vero diutius, qui in vallo constiterant, multitu-
dinem telorum sustinere potuerunt, sed, confecti vulneribus,
locum reliquerunt, protinusque omnes, ducibus usi centuri- 1=
onibus tribunlsque militum, in altissimos montes, qui ad
castra pertinebant, confugerunt.

96. In castrls Pom pel videre licuit trichilas structas,
magnum argenti pondus expositum, recentibus caespitibus
tabernacula con strata, L. etiam Lentuli et non nullorum
tabernacula protecta hedera, multaque praeterea, quae
nimiam luxuriam et victoriae fiduciam designarent; uts
facile existimarl posset, nihil e5s de eventu eius diei ti-
muisse, qui non necessarias conquirerent voluptates. At hi

13. qui: as antecedent sc. et, subject of potuerunt.

15. ducibus, etc.: i having as their leaders 1 (in flight) 'the cen-
turions and military tribunes,' who ought to have rallied the demoralized
troops and continued the battle ; bitter sarcasm, veiled under a form
of expression that on the surface is complimentary. 131, f.

16. montes, etc. : see Map 20, Route of Pompey's Fleeing
Legionaries.

96. 1. licuit: 73, b. trichilas structas: < arbors that had been
built, 1 covered with branches having their leaves on, as a protection
against the sun. These did not take the place of the tents, but were
used for dining; in summer well-to-do Romans made much use of
arbors shaded with branches or vines.

2. argenti: 'silver plate. 1 expositum: i set out' on tables, in
readiness for dinner. recentibus, etc. : * tents carpeted with fresh
turf. 1

3. L. Lentuli: mentioned by name because of his prominence ; he
had been consul the previous year.

4. protecta hedera : ' decked with ivy, 1 trailed along the sides, to
keep out the heat.

5. designarent: 'evidenced.' The unsoldierly camp life of Pom-
pey^ aristocratic civilian contingent is known from other sources. 194, a.

7. non necessarias voluptates : ' needless indulgences. 1 239, g.
A-t : 236, a.



458 Caesar's Civil War [B.C. 48

miserrimo ac patientissimo exercitui Caesaris luxuriam
obiciebant, cui semper omnia ad necessarium usum de-
10 f uissent !

Pompey flees from the camp, reaches the sea, takes ship.

Pompeius, cum iam intra vallum nostrl versarentur,
equum nactus, detractis Insignibus imperatoriis, decumana
porta se ex castris eiecit protinusque equ5 citato Larisam
contendit.

ts Neque ibi constitit, sed eadem celeritate, paucos suos
ex fuga nactus, nocturno itinere non intermisso, comitatu
equitum xxx ad mare pervenit navemque frumentariam
conscendit, saepe, ut dlcebatur, querens tantum se opi-
nionem fefellisse, ut, a quo genere hominum vict5riam spe-

2orasset, ab eo initio fugae facto, paene proditus videretur.

8. miserrimo: 28, a. patientissimo: 'most long-suffering.'
27, a.

9. cui, etc. : ' although it had lacked everything.' 194, d.

12. equum nactus: the language implies that Pompey did not
wait to get his own mount but jumped on the first horse he could find.
61, a, (3), and 226, c. insignibus imperatoriis : the distinguish-
ing marks of his rank as commander, particularly his scarlet mantle
(paliidamentum), which he replaced by a traveler's cloak. 321. de-
cumana porta : in this case the east gate (Map 20). 334, a, and 134, #•

13. equo citato: 'urging his horse forward.' 144, b, (7). La-
risam: see Map 19. The distance from Pharsalus to Larisa is about
25 English miles.

15. paucos suos: among Pompey 's companions in flight was
Lucius Lentulus (1. 3) who likewise met death in Egypt (C. III. 104).

17. mare: at the mouth of the Peneus, about 25 miles northeast of
Larisa ; in the latter part of his flight Pompey passed through the famous
Vale of Tempe, which runs back from the sea between Mt. Olympus
and Mt. Ossa (Map 19) ; see Fig. 209, in Vocab.

18. sS, etc.: 'that he had been so grievously disappointed in his
expectations ' ; se is object of fefellisse : How lit.?

19. a qu5, etc. : ' that it almost seemed as if he had been betrayed,



in.97] The Battle of Pharsalus 459

Caesar completes the victory, taking many captives.

97. Caesar, castrls potitus, a mllitibus contendit, ne, in
praeda occupatl, reliqui negotil gerendl facultatem dlmit-
terent. Qua re impetrata, montem opere circummunlre
Instituit.

Pompeiani, quod is mons erat sine aqua, diffisl el loc5, s
relict5 monte, universl iugls eis Larisam versus se reci-
pere coeperunt. Qua re animadversa, Caesar copias suas
dlvisit partemque legionum in castris Pompei remanere
iussit, partem in sua castra remisit, mi secum legiones
duxit commodioreque itinere Pompeianis occurrere coepit, io
et, progressus milia passuum vi, aciem Instruxit.

