Julius Caesar.

C. Iulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum. Caesar's Commentaries: the Gallic war, books I-Iv, with selections from books V-VII and from the civil war; online

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Voc.


legati


-i


bella


-a


Abl.


legatis


-is


bellis


-is



b. Caesar uses the Neuter vulgus in the Nominative (IV. 5), Geni
tive vulgi (I. 20), and the Accusative vulgus (I. 46).

c. Caesar uses locus, -I, m., place, with a Neuter Plural declined
thus: Nom. loca, Gen. locorum, Dot. locis, Ace. loca, Abl. locis.

d. The Second Declension has a rare Locative Case, of which the
Singular is like the Genitive; as Cavilloni, at Cavillonum (VII. 90).

7. a. Examples of Nouns of the Second Declension in -er and -ir
are puer, hoy (I. 20), ager, field (I. 4), and vir, man (II. 25) :



puer (stem puero-) ,


ager (stem agro-),


vir (stem


viro-) .


m., boy


M.,Jield


M., IIKI/I






SINGULAR






Tkkmination


Nom. puer


ager


vir







Gen. puerl


agri


vir!




-i


Bat. puero


agro


viro




-5


Ace. puerum


agrum


\ i rum




-um


Voc. puer


ager


vir







Abl. puer5


agr5


vir5




-5



§9]



Essentials of Latin Grammar



481







PLURAL




Termination


Nom.


pueii


agri


viri


-I


Gen.


pueiorum


agrorum


virorum


-orum


Dat.


pueris


agiis


viris


-is


Ace.


pueros


agios


vhos


-OS


Voc.


pueri


agri


viri


-I


AM.


pueris


agiis


viris


-is



b. Declined like puer are socer, m., father-in-law (I. 12), gener,
m., son-in-law (V. 56), vesper, m., evening (I. 26), liberi, m., plural
only, children (I. 11), and compounds of -fer and -ger, as signifer,
standard-bearer (II. 25).

c. Like ager is arbiter, -tri, m., referee (V. 1) ; also faher, -bri, m.,
mechanic, Gen. Plural generally fabrum (V. 11), administer, -tri, m.,
helper (VI. 16), culter, -tri, m., butcher-knife (p. 464).

8. a. In Caesar's time nouns of the Second Declension in -ius and
-ium formed the Genitive Singular in -I (not -ii), retaining the accent
on the penult of words of more than two syllables even when this was
short; thus, fill, Vale'rl, nego'tl, impe'ri. Afterwards Common
Nouns in -ius, and many Proper Names in -ius, were written with the
Genitive in -ii, and for the sake of consistency such Genitives are fre-
quently printed with -ii to-day, as consilil (I. 21), Valerii (I. 47).

b. The Genitive of Pompeius is written with -I, Pompe' I (VII. 6,
C. III. 84), as are also the Genitives of some other Proper Names in
-ius.

c. The Vocative of filius and of Proper Names in -ius ends in -I
(not -ie), the accent remaining on the penult of vocatives containing
more than two syllables ; thus : Pompe' I (C. III. 87).

d. The declension of deus, m., god (I. 12), is irregular:



SINGULAR

Norn, deus

Gen. dei

Dat. deo

Ace. deum

Voc. deus

Abl. deo



PLURAL

di, dei, dii

deorum, deum

dis, deis, diis

deos

di, dei, dii

dis, deis, diis



THIRD DECLENSION

9. In the Third Declension are comprised nouns with stems ending
in a consonant (mute stems, liquid stems, nasal stems, and -s stems),
nouns with stems ending in -i, nouns with mixed stems, and nouns of
irregular declension. The stem rarely appears unchanged in the
Nominative, but may usually be recognized in the Genitive.



