Julius Caesar.

C. Iulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum. Caesar's Commentaries: the Gallic war, books I-Iv, with selections from books V-VII and from the civil war; online

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Galliae imperio potiri.

Id hoc facilius els persuasit, quod undique loci natura
Helvetil continentur : una ex parte flumine Rhen5, latis-

3. cupiditate : * by a desire. 1 10, f, and 135, a. B. 219 ; A. 404, b ;
H. 475, 1. inductus: 'led on. 1 226, b, and IIS, b. coniura-
tionem : ' conspiracy.' 12, c. nobilitatis : here used as a collective
noun, lit. ' of the nobility ' ; trans. ' among the nobles. 1 10, f, and 92, b.
fecit: 57, b. civitati: 10, f, and 105. B. 187,11,0; A. 367 ; H.
426, 2.

4. persuasit: 'persuaded.' 79, b. ut . . . exirent: 'to go out,'
'to migrate'; kind of clause? 199, a. B. 295, 1 ; A. 563; H. 565.
cum omnibus copiis : ' with all (their) effects,' as we say, " bag and
baggage." 137, a. exirent : plural because civitati, ' (his) state,'
to which the unexpressed subject refers, is thought of as if it were
civibus, ' the people of (his) state.' 68, b\ 173, b, and 238, h. B. 254,
4, a; H. 389, 1.

5. perfacile . . . potiri: indirect discourse, dependent on the idea
of saying in persuasit. 212, a, and c, (5) ; 213, b. B. 314, 2 ; A. 579,
580; H. 641-643. perfacile esse: '(saying) that it was exceed-
ingly easy.' The subject of esse is potiri, 'to obtain possession of.'
222, b. Why is perfacile neuter? 148, d. virtute: 11$, a. B. 226;
A. 418; H. 480. omnibus: 107, a. B. 187, in, 1; A. 370 ; H. 429.
praestarent : ' they excelled.' 53, and 184, &> B. 286, 2 ; A. 549 ;
H. 598. totlus: 23, a.

6. totlus Galliae: 'of the whole (of) Gaul.' 102. imperio:
'sovereignty.' Why ablative? 131, c. B. 218, 1; A. 410; H. 477.
potiri: 60, and 61, a, (4).

7. Id: ace; 'that (course)'. 117, a, and 160, c. B. 176, 2, a;
A. 369; H. 426, 6. hoc: 'on this account,' referring to what fol-
lows. 135, a, and 161, a. B. 219; A. 404; H.475. facilius: 'the
more easily.' 34, a. els : 44, and 105. undique: ' on all sides.-'
loci natura : ' by natural features.' 131, a. How lit. ?

8. continentur: 'are hemmed in'; why indie? 183, a. una
ex parte : < on one side,' the north side. 126, c. flumine : 131, a.
latissimo : ' very wide.' 153, a.



6 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 5ft

simo atque altissimo, qui agrum Helvetium a Germanis

iodividit; altera ex parte monte Iura altissimo, qui est inter

Sequanos et Helvetios ; tertia, lacu Lemanno et flumine

Rhodan5, qui provinciam nostram ab Helvetils dividit.

His rebus fiebat, ut et minus late vagarentur et minus




Figure 28. — Long summit of the Jura range.

This range formed a natural barrier between the country of the Helvetians and that of
the Sequanians, and now carries part of the boundary between France and Switzerland.

9. altissimo: here 'very deep,' but in 1. 10 i very high.' qui:
the antecedent is Rhend. 163, a. agrum : here ' territory. 1 a
Germanis : ' from (the territory of) the Germans. 1 282, and 127, €.

10. altera: for secunda, * second, 1 as often. monte Iura: 'by
the Jura range ' ; motis refers sometimes to a single mountain, some-
times to a group or chain of mountains, or to a moderate elevation.

1 1 . tertia : sc. ex parte. lacu" : 20, b.

12. Rhodand : the part of the Rhone just below Geneva ; see Map I.
provinciam: 290. nostram: i.e. Romdnatn. 157, c. Helv€-
tils : 282. Caesar does not deem it necessary to give the boundary on
the fourth or east side, in the Alps.

