Julius Caesar.

C. Iulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum. Caesar's Commentaries: the Gallic war, books I-Iv, with selections from books V-VII and from the civil war; online

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the future.

8. qua: 'anything,' lit. 'anythings.' pecco, -are, -avi, -atus, 1,
'transgress,' 'do mischief.' qua peccavi: ' have done any mischief.'
qua : ' any.' vascellum, -1, n., ' dish.'

463



464 Caesar's Gallic War

confregi, rogo, domine coce, vitam peto, concede roganti.'
10 Magirus, cocus, dixit :

' TransI, puer, after mihi de cocina cultrum, ut hunc por-
cellum faciam cruentum.'

Porcellus comprehenditur a famulls, ductus, sub die xvi

kal. lucerninas, ubi abundant cymae, Clibanato et Pipe-

15 rato consul ibus. Et ut vidit, se moriturum esse, horae

spatium petiit, et cocum rogavit, ut testamentum facere

posset. /

Clamavit ad se suos parentes, ut de cibarils suls aliquid

dimitteret eis. Qui ait :

20 ' Patri meo, Verrino Lardlno, do, lego darl glandis mo-

dios xxx ; et matrl meae, Veturinae Scrofae, do, lego darl

Laconicae siliginis modios xl; et sorori meae Quirinae, in

9. confringo, -ere, confregi, -fractus, 3, l smash,' ' break to
pieces.' dominus, -1, m., 4 master.' roganti : sc. mihi.

11. puer: the cook's helper. cocina, -ae, f., < kitchen.' culter,
-tri (7, c), m., < butcher-knife.'

12. cruentus, -a, -um, adj., ' bloody'; here, * all bloody. 1

13. famulus, -1, m., ' servant.'

14. lucerninus, -a, -um, adj., a made-up word, ' of candle-light ' ;
the expression * the kalends of candle-light ' humorously suggests the
beginning of the long winter nights — the season when spring pigs
(and turkeys) are in demand. cyma, -ae, f., ' young cabbage.'
Clibanatus, -1, [clibanus, i baking-pan '], m., 'Roastingpan.' Pipe-
ratus, -1, [piper, 'pepper'], m., i Blackpepper.'

18. clamo, -are, -avi, -atus, 1, 'call.'

19. dimitteret eis : ' bestow upon them.' Qui ait : ' And he said.'

20. Verrinus Lardinus, -1 -1, [verrSs, 'boar,' lardum, 'bacon'],
m., 'Boar Bacon.' lSgo, -are, -avi, -atus, 1, 'appoint.' 16go
darl : ' I bequeath,' lit. 'I appoint to be given ' ; legal formality and re-
dundancy of expression. glandis : singular where we use the plural ;
'of acorns.' modius, tI, m., 'peck.'

21. Veturina Scrofa, -ae -ae, ' Dame Hogg.'

22. Laconicus, -a, -um, adj. 'Lacedaemonian.' siligo, -inis, f
'white wheat.' Quirina, -ae, f., ' Squealy.' in: 'at.'

23. vStum: 'wedding.' hordeum, -I, n., 'barley.'



Selections for Sight Reading 465

cuius votum interesse non potui, do, lego darl hordel
modios xxx.

1 Et de mels visceribus dabo, donabo, sutoribus saetas, 25
rlxdribus capitinas, surdis auriculas, causidicls et verbosls
linguam, isiciariis femora, cursoribus et venatoribus talos,
latronibus ungulas.

1 Et nee nominando coco legato dimitto popiam et pis-
tillum, quae mecum attuleram, de Tebeste usque ad Ter-30
geste ; liget sibi collum de reste.

' Et volo mihi fieri monumentum, aureis litterls scrlptum,

M • GRUNNIUS • COROCOTTA • PORCELLUS
VIXIT • ANNIS • DCCCC XC Villi • ET • S
QUOD • SI • SEMISSEM • VIXISSET 35

MILLE • ANNOS • IMPLESSET

25. viscus, -eris, (13, e), n., 'flesh.' sutor, -oris, m., ' shoe-
maker.' saeta, -ae, f., 'bristle,' used by cobblers in the waxed
end of their threads.

26. rixor, -oris, m., ' quarreler.' capitina, -ae, [caput], f.,
' head-meat,' suggesting our word " headcheese." surdus, -a, -um,
adj., 'deaf.' auricula, -ae, [diminutive of auris], f., 'ear'; the
hearing of pigs is very keen. causidicus, -1, [causa, dico], m.,
'pleader.' verbosus, -1, [verbum], m., ' talkative person.'