482



Companion to Caesar



[§io



10. a. Mute Stems may end in a Labial, p, b; in a Guttural, c, g ;
or in a Dental, t, d. In Guttural Stems the -s of the case ending in
the Nominative unites with the c or g of the stem, producing x; thus
dux for duc-s, in which the stem is due-, the termination -s ; and
rex for rgg-s.

b. Examples of nouns with mute stems are princeps (I. 13), rex
(I. 31), pSs (I. 8), miles (I. 7), virtus (1. 1) and caput (I. 29):



nceps


(stem in oblique


rex (stem reg-),


pes (stem in oblique


ases princip-) , m., leader,


m., king


cases ped-), yi. x


mding


man


SINGULAR


foot

Termination


Nom.


princeps


rex


pes -s


Gen.


principis


regis


pedis -is


Dat.


principi


regl


pedi -I


Ace.


principem


regem


ped em -em


Voc.


princeps


rex


pes -s


Abl.


principe


rege

PLURAL


pede -e


Nom.


principes


reges


pedes -es


Gen.


principum


regum


pedum -um


Dat.


principibus


regibus


pedibus -ibus


Ace.


principes


reges


pedes -es


Voc.


principes


reges


pedes -es


Abl.


principibus


regibus


pedibus -ibus


miles (stem in oblique


virtus (stem in oblique caput (stem in oblique


cases mflit-), m.,


cases virtut-),


f., cases capit-), n.,


soldier


valor, virtue


head






SINGULAR




Nom.


miles


virtus


caput


Gen.


in ill lis


virtutis


capitis


Dat.


militl


virtutl


capitl


Ace.


militem


virtu tern


caput


Voc.


miles


virtus


caput


Abl.


milite


virtute

PLURAL


capite


Nom.


milites


virtut es


capita


Gen.


mllitum


virtu turn


capitum


Dat.


mil i tibus


virtu tibus


capit ibus


Ace.


mllites


virtu tes


capita


Voc.


mllites


virtut 5s


capita


Abl.


militibus


virtu tibus


capi tibus



c. Like r8x are declined Gallic Proper Names in -rlx, as. in Sin-
gular only, Orgetorlx, Gen. Orgetorlgis (I. 2), and Dumnorix,



§11]



Essentials of Latin Grammar



483



-rlgis (I. 3), and, in Plural only, Bituriges, Biturigum (I. 18) ; also
dux, ducis, m., leader (I. 18), pax, pacis, f., peace (I. 3), pix,
picis, f., pitch (VII. 22), and vox, vocis, f., voice, utterance (I. 32).

d. Like miles in Declension are eques, equitis, m., horseman (I.
15), pedes, peditis, m., foot-soldier (I. 42) ; and caespes, m., sod
(III. 25), comes, m., companion (VI. 30), hospes, m., guest-friend
(I. 53), stipes, m., tree-trunk (VII. 73).

e. Quies, f., repose (V. 40), is declined quies, quietis, quieti, etc. ;
but aries, m., battering-ram (II. 32), abies, f., fir-tree (V. 12), inter-
pres, m., interpreter (I. 19), seges, f., grainfield (VI. 36) have -6tis
in the Genitive and are declined aries, arietis, arieti, arietem, etc.

/. Like virtus are salus, salutis, f., in Singular only, safety (I. 27),
servitiis, servitiitis, f., slavery (I. 11) ; here also belong the Feminine
Nouns whose Nominative ends in -tas, as civitas, civitatis, state
(I. 2), aestas, aestatis, summer (I. 54).

g. Lacking the Dental in the Nominative are the Neuters cor,
cordis, heart (VI. 19), and lac, lactis, milk (IV. 1).

11. a. Liquid stems end in -1 or -r.

b. Examples of nouns with liquid stems are consul (I. 2), victor
(I. 31) and pater (I. 3) :

consul (stem consul-), m., victor (stem victor-), m., pater (stem patr-),
consul victor m., father



Nom.


consul


Gen.


consulis


Dat.


consul!


Ace.


consulem


Voc.


consul


Abl.


consule


Nom.


consules


Gen.


consulum


Dat.


consulibus


Ace.


consules


Voc.


consules


Abl.


consulibus



SINGULAR

victor

victoris

victor!

victorem

victor

victore

PLURAL

victores

victorum

victoribus

victores

victores

victoribus



pater

patris

patr!

patrem

pater

patre



patres

patrum

patribus

patres

patres

patribus



c. Like consul are sol, solis, m., sun (1. 1), exsul, exsulis, m.,
exile (V. 55), sal, salis, m., salt (C. II. 37) ; also some -r sterns, as
Caesar, Caesaris, m., Caesar (19, c) ; agger, aggeris, m., mound
(II. 20), anser, -eris, m., goose (V. 12), mulier, mulieris, f., woman
(I. 29), arbor, arboris, f., tree (II. T 7 ).