13. His rgbus : ' Because of these conditions 1 (lit. ' these things ').
135, a. fI6bat: i it came about. 1 70, a. ut . . . possent : sub-
ject of fiebat. 203, (1). B. 297, 2; A. 569, 1 ; H. 571. 1. et . . .



1, 2] The Campaign against the Helvetians 7

facile flnitimis bellum Inferre possent; qua ex parte, homi-
nes bellandl cupidl, magno dolore afficiebantur. Pro multi- 15
tudine autem hominum et pro gloria belli atque fortitudinis
angustos se fines habere arbitrabantur, quT in longitudinem
mllia passuum ccxl, in latitudinem clxxx patebant.



et : 233, a. minus late vagarentur : * they were more restricted
in their movements, 1 lit. ' wandered less broadly,' than they wished.
177, a. minus: 35.

14. flnitimis : ' (their) neighbors. 1 107, b, and 154, &• B. 187, III,
2; A. 370; H.429, 1. inferre; 'wage. 1 69, b. possent: 66, b.
qua ex parte : ' and on that account.' 167. homines : in apposi-
tion to the subject of afficiebantur, ' (being) men.' 12, b, and 91, b.

15. bellandl: 'of waging war.' 53, and 230, (1). B. 204, 1 ; A.
349, a; H.451, 1. cupidl : 'fond (of).' 22, b. magno dolore
afficiebantur : * they were sorely ' (lit. * with great vexation ') ' troubled.'
57, b. dolore: 11, d, and 136, b. Pro: 'Considering.' 125, a.
multitiidine hominum : < (their) population ' ; how lit. ? The num-
ber was 263,000 (chap. 29). The Helvetian territory now supports a
population of about 2,250,000.

16. autem : 236, b. gloria belli atque fortitudinis : ' (their)
reputation for war' (lit. -of war') 'and for bravery.' 102.

17. angustos fines : ' too small ' (lit. ' narrow ') ' territories.' 113, a.
se habere : ' that they had.' 178, and 213, a. arbitrabantur : ' they
thought,' lit. ' were thinking.' 175, a. qui: i.e. fines. in longi-
tudinem : 'in length.' 76.

18. mllia passuum: 'miles.' Length of the Roman 'pace' and
Roman ' mile '? 243, b. mllia : 38, a, and 118, a. B. 181 ; A. 425 ;
H. 417. passuum: 20, b, and 97, a. CCXL: 36, and 38, b.
latitudinem: 'breadth.' 81. CLXXX: centum octoginta, sc. milia
passuum. 38, b. As the actual distance across the Helvetian terri-
tory was about 80 Roman miles, it has been suggested that Caesar
wrote lxxx, octoginta, which was changed to clxxx by an error in
copying. patebant: 'extended.' 54- The territory occupied by
the Helvetians comprised a large portion, or the whole, of the modern
Swiss cantons of Vaud, Neuchatel, Basel, Freiburg, Bern, Solothurn,
and Aargau. At an earlier period the Helvetians had lived north
of the Rhine, but they had been forced to the south side by the
Germans.



8 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 68

They make preparations ; Org etorix forms a conspiracy.

3. His rebus adducti, et auctoritate Orgetorlgis per-

moti, constituerunt ea, quae ad proficiscendum pertinerent,

comparare, iumentorum et carrorum quam maximum nu-

merum coemere, sementes quam maximas facere, ut in

s itinere copia frumenti suppeteret, cum proximis clvitatibus

3. I. His rSbus adducti: * Prompted by these considerations.'
adducti : agrees with the unexpressed subject of constituerunt : . auc-
toritate : ' by the influence. 1 135, a. permoti : ' stirred to action.'

2. constituerunt: 'they (i.e. Helvetil) determined 1 ; followed by
comparare, 'to make ready.' 221, a. B. 328, 1 ; A. 457; H. 607, I.
ea : 'those things 1 ; after comparare. 113, a, and 160, c. ad pro-
ficiscendum : 'for emigration 1 ; lit. 'for setting out.' 230, (3). B.
338,3; A. 506; H. 628. pertinerent : subjunctive as giving the
thought of the Helvetians; 'were (as they thought) necessary,' lit.
'pertained (to).' 212, d. B. 323; A. 592: H. 649, 1.