27. isiciarius, -1, m., ' sausage-maker.' cursor, -Sris, [curro],m.,
'runner.' talus, -1, m., 'knucklebone.'

28. ungula, -ae, f., ' hoof.'

29. nee nominando : 'unspeakable.' legatum, -1, n., ' legacy ' ;
here dative of purpose. popia, -ae, f., ' soup-ladle.' pistillum, -1,
n., 'pestle ' of a mortar.

30. de, etc. : like " from Dan to Beersheba." Tebeste, -is, n., ' Te-
beste,' a city in Numidia, now Tdbessa. Tergeste, -is, n., now Trieste.

31. ligo, -are, -avi, -atus, 1, 'bind.' collum, -1, n., 'neck.'
de: we should say 'with.' restis, -is, f., 'rope'; the cook is ex-
horted to hang himself.

32. monumentum, -1, [moneo ; 74, d~\, n., 'monument.'
34. S : for semisse, abl. semis, semissis, m., 'half.'



466 Caesar's Gallic War

1 OptimI amatores mei, vel consules vltae, rogo vos, ut
cum corpore meo bene faciatis, bene condiatis de bonis
condlmentis nuclei, piperis et mellis, ut nomen meum in
4osempiternum nominetur.

'Mel domini vel consobrlnl mei, qui in medio testamento
interfuistis, iubete signari.'

Lardio signavit.

Ofellicus signavit.
4 5 Cyminatus signavit.

Lucanicus signavit.

Tergillus signavit.

CelsTnus signavit.

Nuptialicus signavit.
50 Explicit testamentum porcelli, sub die xvi kal. lucerninas,
Clibanato et Piperato consulibus, feliciter.

35. quod: 'but.' semissem : ' half ' of a year.

36. impleo, -ere, implevi, -etus, 2, ' fill out ' ; satirical in respect
to the veracity of inscriptions on tombstones.

37. amator, -oris, [amo], m., 'lover. 1 mei: 'of me. 1 con-
sules : translate as if consulentes; double meaning, ' ye who have regard
for (my) life, 1 ' ye who are fond of good living. 1

38. condio, -ire, -Ivi, -Itus, 4, word of double meaning: 'em-
balm "* from the pig's point of view, 'season 7 from the point of view of
the ' lovers 1 of roast pig. condiatis: sc. id. de : 'with. 1

39. condimentum, -1, [condio], n., 'seasoning. 1 nucleus, -1. m.,
'nut-meat. 1 piper, -eris, n., 'pepper. 1 mel, mellis. n., 'honey. 1

40. sempiternus, -a, -um, [semper], adj., ' everlasting ' ; neuter
as noun, in sempiternum, 'forever and ever. 1

41. Mei domini: title of respect ; 'good sirs. 1 consobrinus, -1,
m., 'cousin. 1 in medio testamento: i.e. 'at the making of my
will.'

42. signo, -5re, -avi, -atus, [signum], 1, 'affix a seal 1 ; signSri,
'that the seals be affixed. 1 Each of the seven witnesses of a will was
supposed to stamp his signet in the wax covering the ends of the
string with which the tablets were tied together (Fig. 203).

43-49. Lardio: 'Fatbacon. 1 Ofellicus : 'Tidbit. 1 Cymi-



Selections for Sight Reading 467

2. Witticisms attributed to Cicero

On Le7itulus, his son-in-law.

Cicero cum Lentulum, generum suum, exiguae staturae
hominem, longo gladio acclnctum vldisset,

'Quis,' inquit, 'generum meum ad gladium alligavit?'

On Piso, a son-in-law, who walked effeminately.

Cicero, cum Piso gener eius mollius incederet, filia autem
concitatius, ait f Iliae : ' Ambula tamquam vir ! '

On a portrait of his brother Quintus, larger than life.

Nee Q. Ciceroni fratrl circa similem mordacitatem peper-
cit. Nam cum in ea provincia, quam ille rexerat, vldisset

natus: ' Youngcabbager.' Lucanicus : ' Porksausager.' Ter-

gillus: 'Porkrind.' Celsinus : 'Porkpie.' Nuptialicus :

' Weddingporker,' suggesting a dish in favor for wedding-feasts.