484



Companion to Caesar



[§12



d. Like victor are declined Masculine nouns of Agency in -tor, as
mercator, -oris, trader (I. 1), deprecStor, -oris, intercessor (I. 9) ;
and Abstract nouns in -or, as timor, oris, M.,fear (I. 22).

e. Like pater are declined f rater, fratris, m., brother (I. 3), and
mater, matris, f., mother (I. 18).

12. a. Nasal Stems end in -n, excepting in hiems, hiemis. r.,
winter (IV. 1) , of which the stem ends in -m.

b. Examples are sermo (V. 37), homo (I. 2) and nomen (I. 13) :



sermo (stem sermon-),
m., conversation



Nom.


sermo


Gen.


sermonis


Bat.


sermoni


Ace.


sermonem


Voc.


sermo


Abl.


sermone


Nom.


sermones


Gen.


sermonum


Bat.


sermonibus


Ace.


sermones


Voc.


sermones


Abl.


sermonibus



homo (stem homin-),


nomen (stem nomin-)


m., man


n., name


SINGULAR




homo


ndmen


homiuis


nominis


homini


nomini


horn in em


nomen


homo


nomen


homine


nomine


PLURAL




homines


nomina


horn in urn


nominum


hominibus


in mi i nibus


homines


nomina


homines


nomina


hominibus


nominibus



c. Like sermo are declined harpago, harpagonis, m., grappling-hook
(VII. 81) ; latro, latronis, m., bandit (III. 17) ; Divico, Diviconis,
m., (I. 13; in Singular only) ; and nouns in -io, as suspicio, suspi-
cionis, f., suspicion (I. 4), coniuratio, -onis, f., league (I. 2), Curio,
Curionis, m., (C. II. 3 ; in Singular only).

d. Like homo are declined ordo, ordinis, m., rant (I. 40) ; neces-
situdo, -inis, f., close connection (I. 43) ; testudo, testudinis, i ., te*-
tudo (II. 6); n§mo, Dat. nSmini, Ace, ngminem (the }>lace of the
Gen. and Abl., and sometimes the Dat., being supplied by Gen. nul-
Hus, Abl. nullo, Dat. nfilli. from millus), m., no one; Apollo,
Apollinis, m., (VI. 17, in Singular only) ; solitudo, solitudinis, f.,
ivilderness (IV. 18) ; and virgo, -inis, f., maiden (C. II. 4).

e. Like nomen are declined other Neuters in -men, as flumen, ,
fluminis, river (I. 1), agmen, agminis, column (I. 15), and cert5-
men, -inis, contest (III. 14).

13. a. The -s- of -s Stems becomes r between vowels in tli.- oblique
cases. In honos. -r generally appears also in the Nominative; -r is



§13]



Essentials of Latin Grammar



485



always found in the Nominative of rumor and many other nouns of
this class.

b. Examples of nouns with -s stems are m6s (I. 4), honos (VI.
13), or honor, and genus (I. 48) :

mos (oblique stem honos, honor (oblique stem genus (oblique stem
mor-), m., custom honor-), m., honor gener-), n., race



Nom.


mos


Gen.


moris


Dat.


mori


Ace.


morem


Voc.


mos


Abl.


more


Nom.


mores


Gen.


morum


Dat.


moribus


Ace.


mores


Voc.


mores


Abl.


moribus



SINGULAR

honos or honor

honoris

honori

honorem

honor

honore

PLURAL

honores

honorum

honoribus

honores

honores

honoribus



genus

generis

generi

genus

genus

genere



genera

gene rum

generibus

genera

genera

generibus



c. Like mos is declined flos, m., flower (VII. 73).

d. Like honor are soror, sororis, f., sister (I. 18), uxor, uxoris,
v., wife (I. 18).

e. Like genus are declined the Neuters funus, funeris, funeral
(VI. 19) ; latus, lateris, side (I. 25) ; munus, muneris, gift (I. 43) ;
onus, oneris, burden, load (11.30); opus, operis, work (I. 8);
scelus, sceleris, crime (I. 14) ; vulnus, vulneris, wound (I. 25), etc.