3. iumentorum : ' draft -animals ' ; horses, rrfules, and oxen. 97, a.
carrorum : two-wheeled ' carts, 1 drawn largely by oxen. A Helvetian
ox yoke, which was strapped to the horns of the oxen, is shown in Fig. 29.




Figure 29. — Helvetian yoke, of wood, found in 1910.
Found near Lake Neuchatel, with a wooden shield, a spear, the remains of a cart and
the skeleton of the driver, preserved by the water into which he had tumbled with his cart,
perhaps at night.

From the Helvetian cattle the hardy Alpine cattle of Switzerland are
descended. quam maximum : 'the largest possible.' 153, c. B.
240,3; H. 159,2. numerum : 'number.' 113, a.

4. coemere : ' to buy up.' coemere, facere, cSnflrmare : after
constituerunt. 221, a. sSmentes quam maximas : ' as large sow-
ings as possible.' 14, b, and 153, c.

5. in itinere: 'on the way.' 18, c. cfipia frumenti suppete-
ret : 'there might be an adequate supply of grain/ lit. 'a supply of
grain might be at hand.' 90, b. suppeteret : 196, a. B. 282 ; A.
531; H. 568. proximis: ' neighboring, 1 lit. 4 nearest.' 33.



1,3] The Campaign against the Helvetians 9

pacem et amicitiam conflrmare. Ad eas res conficiendas
biennium sibi satis esse duxerunt ; in tertium annum pro-
fectionem lege confirmant.

Ad eas res conficiendas Orgetorlx deligitur. Is sibi
legationem ad civitates suscepit. In eo itinere persuadet 10
Castico, Catamantaloedis filio, Sequano, cuius pater reg-
num in Sequanis multos annos obtinuerat et a senatu
populi Roman! amicus appellatus erat, ut regnum in civi-



6. pacem et amicitiam : * (relations of) peace and friendship.'
confirmare: ' (and) to establish.' 234, a. A d . . .conficiendas:
gerundive construction, 'to complete these preparations, 1 lit. 'for
those things to be completed. 1 230, (3). B. 339, 2; A. 503; H.
626, 1.

7. biennium satis esse: 'that two years would be sufficient. 1

212, d, and 214, «• biennium: 79, b. sibi: 'for them. 1 40, b,
and 158, a. duxerunt: here a verb of thought; 'they reckoned. 1

213, a. in: 'for.' profectionem : ' (their) departure. 1 157, a.

8. confirmant: historical present; trans, by a past tense, 'they
fixed. 1 175, b. Other historical presents which should be translated
by a past tense are deligitur, 1. 9 ; persuadet, 1. 10 and 1. 17 ; dat, 1. 18 ;
probat, 1. 19; confirmat, 1. 23 ; dant, 1. 25 ; spirant, 1. 26.

9. Ad . . . conficiendas: 'to carry out these arrangements.'
dSligitur: 'was chosen. 1 sibi — suscepit: 'took upon himself.'
104, a. B. 187, 1; A. 362; H. 424.

10. legationem, etc. : ' the office of envoy to the states. 1 150, d.

1 1 . Castico : 105. Catamantaloedis : 99. filio, Sequano :
91, a. B. 169, 2; A. 282; H. 393. pater: 11, b. rggnum : 'the
chief authority ' ; at this time there was no hereditary or absolute
monarchy among the Gauls. 1, and 289, a.

12. annos: 118, a. B. 181, 1; A. 423; H. 417. obtinuerat:
'had held.' 79, b. senatu populi Roman! : 'the senate of the
Roman people,' instead of senatu populoque, ' the senate and the Roman
people,' because the Roman senate had the right to confer honorary
titles on foreign rulers without a popular vote.

13. amicus: 'friend.' 88. B. 168, 2, £; A. 284; H. 393, 8. Such
titles were conferred as a recognition of services rendered, or as a means
of gaining favor.



10 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 68

tate sua occuparet, quod pater ante habuerat ; itemque
15 Dumnorlgl Aeduo, fratrl Diviciaci, qui eo tempore princi-

patum in civitate obtinebat ac maxime plebi acceptus erat,

ut idem conaretur, persuadet, elque filiam suam in ma-

trimonium dat.