50. explico, -are, explicui, explicitus, [ex + plico], 1, 'unroll,'
as a book written in the form of a scroll. Explicit : in full, explicitum
est, lit. 'is unrolled'; we should say, 'Here ends.' The form of ex-
pression, while not suitable for the tablets on which wills were written, is
appropriate for the scroll-shaped book in which the Pig's Will is repre-
sented as being recorded (Figures 166 and 191).

51. feliciter: 'happily,' a word of good omen, often added at the
end of a writing.

2. 2. accingo, -cingere, -cinxi, -cinctus, [ad + cingo], 3, 'gird
on,' 'arm.'

3. alligo, -are, -avi, -atus, [ad + ligo], 1, 'tie (to).'

4. molliter, [mollis], adv., 'lazily.'

5. concitate, [concitatus, participle of concito], adv., 'ener-
getically.' ambulo, -are, -avi, 1, 'walk.' tamquam, [tarn +
quam], adv., 'just as.' vir: '(your) husband (does).'

6. circa: 'in the use of; lit. 'around.' mordacitas, -atis,
[mordax], f., 'sharpness' of speech. pepercit : sc. M. Cicero.

7. rexerat: 'had governed'; Quintus Cicero was governor of the
province of Asia (302, c) for three years, before he became a lieutenant
of Caesar in Gaul.



468 Caesar's Gallic War

clipeatam imagincm eius, ingentibus liniamentis, usque ad
pectus ex more pictam (erat autem Quintus ipse staturae
ioparvae), ait :

' Frater meus dlmidius maior est quam totus.'

On a certain foppishness of Caesar's attire.

In Caesarem quoque mordacitas Ciceronis dentes suos

strlnxit. Nam primum post victoriam Caesaris interroga-

tus, cur in electione partis errasset, respondit : ' Praecinctura

15 me decepit,' iocatus in Caesarem, qui ita toga praecingeba-

tur, ut trahendo laciniam velut mollis incederet.

On Caesar's enlargement of the Senate.

Cicero alias facilitatem Caesaris in allegando senatu
irrlsit palam. Nam cum ab hospite suo, P. Mallio, rogare-

8. clipeatus, -a, -um, [clipeus], adj., ' shield-shaped,' i.e. 'oval, 1
like the clipeus. imago, -inis, f., 'portrait.' liniamentum, -I, n.,
'feature.' usque, etc. : the painted portrait resembled a bust.

9. ex more: ' in the usual fashion.' pingo, -ere, pinxi, pictus,
3, 'paint.'

11. Frater meus dlmidius: 'the half of my brother.'

12. dentes suos strlnxit : ' showed its teeth,' we should say.

13. victoriam: at Pharsalus ; Cicero had joined the party of
Pompey.

14. electio, -onis, [eligo], f., 'choice.' praecinctura. -ae, [prae-
cingo], f., 'manner of dress,' referring to the effeminate way that Cae-
sar draped his toga.

15. iocor, -ari, -atus, 1, dep., 'jest.' toga, -ae, f., 'toga,' the
principal outer garment worn by Roman men. praecingo. -cingere,
-cinxi, -cinctus, [prae + cingo], 3, 'gird about.' The passive is
here used in a middle sense ; ' would wrap his toga about him in such
a way,' lit. ' would so wrap himself up with his toga.'

16. lacinia, -ae, f., ' end ' of a toga ; ' by letting the end of his toga
drag,' instead of carefully tucking it in.

17. facilitas, -atis, [facilis], f., 'ready compliance.' allggo,
-are, -avl, -atus, 1, 'depute'; 'in appointing (men to) the Senate.'

18. P. Mallius, gen. Publil Mallii, mi, a friend of Cicero.



Selections for Sight Reading 469

tur, ut decurionatum privigno eius expediret, assistente
frequentia, dixit : 20

' Rdmae, si vis, habebit ; Pompeiis difficile est.'

A play upon ivords.

Ne ilia quidem (oratoribus conveniunt), quae Ciceroni
aliquando, sed non in agendo, exciderunt, ut dixit, cum is
candidatus, qui cod filius habebatur, coram eo suffra-
gium ab alio peteret : 2

1 Ego, quoque, tibi favebo.'

To Vatinius, Caesar's friend, anticipating a compliment.