/. Similar in declension to genus, but having a different vowel
before the Endings of the Oblique Cases, are the Neuters corpus,
corporis, body (I. 25) ; dedecus, -oris, disgrace (IV. 25) ; facinus,
-oris, evil deed (I. 40) ; frigus, frigoris, cold (I. 16) ; Htus, litoris,
shore (IV. 23) ; pectus, pectoris, breast (VII. 47) ; pecus, pecoris,
cattle (III. 29) ; tempus, temporis, time (1. 16) ; and robur, roboris,
oak (III. 13).

g. Among other Nouns of the Third Declension with Nominative
in -s and Genitive in -ris are the Masculine pulvis, pulveris, dust
(Ace. pulverem, IV. 32), lepus, leporis, hare (Ace. leporem, V. 12),
mas, maris, male (Gen. VI. 26) ; and the Neuters ius, iuris (I. 4;
Nom. Plural iura, VI. 13), aes, aeris, copper (IV. 31), crus, cruris, leg
(VI. 27), and 6s, oris, mouth, face (V. 35; Ace. Plural ora, VI. 39).

h. ius iurandum, n., oath (I. 3), is thus declined, in the Singular :



486



Companion to Caesar



[5 14



Nom. ius iurandum, Gen. iuris iurandi", Dat. iuri iurando, Ace. ius
iurandum, Abl. iure iurando.

14. a. The Nominative Singular of Masculine and Feminine
nouns with -i Stems ends ordinarily in -is, the Genitive Plural always
in -ium.

b. Examples of Masculine and Feminine -i Stems with Nomina-
tive Singular in -is are turris (II. 30), ignis (1. 4) and hostis (I. 21) :

turris (stem turri-), f., ignis (stem igni-), hostis (stem hosti-),





tower


u.,Jire


c, enemy








SINGULAR






Termination


Nom.


turris


ignis


hostis




-is


Gen.


turris


ignis


hostis




-is


Dat.


turri


igni


hosti




-i


Ace.


turrim or -em


ignem


hostem




-im, -em


Voc.


turris


ignis


hostis




-is


Abl.


turri or -e


igni or -e

PLURAL


hoste




-e, -i


Nom.


turres


ignes


hostes




-es


Gen.


turrium


ignium


hostium




-ium


Dat.


turribus


ignibus


hostibus




-ibus


Ace.


turris or -es


Ignis or -es


hostis or


-es


-is, -es


Voc.


turres


ignes


hostes




-es


Abl.


turribus


ignibus


hostibus




-ibus



c. Like turris, but in the Singular only, is Sabis, -is, Ace. -im, m., the
Sambre (II. 16) ; also Tamesis, -is, Ace. -im, m., the Thames (V. 11, 18).

15. a. The Nominative Singular of some nouns with -i Stems ends
in -§s, of a few others in -er. Examples are caed€s (V. 47) and
linter (I. 12) :



caedes (stem caedi-), f., slaughter

SINGULAR PLURAL



linter (stem lintri-), f., skiff

SINGULAR PLURAL



Nom.


caedSs


caedes


linter


lint res


Gen.


caedis


caedium


lintris


lintrium


Dat.


caedi


caedibus


lintri


lintribus


Ace.


caedem


caedes or -Is


lintrem


lint res. -is


Voc.


caedes


caedes


linter


lint res


Abl.


caede


caedibus


lintri or -e


lintribus



b. Like caedes are declined the Feminine Nouns cautSs, cautis.
jagged rock (III. 13), moles, molis, dike (III. 12), rupSs, -is. c////
(II. 29), s6d6s, -is, abode (I. 31), saepgs, -is, hedge (II. 17), alc6s,
-is, moose (VI. 27) ; also famSs, -is, hunger (I. 28), which, however,
has fam6 in the Ablative Singular (VII. 20).

c. Like linter is imber, imbris, m., rainstorm (III. 29).



§17]



Essentials of Latin Grammar



487



16. a. The Nominative Singular of Neuter nouns with -i Stems
ends in -e, -al, and -ar ; the Ablative Singular ends in -I, the Genitive
Plural in -ium.

b. Examples of neuter nouns with -i Stems are mare (III. 7) and
animal (VI. 17) :

mare (stem mari-), n.,
sea

SINGULAR PLURAL

Nom. mare maria

Gen. maris marium

Dat. marl maribus

Ace. mare maria

Voc. mare maria



limal (stem animali-), n.,




animal




SINGULAR


PLURAL


Terminations
singular plural


animal


animalia


-6 or wanting -ia


animalis


animalium


-is -ium


animali


animalibus


-I -ibus


animal


animalia


-e or wanting -ia


animal


animalia


-6 or wanting -ia



Abl. marl maribus



animali animalibus



-ibus



c. Bibracte, n., is declined thus : Nom. Bibracte, Gen. Bibractis,
Dat. Bibracti, Ace. Bibracte, Abl. Bibracte; no Plural.

d. Like animal is vectigal, -alis (I. 18).