Qua re animadversa, Pompeiani in quodam monte con-
stiterunt. Hunc montem flumen subluebat.

since the rout was started by that division of men (the cavalry), from
whom. 1 How lit. ? 148, e\ 172, d, and 165, c.

97. i. castris: 131, c. mllitibus : the soldiers immediately on
capturing the camp began to plunder it. contendit : ' urged and
demanded,' not imperat ; see n. to chap. 98, 1. 7. 199, a.

2. reliqui, etc. : 'the opportunity to finish up the business in hand.'
How lit?

3. Qua re impetrata: 'Having carried his point.' That under
the circumstances Caesar's soldiers left off looting in order to resume
fighting, is evidence not only of his power to maintain discipline but also
of their loyalty to him. montem: 'elevation'; see chap. 95, 1. 16.
opere : the usual trench and rampart.

6. iugls els : * along the ridges,' connecting the heights. 134, b, and
160, d. Larisam versus : * in the direction of Larisa.' Their course
was first toward the northeast, to find a place where they could cross
the Enipeus ; Map 20, Route of Pompey's fleeing legionaries.

10. commodiore itinere : Caesar passed over the height on which
was Pompey's camp and followed the more level ground along the river,
being thus enabled to head off the fleeing legionaries who were travers-
ing the high ground ; Map 20, Route of Caesar overtaking the

LEGIONARIES OF POMPEY.

12. quodam monte : marked B on Map 20.

13. flumen: Enipeus.



460 Caesar's Civil War [B.C. 48

Caesar, milites cohortatus, etsl totius diel continent!
15 labore erant confecti noxque iam suberat, tamen munlti-
one flumen a monte seclusit, ne noctu aquarl PompeianI
possent. Quo perfecto opere, ill! de deditione, missis
legatls, agere coeperunt. Pauci ordinis senatorii, qui se
cum his coniunxerant, nocte fuga salutem petlverunt.

98. Caesar prima luce omnes eos, qui in monte con-
sederant, ex superidribus locis in planitiem descendere
atque arma proicere iussit. Quod ubi sine recusatione
fecerunt, passisque palmis, proiecti ad terram, flentes, ab eo
s salutem petlverunt, consolatus consurgere iussit, et pauca
apud eos de lenitate sua locutus, quo minore essent timore,
omnes conservavit ; militibusque suis commendavit, ne qui
eorum violaretur, neu quid sui desiderarent. Hac adhibita
diligentia, ex castrls sibi legiones alias occurrere et eas,



15. munitione : Map 20, Caesar's line of works.

16. s§clusit: 'shut off.' 79, d. aquarl: i to obtain water.'

18. ordinis senatorii: <of senatorial rank.' These men, having
bitterly opposed Caesar, feared his vengeance even more than the sol-
diers did.

98. 3. Quod: trans, as if et id. recusatione: 'protest.'

4. passis palmis : \ with their palms outstretched, 1 in supplication,
proiecti ad terram: ' casting themselves upon the ground.' 174-
ab eo : 116, b.

5. consurgere iussit: sc. eos, i he bade them rise. 1

6. quo, etc. : 'in order to allay their fears.' How lit.? 143. b.

7. 116: < (urging) that. 1 qui: 49, a, and 168. commendSvit
[eos] : not imperavit ; in a time of so great excitement and strain
Caesar could more easily control his men through a request than by a
command.

8. violSrgtur: 'be harmed. 1 neu: 199, <i. sui : genitive.
singular, neuter; 'anything that belonged to them, 1 lit. 'anything of
their own. 1 97, b, and 154, a. HSc adhibita diligentia : Having
given this matter careful attention. 1 How lit. ?

9. sibi occurrere : with iussit, * he ordered other legions to join
him. 1



ill, 99]



The Battle of Pharsalus



461



quas secum duxerat, in vicem requiescere atque in castra 10
revert! iussit, eodemque die Larlsam pervenit.

The losses, on both sides. Death of the brave Crastinus.

99. In eo proelio non amplius cc milites deslderavit, sed
centuri5nes, fortes viros, circiter xxx amlsit.

Interfectus estetiam, fortissime pugnans, Crastinus, cuius
mentionem supra fecimus, gladi5 in 6s adversum coniecto.
Neque id f uit falsum, quod ille, in pugnam proficiscens, s
dixerat. Sic enim Caesar existimabat, eo proelio excellen-
tissimam virtutem Crastini fuisse, optimeque eura de se
meritum iudicabat.



io. qu5s, etc. : these legions had been fighting, marching, fortifying,
or on guard duty, continuously for twenty-four hours. requiescere :
' to take rest.'

ii. Larlsam pervenit: a march of 25 English miles, on the day
after the battle, in very hot
weather — no mean accom-
plishment. 329.