Vatinius, pedibus aeger, cum vellet videri commo-
dioris valetudinis factus et diceret, se iam bina milia
ambulare :

'Dies enim,' inquit Cicero, * longi5res sunt.' 3 o

19. decurionatus, -us, m., 'membership in a town council,' prob-
ably at Pompeii, near which Cicero had a countryseat. prlvignus, -I,
m., 'step-son. 1 expediret: i help to secure. 1

20. frequentia, -ae, [frequens], f., 'crowd. 1

21. Romae : locative. 146. Pompeiis: 'at Pompeii. 1 145, b.

22. ilia: 'those (sayings). 1 oratoribus conveniunt: 'are
proper for an orator. 1 Ciceroni — exciderunt: 'fell from the lips
of Cicero. 1 109, b.

23. in agendo : ' while arguing ? in court.

24. candidatus, -1, [candidus, 'white 1 ], m., 'candidate. 1 coci:
gen. of cocus, ' cook, 1 pronounced as if spelled quoquus. coram:
here a preposition with the ablative; 'in his presence. 1

26. quoque : either the adverb, or the vocative of quoquus = cocus.

27. pedibus aeger : Vatinius had the gout.

28. commodioris valetudinis factus [esse] : 'to have improved
in health, 1 lit. ' to have become of better health. 1 bina milia [pas-
suum] : 'two miles (a day). 1

30. enim: '(Of course), for. 1



470 Caesar's Gallic War

On the consulship of Vatinius, which lasted a few days.

In consulatu Vatinii, quem paucls diebus gessit, notabilis
Ciceronis urbanitas circumferebatur:

1 Magnum ostentum,' inquit, ' anno Vatinii factum est,
quod illo consulatu nee bruma nee ver nee aestas nee au-
35tumnus fuit.'

QuerentI deinde Vatinio, quod gravatus esset, domum ad
se Inflrmatum venire, respondit :

'Volui in consulatu tuo venire, sed nox me compre-
hendit.'

On the consulship of Caninius Rebilus, formerly a lieutenant of
Caesar, which lasted only a few hours, at the end of 45 B.C.

4 o ' Hoc consecutus est Rebilus, ut quaereretur, quibus con-
sulibus consul fuerit.'

' Vigilantem habemus c5nsulem Canlnium, qui in consu-
latu suo somnum n5n vldit.'

Retorts for persons who lie about their age.
Redarguimus interim aperte, ut Cicero Vibium Curium,
45 multum de annls aetatis suae mentientem :

31. notabilis, -e, [nota], adj., 'remarkable.'

32. urbanitas, -atis, [urbanus], f., 'pleasantry'; trans, 'witti-
cism.' circumfero, -ferre, -tuli, -15tus, [circum + fero], 3,
'carry around'; here 'circulate.'

33. ostentum, -1, [ostendo], n., 'marvel.'

36. gravatus esset : ' because (as he said, Cicero) had been un-
willing.' domum ad se : ' to his house to (see) him.'

37. Infirmo, -5re, -&vi, atus. [Infirmus], 1, 'enfeeble.' inflr-
matum : ' when he was laid up.'

40. ut quaerergtur : ' that the question should be raised.' quibus
cdnsulibus : ' in whose consulship.'

42. vigilans, -antis [vigilo, 'keep awake'], adj. of double mean-
ing, ' watchful ' and ' wakeful.'

44. redarguo, -ere, -ui, 3, 'show up'; 'we show up (people). 1
interim: 'sometimes.' Vibius Curius, -I -I, m., an acquaintance
of Cicero's ; sc. redarguit.



Selections for Sight Reading 471

' Turn ergo, cum una declamabamus, non eras natus ! '
Interim et simulata assensione, ut Idem, Fabia Dola-

bellae dicente trigintd se annos habere,

' Verum est,' inquit, ' nam hoc illam iam viginti annls

audid ! ' so

On a man from Africa, who wished to pass as an aristocrat
Octavius, qui natu nobilis videbatur, Ciceroni recitanti

ait : \ Non audio, quae dicis.'

Ille respondit : ' Certe solebas bene foratas habere aures ! '
Hoc eo dictum, quia Octavius Libys oriundus dicebatur,

quibus mos est aurem forare. ss

3. Legal Maxims

Fundamental maxims of right conduct.
Iuris praecepta sunt haec : honeste vivere, alterum non
laedere, suum cuique tribuere.

Definition of justice.
Iustitia est constans et perpetua voluntas ius suum cui-
que tribuendl.

45. mentior, -Iri, -Itus, 4, dep., ' lie- 1

46. dgclamo, -are, etc., [de + clamo], 1, ' practice declamation.'