17. a. The declension of nouns with Mixed Stems in the Singular
conforms to that of Mute Stems, in the Plural to that of -i Stems.

b. Examples of nouns with Mixed Stems are mons (I. 1), pars
(1. 1), nox (I. 26) and urbs (I. 39) :



mons


pars


nox


urbs


(stem :


mont-) ,


(stem part-) ,


(stem noct-) ,


(stem urb-) ,


m., height


f., part


f., night


f., city






SINGULAR






Nom.


mons


pars


nox


urbs


Gen.


montis


partis


noctis


urbis


Dat.


monti


parti


nocti


urbi


Ace.


montem


partem


noctem


urbem


Voc.


mons


pars


nox


urbs


Abl.


monte


parte

PLURAL


nocte


urbe


Nom.


montes


partes


noctes


urbes


Gen.


montium


partium


noctium


urbium


Dat.


montibus


partibus


noctibus


urbibus


Ace.


montes, -is


partes, -is


noctes, -is


urbes, -is


Voc.


montes


partes


noctes


urbes


Abl.


montibus


partibus


noctibus


urbibus



c. Among Nouns with Mixed Stems used by Caesar are pons,
pontis, m., bridge (I. 6) ; cliens, clientis, m., retainer (I. 4) ; pa-
rens, -entis, m. and f., parent (V. 14) ; falx, falcis, f., sickle, hook
(III. 14); fax, facis, f., torch (VII. 24); glans, glandis, f., acorn,



488



Companion to Caesar



[§18



slingshot (V. 43) ; dos, dotis, v., doviry (VI. 19) ; fraus, fraudis. f.,
deception (VII. 40); frons, frontis, f., front (II. 8) ; laus, laudis, f.,
praise (I. 40); lis, litis, v., damages (V. 1) ; mors, mortis, f., death
(I. 5) ; nix, nivis, f., snow (VII. 8) ; plebs, plgbis, f., people (I. 3) ;
trabs, trabis, f., beam (II. 29) ; sors, sortis, f., lot (I. 50) ; stirps,
stirpis, v., stock (VI. 34).

d. Defective is the noun with the stem spont-, which has only a
Genitive, spontis, and Ablative, sponte (I. 9).

18. a. The declension of the nouns vis (I. 6), bos (VI. 26), caro
(V. 14), and Iuppiter (VI. 17), is exceptional, not conforming to any
of the types which have been given :



vis (stems vi-, vir-) ,
f., force



Nom. vis

Gen.

Dat.

Ace. vim

Voc. vis

Abl. vi



Nom. vires

Gen. virium

Dat. viribus

Ace. vires

Voc. vires

Abl. viribus



bos (stem bov-), caro (stem Iuppiter (stem iov-, +
c, ox, cow earn-), pater in the Nom.),

v., flesh m., Jupiter



SINGULAR



bos


caro


Iuppiter


bovis


carnis


Iovis


bovi


carni


Iovi


bov em


earn em


Iov em


bos


caro


Iuppiter


bove


carne


love


PLURAL






boves


carnes




bourn or bovum


carnium




bobus or bubus


carnibus




boves


carnes




boves


carnes




bobus or bubus


carnibus





b. Senex, m., old man (I. 29), stem seni- in oblique cases, is
declined thus : senex, senis, seni, senem, senex, sene ; senes.
senum, senibus, senes, senes, senibus.

c. Iter, n., journey, route (I. 3), has a stem itiner- in the oblique
cases : iter, itineris, itineri, iter, iter, itinere ; itinera, itinerum.
itineribus, itinera, itinera, itineribus.

d. Femur, n., thigh, in the oblique cases has two steins, femor- and
femin-, thus : Nom. femur, (leu. femoris or feminis (VII. 73), etc.

e. Arar, m., the Avar (I. 12, 13, 16), is declined thus: Arar,
Araris, Arari, Ararim, Arar, Aran; similar is Liger, Ligeris, m..
the Liger (III. 9).

f. phalanx, f., mass formation, mass, is declined thus : Nom. phalanx
Gen. phalangis, Dat. phalangi, Ace. phalangem or phalanga. Aid.
phalange.