99. 1 . CC : ducentos. 129,
b. B. 217,3; A. 407,^; H.
47i,4-

2. centuriones, etc. : cf.
N. to VII, 51, 1. 1.

3. supra : chap. 91.
gladio, etc. : * having re-
ceived a sword-thrust directly
in the face.'

6. excellentissimam,
etc. : ' that the valor of Cras-
tinus was the most extraordinary ' of all. " The army bore witness,"
says Appian, " how, like one inspired, running to each rank he per-
formed prodigies of valor. And when, after search, he was found among
the dead, Caesar put military decorations upon him, and buried them
with him, and built for him a separate tomb near the common burial-
place where many were interred."




Figure 150. — Symbols of Victory.
Cuirass, two spears, and a banner, suggesting
victory over a civilized nation. From a relief.



462 Caesar's Civil War [B.C. 4*

Ex Pompeiano exercitu circiter milia xv cecidisse vide-
'iobantur, sed in deditionem venerunt amplius milia xxim
(namque etiam cohortes, quae praesidio in castellis fuerant,
sese Sullae dediderunt), multi praeterea in finitimas
clvitates refugerunt ; signaque militaria ex proelio ad
Caesarem sunt relata clxxx et aquilae vim.
is L. Domitius ex castris in montem refugiens, cum vires
eum lassitudine defecissent, ab equitibus est interfectus.

9. videbantur, etc. : the expression suggests a rough estimate ;
the number of prisoners is more definitely stated, since they were
accurately counted.

14. aquilae vim: the eagles of all but two of Pompey's II legions
fell into Caesar's hands, a sweeping victory (Fig. 150). The most
graphic description of the battle of Pharsalus in English literature is
in chap. 21 of A Friend of Caesar, by W. S. Davis.

15. L. Domitius: n. to chap. 3, 1. 2.

Historical Significance of the Battle of Pharsalus. " In none (of the
world's decisive battles)," says Warde Fowler, "have the contending forces
in a world-wide revolution been so exactly focussed in two armies on a single
battle-field. On one side the disunion, selfishness, and pride of the last sur-
vivors of an ancient oligarchy, speculating before the event on the wealth or
office that victory was to bring them ; on the other, the absolute command of
a single man, whose clear mental vision was entirely occupied with the facts
and issues that lay before him that day.

" The one host was composed in great part of a motley crowd from Greece
and the East, representing that spurious Hellenic civilisation that for a cen-
tury had sapped the vigour of Roman life; the other was chiefly drawn from
the Gallic populations of Italy and the West, fresh, vigorous, intelligent, and
united in devotion and loyalty to a leader whom not even defeat could
dishearten.

" With Pompeius was the spirit of the past, and his failure did but answer
to the failure of a decaying world; with Caesar was the spirit of the future,
and his victory marks the moment when humanity could once more start hope-
fully upon a new line of progress."



SELECTIONS FOR SIGHT READING



1. The Pig's Last Will and Testament

Testamentum Porcelli.

Incipit testamentum porcelli.

M. Grunnius Corocotta, porcellus, testamentum fecit.
Quoniam manu mea scribere non potui, scribendum dictavl.

Magirus, cocus, dixit :

'Veni hue, eversor domi, solivertiator, fugitive porcelle, s
et hodie tibi dirimo vitam.'

Corocotta, porcellus, dixit :

1 Si qua feci, si qua peccavi, si qua vascella pedibus meis

1. i. Incipit: ' (Here) begins. 1 testamentum: in our legal
phrase, ' the last will and testament.' The Pig's Will, the author of
which is unknown, afforded amusement to many generations of Roman
schoolboys. porcellus, -I, m., ' pig.' 75, a.

2. M. Grunnius Corocotta, gen. Marci Grunnii Corocottae,
m., 'Marcus Grunter Bristleback.' All the names of the Will are made
up, and their meaning, although obvious to a Roman, can be only ap-
proximated in translation.

3. scribendum: gerundive, 'for writing'; sc. testamentum.
dicto, -are, -avi, -atus, [frequentative of dico, 78, a], 1, * dictate.'

4. Magirus, -1, [/xayeipos], m., ' Chef ; Greek word meaning ' cook,'
here used as a name. cocus, -1, m., ' cook.'

5. eversor, -oris, [everto], m., 'overturner.' solivertiator,
-oris, [solum, 'ground,' verto], m., a made-up word, 'rooter.'

6. hodie: adv., 'to-day.' dirimo: colloquial present instead of



Online LibraryJulius CaesarC. Iulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum. Caesar's Commentaries: the Gallic war, books I-Iv, with selections from books V-VII and from the civil war; → online text (page 39 of 73)