Perfacile factu esse illis probat condta perficere, propteyed
20 quod ipse suae clvitdtis impefium obtenturus esset ; non

esse dubium, quln totius Galliae plurimum Helvetil pos-

14. sua: 157, b. ut . . . occuparet: 'to seize. 1 199, a, and
177, b. quod: not 'because. 1 item: 'also. 1

15. Dumnorlgl : 10, c, and 105. fratrl: 11, e. Diviciaci:
19, d. eo tempore: 'at that time. 1 147, a. principatum : 'the
foremost place ? ; whether the dominant position of Dumnorix among
the Aeduans was due wholly to his influence, or whether in 6i B.C. he
had also a magistracy, is not indicated.

16. civitate: '(his) state, 1 i.e. the Aeduan state. obtinebat:
force of the imperfect? 175, a. maxime acceptus : 'very accept-
able. 1 30. plebi : 108, a. Our English expression corresponding
with plebi acceptus is ' popular with the masses. 1

17. ut idem conaretur : ' to attempt the same thing 1 ; the construc-
tion is similar to that of ut . . . occuparet above. 61, a, (1). idem :
45, and 117, a. ei: 104, a. in matrimonium : 'in marriage. 1

18. dat: 67, a, and 175, b.

19. Perfacile . . . possent : indirect discourse depending on pro-
bat. 213, a. Perfacile: in predicate after esse, as in chap. 2, 1. 5.
212, c, (5 ). factu : ' of accomplishment, 1 lit. ' in respect to the doing. 1
232. B. 340, 2; A. 510, n. 2; H. 635, 1. esse: 214, a. illis
probat: ' he (Orgetorix) showed them. 1 104,a- conata : '(their)
undertakings. 1 157, a. perficere: 'to carry through'; subject of
esse. 57, b ; 79, b, and 222, b.

20. suae: ' his own, 1 emphatic. 157, b. imperium : 'the sover-
eign power. 1 74, b. obtenturus esset : ' he was going to seize."
63. Why subjunctive? 214, a. n5n esse dubium : 'that there
was no doubt. 1

21. dubium: in predicate; neuter because the subject of esse is a
clause. quln . . . possent : ' that the Helvetians were the most
powerful (people) in all Gaul, 1 lit. ' were able the most of the whole (of)
Gaul. 1 201, b. B. 298; A. 558,0; H. 595, 1. Galliae : 97, b. B.



1,4] The Campaign against the Helvetians 11

sent ; se suis copils sudque exercitu Hits regno, concilidturum
confirmat.

Hac oratione adducti, inter se fidem et ius iurandum
dant ; et, regno occupato per tres potentissimds ac firmissi- 25
mos populos, totius Galliae sese potiri posse sperant.

The conspiracy is revealed; Orgetorix dies.

4. Ea res est Helvetiis per indicium enuntiata. Mori-
bus suis Orgetorigem ex vinculls causam dicere coegerunt ;
damnatum poenam sequi oportebat, ut Tgni cremaretur.

201, 1 ; A. 346, a, 2 ; H. 442. plurimum : neuter ace. used substan-
tively. 32, and 118, b. B. 176, 3, a ; A. 214, d\ H. 416, 2.

22. sS suis copils : 'that he with his own means.' 157, b, and
131, a. exercitu: not 'army' but 'armed retinue,' like that with
which Orgetorix afterwards overawed the judges, as related in the next
chapter. illls : 104, a. illis regna conciliaturum [esse] : 'that
he would get kingships for them.' 89, c.

23. confirmat: 'he (Orgetorix) assured (them).'

24. Hac oratione adducti: 'Won over by this presentation.'
inter se : 159. fidem et ius iurandum: trans, 'an oath-bound
pledge of good faith,' lit. ' good faith and oath ' ; hendiadys. 238, d.

25. regno occupato : 'having seized the supreme power.' 144> a -
B. 227,2; A. 420, 1; H. 489. per: 'with the help of.' 123, a.
potentissimos ac flrmissimos : ' very powerful and very firmly
established.' 153, a.