47. assensio, -orris, f., 'agreement.' Idem: Cicero; subject of
inquit. Fabia, -ae, f., wife of Dolabella. Dolabella, -ae, m.,
P. Cornelius Dolabella, who was born in 70 B.C., and was prominent
in Roman politics at the time of the Civil War.

48. triginta, etc. : ' that she was thirty years old.'

49. hoc, etc. : sc. dicere ; Tve been hearing her say that.'

53. foro, -are, -avi, -atus, 1, 'bore'; of the ear, 'pierce. 1

54. Libys, -yos, m., < a Libyan ' ; * was said to be a Libyan by birth.'

55. quibus : et els, the Libyans.

3. 1. honeste, [honos] : adv., ' honorably.'

2. suum cuique: 'to each what belongs to him.'

3. constans, -tis, adj., 'unvarying.' voluntas :' determination.'
ius suum cuique : ' to each his due.'

4. tribuendi : translate as if an infinitive.



472 Caesar's Gallic War

The principal is responsible for his agent.
s Qui facit per alium, facit per se.

The plea, " / did not know the law" is not valid.
Ignorantia legis neminem excusat.

We cannot confer upon another ampler rights than we ourselves

possess.

Nemo plus iuris in alium transferre potest quam ipse
habet.

A single crime, a single punishment.

Nemo debet bis'punlri pro uno delicto.

In heated argument men lose sight of the truth.
to Nimium altercand5 Veritas amittitur.

4. Fables

In union lies safety ; in discord, weakness.

In eodem prato pascebantur tres boves in maxima Con-
cordia, et sic ab omnl ferarum incursione tuti erant. Sed
discidio inter illos ort5, singuli a feris petitl et laniati sunt.

Fabula docet, quantum bonl sit in concordia.

Circumstances may make cowards brave.
5 Haedus, stans in tecto domus, lupo praetereunti male-

6. ignorantia, -ae, f., * ignorance.'

9. punio, -Ire, -Ivi, -Itus, 4, < punish. 1

10. altercor, -ari, -atus, [alter], 1, dep., 'dispute. 1 vgritas, -atis,
[vgrus], f., 'truth. 1

4. 1. pratum, -1, n., 'meadow. 1 pascor, -1, pastus. 3, dep.,
'feed. 1 concordia, -ae, f., 'harmony. 1

3. discidium, -I, n., ' discord. 1 lanio, -are, etc., 1, 'tear to pieces. 1

4. fabula, -ae, f., ' fable. 1

5. haedus, -1, m.. ' kid. 1 lupus, -I, m., ' wolf. 1 maledico, -dicere,
-dixi, -dictus, 3, < rail at. 1



Selections for Sight Reading 473

dixit. Cui lupus, ' Non tu,' inquit, ' sed tectum mihi male-
dicit.'

Saepe locus et tempus homines timid5s audaces reddit.

The dog in the manger.

Canis iacebat in praesepl bovesque latrand5 a pabulo
arcebat. Cui Gnus bourn, 'Quanta ista,' inquit, 'invidiaio
est, quod non pateris, ut e5 cibo vescamur, quern tu ipse
capere nee possls !

Haec fabula invidiae indolem declarat.

" Who will put the bell on the cat ?"
Mures aliquando habuerunt consilium, quo modo sibi a
fele caverent. Multis aliis propositis, omnibus placuit, ut is
el tintinnabulum annecteretur ; sic enim ipsos sonitu ad-
monitos earn fugere posse. Sed cum iam inter mures
quaereretur, qui fell tintinnabulum annecteret, nemo re-
pertus est.

Fabula docet, in suadendo plurimos esse audaces, sed in 20
ipso periculo timid5s.

He who urges others on, shares the responsibility.

Tubicen ab hostibus captus, * Ne me/ inquit, ' interficite ;
nam inermis sum, neque quicquam habeo praeter hanc
tubam.'

9. canis, -is, m., 'dog. 1 praesepe, -is, n., ' manger. 1 latro,
-are, -avi, 1, 'bark. 1

10. arceo, -ere, -ui, 2, 'keep (from). 1 invidia, -ae, f., 'meanness. 1

1 1. vescor, -1, 3, dep., ' eat. 1

13. indoles, -is, f., 'true nature. 1

14. mus, mxiris, m., ' mouse. 1

15. felis, -is, f., 'cat. 1

16. tintinnabulum, -1, n., 'bell.' annecto, -nectere, -nexui,
-nexus, 3, 'tie (to). 1 sonitus, -us, m., 'sound. 1

20. suadeo, -ere, -si, 2, 'advise. 1
22. tubicen, -inis, m., 'trumpeter. 1



474 Caesar's Gallic War

25 At hostes, ' Propter hoc ipsum,' inquiunt, ' te interime-
mus, quod, cum ipse pugnandi sis imperitus, alios ad
pugnam incitare soles.'