26. populos : the Helvetians, the Sequanians, and the Aeduans.
Galliae: after potiri. 131, d. B. 212, 2; A. 410 a\ H. 458, 458, 3.
sese posse sperant: 'they hoped that they would be able.' 213, a.
potiri: after posse. 221, a.

4. 1. Ea res : ' The matter,' i.e. Orgetorix's scheme; lit. 'that
thing.' 160, d. Helvetiis : why dat. ? per indicium : ' through
(the agency of) informers'; lit. 'through information.' 92, b, and
123, a. est gnuntiata : 'was reported.' 172, a. Moribus suis:
' In accordance with their customs,' as distinguished from the Roman
procedure. 186, c. B. 220, 3 ; A. 418, a ; H. 475, 3.

2. ex vinculls : 'in chains.' 126, c. causam dicere: 'to
plead his case.' 221, a. coegerunt: 'they compelled.' 79, b.

3. damnatum: agrees with eum understood as object of sequi; 'if



12



Caesar's Gallic War



[B.C. 68



Die constitute causae dictionis Orgetorix ad iudicium

somnem suam familiam, ad hominum milia decern, undique

coegit, et omnes clientes obaeratosque suos, quorum mag-



condemned.' 209. B. 337, 2, b\ A. 496 ; H. 638, 2. poenam :
subject of sequi; 'the penalty,' denned by the following wZ-clause.
oportfibat: 73, a, b. poenam sequi oportebat : 'the penalty

would inevitably follow,' lit.




Figure 30. — Gallic standard-bearer.
6. clientes : 'retainers.' 17, c.



'it was necessary that the
penalty follow.' Ignl: 14,6,
and 131, a. ut Ignl cre-
marStur : ' of being burned
by fire,' lit. ' that he should
be burned by fire.' 203, (4).
B. 297, 3; A. 561, a, and
570 ; H. 571, 4. The Gauls
punished some offenses by
burning alive, and sometimes
offered human sacrifices (VI.
16, 19; VII. 4).

4. Dig constitute: 'On
the day appointed.' 21, a,
and 147, a. B. 230 ; A. 423 ;
H. 486. dictionis: de-
pendent on Die; 'for the
pleading.' 102. iudicium :
'the (place of) judgment, 1
' the trial.'

5 . familiam : ' slaves ' ;
lit. ' body of slaves,' taken col-
lectively, ad : adv. modi-
fying decern, " about ' ; Caesar
often gives a round number
where it is impossible to be
exact. hominum : 12, b,
and 97, a. milia : apposi-
tive of familiam. 38, a, and
91, a.

obaeratds : • debtors.' In Gaul



debtors who were unable to pay might be forced into bondage (VI. 13).



1,5] The Campaign against the Helvetians 13

num numerum habebat, eodem conduxit; per eos, ne
causam diceret, se eripuit.

Cum civitas, ob earn .rem incitata, armls ius suum exsequi
conaretur, multitudinemque hominum ex agris magis-io
tratus cogerent, Orgetorlx mortuus est ; neque abest
suspicio, ut Helvetii arbitrantur, quln ipse sibi mortem
consciverit.

The Helvetians complete their preparations to migrate.

5. Post eius mortem nihilo minus Helvetii id, quod
constituerant, facere conantur, ut e finibus suis exeant.

7. eodem : ' to the same place,' the place of judgment. con-
duxit : '< brought,' lit. ' led together.' per eos : ' with their help, 1 lit.
' by means of them.' 123, a.

8. diceret: 196, a. B. 282; A. 530, 531 ; H. 568. ne . . .
§ripuit : « he evaded the pleading of his case,' lit. ' he rescued himself
that he might not plead his case ' ; Orgetorix overawed the judges so
that they did not dare proceed with the trial.

9. incitata: 'aroused.' 148, b. ius suum: 'its right' to call
traitors to account. exsequi: 'enforce.' 200, b.

10. conargtur, cogerent : 185, c. B. 288, 1, b; A. 546; H. 600, 11,
1. Force of the imperfect tense ? hominum : 98, a. agris : ' the
country.' 7, a, and ISO, a. magistratus : 'the public officials';
here evidently the local officers are meant. 82, b.

11. mortuus est: 'died.' 57, c, and 176, a. neque abest
suspicio : 'and there is ground for suspecting,' lit. ' nor is there lacking
(ground for) suspecting.' 12, c, and 233, a.

12. ut: meanings of ut? See Vocab. quin . . . consclverit:
'that he committed suicide,' lit. 'that he himself inflicted death upon
himself.' 201, b. B. 298 ; A. 558 ; H. 595, 1. mortem: 17, c.

5. 1. Post: 122, a. eius: i.e. Orgetorigis. nihilo minus:
'nevertheless'; lit. ' by nothing less.' 140. B. 223; A. 414 ; H. 479.
id quod : 160, c.

2. conantur: 175, b. ut . . . exeant: explains id. 203, (4).
From the fact that, notwithstanding the treason and death of Orgetorix,
the Helvetians carried out the plan of migrating, it is evident that behind
the movement there was a general cause stronger than the influence of



14



Caesar's Gallic War



[B.C. 68



Ubi iam se ad earn rem paratos esse arbitrate sunt, oppida
sua omnia, numero ad duodecim, vicos ad quadringentos,
sreliqua prlvata aedificia incendunt; frumentum omne,
praeter quod secum portaturi erant, comburunt, ut, domum
reditionis spe sublata, paratiores ad omnia pericula sub-
eunda essent ; trium mensium molita cibaria sibi quemque
domo efferre iubent.



any individual. It seems probable that this cause was the pressure of
the Germans, with whom, as stated in chapter i, the Helvetians were
constantly at war.

3. Ubi iam : 'As soon as'; lit. 'When now.' rem: 'undertak-



es, c. oppida: 'fortified towns.'



villages, 1 unfortified.



ad:
quad-



mg. 1 paratos : ' ready. 1

6, a.

4. numero : .
adverb, as in chap. 4, 1. 5. vicos
ringentos: ' four hundred. 1 36.

5. reliqua: 111, a. prlvata aedificia :' buildings belonging to
individuals, 1 not in the walled towns or villages. incendunt : ' they
set fire to. 1

6. praeter quod : i.e. praeter id (frfimentuni) quod. secum :
<with them. 1 125, c. portaturi erant: 'they were going to

take. 1 63. comburunt :




do-
119, b. B.
427, 2; H.



Figure 31. — Ancient Gallic mill.

Of sandstone. The small grinder was worked
by hand over the grain in the holiow of the bed-
stone, which was about 19 inches lorg.



'they burned. 1 175, b
mum : ' home. 1
182, 1, b\ A.
419, 1.

7. reditionis : ' of return-
ing. 1 12, c, and 102. spg :
how declined? 21, b and c.
spg sublata : ' as a result of
taking away the hope, 1 lit.
'the hope having been taken
away. 1 1U, b, (3). perl-
' meet, 1 lit. ' to be met. 1 68, b,



cula : ' dangers. 1 6, a. subeunda
and 230, (3). B. 339. 2 ; A. 503 ; H. 628.

8. essent: 196, a. B. 282; A. 531, 1; H. 568. trium:
mgnsium: l/ h b. trium mfinsium : 'for (lit. 'of') three months.'
100, a. molita cibaria : ' ground rations. 1 The grain was to be



1,5] The Campaign against the Helvetians 15

Persuadent Rauracis et Tulingls et Latobrigis, finitimis,
uti, e5dem usi consili5, oppidis suls viclsque exustls, una
cum els proficiscantur ; Boiosque, qui trans Rhenum in-
coluerant et in agrum N5ricum transierant Noreiamque
oppugnarant, receptos ad se socios sibi asciscunt.



ground to coarse flour before starting, in contrast with the Roman cus-
tom of carrying unground grain on campaigns (317) ; probably the
difficulty of carrying the stone mills, in addition to their other effects,
occasioned the order (Fig. 31). quemque : 49, a, and 170, b. sibi
quemque efferre : ' that each one for himself should carry away.' 178.