Fabula docet, non solum maleficos esse puniendos, sed
etiam eos, qui alios ad male faciendum irritent.

5. The First Psalm

Beatus vir, qui non abiit in cdnsilio impiorum,

et in via peccatorum non stetit,

et in cathedra pestilentiae non sedit ;
sed in lege Domini voluntas eius,
s et in lege eius meditabitur die ac nocte.
Et erit tamquam lignum, quod plantatum est secus decur-
sus aquarum,

quod fructum suum dabit in tempore suo,
et folium eius non defluet,

et omnia, quaecumque faciet, prosperabuntur.

25. inquiunt: from inquam; 'say.' interims, -imere, -§mi,

-emptus, 3, ' kill.'

28. maleficus, -1, m ., 'evildoer.'

29. irrito, -5re, -avi, -atus, 1, * stir up. 1

5. 1 Beatus, -a, -um, adj., ' happy,' ' blessed.' impius, -a, -um,
[in- + pius], adj., 'wicked,' 'ungodly'; as a noun, impius, -T, m.,
'wicked man.'

2. peccStor, -oris, [pecco], m., 'sinner.'

3. cathedra, -ae, [KaOiSpa], f., 'chair,' 'seat.' pestilentia, -ae,
[pestilgns, ' unwholesome '] , f. , ' plague ' ; here ' they that are a plague,'
'the scornful.' sedeo, -ere, sSdi, sup. sessum, 2, 'sit.'

4. Dominus, -1, m., 'Lord.' voluntas : sc. est.

5. meditor, -5ri, -5tus, 1, dep., 'reflect,' 'meditate.'

6. lignum, -I, n., 'wood,' 'tree.' plants, -5re, -5vi, -Stus,
[planta, 'a plant'], 1, 'plant.' secus, prep, 'along,' 'beside.'
dScursus, -us, [dgcurro], m., 'course' of a brook or stream, 'river.'

8. folium, -1, n.,'leaf.' dgfluo, -fluere. -fluxi, [di -f flu6], 3,
' flow away ' ; of a leaf, ' fade,' ' wither.'

9. prospers, -are, -avi, -atus, [prosper, ' favorable '], 1, ' succeed, 1
' prosper. 1



Selections for Sight Reading 475

Non sic impii, non sic ; 10

sed tamquam pulvis, quern proicit ventus a facie terrae.

Ideo non resurgent impii in iudicio,
neque peccatores in concilio iiistorum ;

quoniam novit Dominus viam iiistorum,

et iter impiorum peribit. IS

6. The Twenty-third Psalm

Dominus regit me, et nihil mihi deerit.

In loco pascuae ibi me collocavit ;
super aquam refecti5nis educavit me,

animam meam convertit.

Deduxit me super semitas iustitiae propter nomen suum. 5
Nam, et si ambulavero in medio umbrae mortis,

non timebo mala, quoniam tu mecum es :

virga tua et baculus tuus, ipsa me consolata sunt.
Parasti in conspectu meo mensam, adversus eos qui trlbu-
lant me :

10. impii : sc. sunt.
ii. facies, -el, f., 'face. 1

12. resurgo, -ere, resurrgxi, resurrectus, [re- + surgo], 3, 'rise
again,' 'stand.'

13. iustus, -1, [iustus, -a, -um], m., 'just man,' 'righteous man.'
6. 2. pascua, -ae, f., 'pasturage,' 'pasture.'

3. refectio, -onis, [reficio], f., 'refreshing.' educo, -are, -avi,
-atus, [e + duco, from dux], 1, 'rear'; 'support,' 'nourish.'

5 . iustitiae : ' righteousness.'

6. et : 'even.' ambulo, -are, -avi, 1, 'walk.' umbra, -ae, f.,
' shadow.'

8. virga, -ae, f., a slender branch, 'rod.' baculus, -1, m., 'staff.'
ipsa : neuter plural as referring to both virga and baculus (cf. 163 y c) ;
emphatic ' they.'

9. mgnsa, -ae, f., ' table.' tribulo, -are, 1, 'thresh ' ; 'afflict,'
' torment.'



476 Caesar's Gallic War

10 impinguastl in oleo caput meum,

et calix meus inebrians quam praeclarus est!
Et misericordia tua subsequetur me omnibus diebus vitae
meae,
et ut inhabitem in domo Domini in longitudinem dierum.

10. impinguo, -are, -avi, -atus, [in + pinguis] , i, 'make fat 1 ;
' anoint. 1 in : ' with. 1 oleum, -I, n., ' oil 1 of the olive.

ii. calix, -icis, m., 'cup. 1 inebrio, -are, I, i fill full 1 ; 'over-
flow. 1 praeclarus, -a, -um, [prae + clarus], adj., 'glorious, 1
'splendid. 1

13. inhabits, -are, -avi, [in + habito], 1, 'dwell in, 1 'dwell. 1
in longitudinem dierum: 'forever. 1



A COMPANION TO CAESAR

Essentials of Latin Grammar for the Study of

Caesar . §§1-243

Gaius Julius Caesar §§ 244-280

The Geography of Caesar's Commentaries . . §§ 281-306

The Roman Art of War in Caesar's Time . . §§ 307-351




Figure 151. — The Goddess of Victory bearing a Gallic

war trumpet, in commemoration of a victory over

Gauls. From a relief at Pompeii.



ESSENTIALS OF LATIN GRAMMAR FOR THE
STUDY OF CAESAR

INFLECTIONS

NOUNS

1. The Latin language has no article. In translating into English,
the definite article the, or the indefinite article a, should be supplied
with nouns in the different cases as the sense may require.

FIRST DECLENSION

2. a. The Nominative Singular of nouns of the First Declension
ends in -£.

b. Nouns of the First Declension are nearly all of the Feminine
Gender ; a few nouns referring to males are masculine, as nauta,
sailor (III. 9) ; Cotta, a man's name (C. I. 6).

3. An example of the First Declension is: via (stem via-), f., way
(1.9):

SINGULAR
Case Meaning Termination

Nora, via a way, the way -a

Gen. viae of a way, of the way -ae

Bat. viae to or for a way, or the way -ae

Ace. viam a way, the way -am

Voc. via O way ! -a

Abl. via from, by, in a way or the way -fi

PLURAL

Nom. viae ways, the ways -ae

Gen. viarum of ways, of the ways -ftrum

Bat. viis to or for ways, or the ways -}s

Ace. vias ways, the ways -5s

Voc. viae ways ! -ae

Abl. viis from, by, in ways, or the ways -is

4. a. Besides the six cases of the First Declension there is a rare
Locative Case, of which the Singular is exactly like the Genitive, as
Samarobrivae, at Samarobriva (V. 24).

b. The Greek Name Achillas (C. III. 104) is of the First Declen-
sion, and declined as follows: Nom. Achillas, Gen. Achillae, Bat.
Achillae, Ace. Achillam, Voc. Achilla or Achilla, Abl. Achilla.

479



480



Companion to Caesar



»5



SECOND DECLENSION

5. a. The Nominative Singular of the Second Declension ends in
-um for Neuter Nouns and -us, -er, -ir for all others.

b. Nouns of the Second Declension in -us, -er, and -ir are gener-
ally Masculine. Feminine are most names of Trees and Plants, as
fagus, beech (V. 12), and most names of Countries, Islands, and
Cities, as Aegyptus, Egypt (C. III. 104).

6. a. Examples of Nouns of the Second Declension in -us and
-um are legatus (I. 7) and bellum (T. 1) :

legatus (stem legato-), m., bellum (stem bello-), n., war

envoy, lieutenant







SINGULAR










Termination




Termination


Nom.


legatus


-US


bellum


-um


Gen.


legati


-i


belli


-i


Bat.


legato


-6


bello


-0


Ace.


legatum


-um


bellum


-um


Voc.


legate


-e


bellum


-um


Abl.


legato


-0

PLURAL


bello


-6


Nom.


legati


-i


bella


-a


Gen.


legatorum


-orum


bellorum


-orum


Bat.


legatis


-is


bellis


-is


Ace.


legatos


-OS


bella


-a



Online LibraryJulius CaesarC. Iulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum. Caesar's Commentaries: the Gallic war, books I-Iv, with selections from books V-VII and from the civil war; → online text (page 40 of 73)