9. domo : 20, c, and ISO, b. B. 229, \,b\ A. 427, 1 ; H. 462, 4.
efferre: 69, b. B. 331,11; A. 563, a ; H. 614. iubent : \ (and) they
gave orders.' 200, b, and 234, &• On an allowance of three quarters
of a pound of coarse flour per day for each person, more than 12,000 tons
would be needed to feed 368,000 people (chap. 29) for 90 days. If each
cart carried a ton, more than 12,000 carts would have been required to
transport the supplies, and perhaps half as many more for other purposes ;
but it is hardly probable that the Helvetians and their allies took so
great a quantity of supplies as the order contemplated. If we reckon
20 feet to a cart, 18,000 carts in single file would form a line 68 miles long.

10. Rauracis : why dat. ? The Rauraci, Tulingi, and Latobrigi were
apparently north of the Helvetians (Map 1), and particularly exposed to
the attacks and inroads of the Germans ; hence their readiness to join the
Helvetians in migrating. et . . . et : 234, a- finitimis : '(their)
neighbors.' 91, a, and 157, a.

n. uti . . . proficiscantur: trans, by an infinitive, as ut . . . ex-
trent in chap. 2, 1. 4. 199, a, and 61, a, (3). usi : < adopting,' or < to
adopt ' ; lit. ' having used.' 61, a, (3), and 228, a. consilio : ' plan.'
131, c. B. 218, 1 ; A. 410; H. 477. oppidis suls viclsque ex-
ustls : ' having burned ' (or < to burn ') i their towns and villages,' lit.
' their towns and villages having been burned.' 144, b, (2). B. 227;
A. 419; H. 489. una: adv.

12. eis : 'Helvetils. 160, b, and 137, a. Boios : n. to VI, 24, 1. 3.

13. agrum Noricum : 'the territory of the Norici,' corresponding,
in general, with the western part of Austria south of the Danube, between
Bavaria and Hungary. transierant : ' had passed over.' 68, b.

14. oppugnarant: 'had taken' by storming. 340. Full form?
64,0) (i)« B. 116, 1; A. 181, a] H. 238. receptos socios sibi



16 Caesar's Gallic War [B.C. 58

Of two possible routes they choose that through the Province.
6- Erant omnino itinera duo, quibus itineribus domo
exire possent : unum per Sequanos, angustum et difficile,
inter montem Iuram et flumen Rhodanum, vix qua singuli
carri ducerentur; mdns autem altissimus impendebat, ut
s facile perpauci prohibere possent ; alterum per provinciam
nostram, multo facilius atque expedltius, propterea quod

asclscunt: * they received and associated with themselves ' (lit. ' to
themselves 1 ) 'as allies.' 228, a. B. 337, 5; A. 496, n. 2 ; H. 639.
socios : 115, a. Cf. N. to IV, 3, 1. 4.

6. 1. Erant: 'There were. 1 90, a. omnino: 'only.' duo:

37, b. itineribus: omit in translation. 165, a. B. 251,3; A. 307,
a\ H. 399, 1. domo: as in chap. 5, 1. 9.

2. possent: subj. of characteristic. 194, a. B. 283: A. 535;
H. 591, 5. unum, alterum (1. 5) : sc. iter. 91, c. B. 169, 5; A.
282, a\ H.393, 4. perSgquanos: 282. difficile: * difficult. 29.

3. inter . . . Rhodanum: on the right bank of the Rhone. There
was no route across the Jura range practicable for so large a force,
(Fig. 27), while the passage down the left bank of the Rhine, and west-
ward between the Jura and the Vosges Mountains (Map 1), was left out
of consideration, not only (we may assume) because it was less direct,
but also because it was exposed to the attacks of Ariovistus. vix :
'hardly.' qu5 : 'where'; translate as if the order were qua vix.
singuli : ' one at a time.'

4. ducerentur: ' could' (lit. 'would') 'be drawn along'; subj. of
characteristic, the relative adverb qua having the force of a relative pro-
noun. The narrowest point of the route is at the "Mill-race Gorge.*'
or Pas de 1'Ecluse (Fig. 32), 19 Roman miles (about \'j\ English miles ;
243, b), below Geneva. See Map 2. mons altissimus : Mt. Cre'do,
now pierced by a tunnel, i\ miles long, through which passes the railroad



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