§ 20] Essentials of Latin Grammar 489

g. Taurois, f., Taurois, is thus declined : Taurois, Gen. Tauro-
entis, Ace. Tauroenta (C. II. 4).

Names of the First, Second, and Third Declensions

19. a. Of the Second Declension are all Roman First Names (prae-
nomina) used by Caesar, and in reading the text the name should be
supplied, in the proper case form, from the abbreviation. The First
Names are Aulus, Gen. Auli (abbreviation A.), Appius (Ap.), Gaius
(abbreviation C, an old form of G.), Decimus (D.), Gnaeus (Cn.),
Lucius (L.), Marcus (M.), Publius (P.), Quintus (Q.), Servius
(Ser.), and Titus (T.).

b. The Clan Names (nomina), ending in -ius (as Ifilius, Tullius),
are of the Second Declension.

c. The Family Names or Surnames (cognomina) are partly of the
First Declension, as Galba (Servius Sulpicius Galba) ; of the Sec-
ond, as Baculus (Publius Sextius Baculus) ; and of the Third,
as Caesar (11, c), the full name being declined thus : Nam. Gaius
Iiilius Caesar, Gen. Gal lull Caesaris or Gail Iulii Caesaris (8, a),
Dat. Gaio Iulio Caesarl, Ace. Gaium Iulium Caesarem, Voc. Gal
lull Caesar (8, c), AM. Gaio Iulio Caesare.

d. The names of Gauls or Germans are generally of the Second
Declension, as Diviciacus, -l, or of the Third, as Dumnorix, Gen.
Dumnorigis; of the First Declension are Galba (II. 4, 13) and
Nasua (I. 37), as well as the Numidian names Juba, Saburra (C.
II. 38).

e. The names of Foreign Peoples are ordinarily declined in the
Plural only. A few are of the First Declension, as Belgae, -arum
(I. 1) ; the rest are of the Second Declension, as Helvetii, -orum
(I. 1), or of the Third, as Allobroges, -um (I. 6).

/. In the Accusative Plural of names of foreign peoples Caesar
sometimes has the Greek ending -as instead of -Ss ; as Allobrogas
(I. 14), Cretas (II. 7), Coriosolitas (II. 34).

FOURTH DECLENSION

20. a. Nouns of the Fourth Declension ending in -us are generally
Masculine, nouns ending in -u are Neuter; domus, manus, and Idus
(Plural) are Feminine.

b. Examples of nouns of the Fourth Declension are fructus (VI. 19)
and cornu (I. 52) :



490



Companion to Caesar



[§21



fructus (stem fructu-) m., fruit



cornu (ftem cornu-), s., horn





SINGULAR


PLURAL


SINGULAR


PLURAL


Nom


. fructus


fructus


cornil


comua


Gen.


fructus


fructuum


cornus


cornuum


Dat.


fructu!


fructibus


cornu


cornibus


Ace.


fructum


fructus


cornu


cornua


Voc.


fructus


fructus


cornu


cornua


Abl.


fructu


fructibus


cornu


cornibus



c. Domus (stem domu-), f., house, has also a stem domo- of the
Second Declension, from which are formed a Locative Singular, doml,
at home (I. 18, 20, etc.), an Ablative Singular, domo, from home,
(I. 5, 6, etc.), an Accusative Plural, domos (I. 30), and some forms
not used by Caesar.

d. Many nouns of the Fourth Declension are defective, being used
only in the Ablative Singular, as iniussu (1. 19), iussu (VII. 3), natu
(II. 13).

FIFTH DECLENSION

21. a. Nouns of the Fifth Declension end in -Ss, and are Femi-
nine except digs, day, and meridies. midday (I. 50), which are Mas-
culine ; but digs is usually Feminine when referring to a certain day
(as I. 4, 8, 30), or to time in general.

b. Examples of nouns of the Fifth Declension are :

dies (stem die-), m., day res (stem re-), f., thing



SINGULAR


PLURAL


SINGULAR


PLURAL


Nom. dies


dies


rSs


res


Gen. diei


dierum


rel


rerum


Dat. diei


< lie bus


rel


rebus


^Icc. diem


dies


rem


res


Voc. dies


dies


res


r5s


Abl. dig


diebus


rS


rebus



c. In the Genitive and Dative Singular -61 becomes -el when a
consonant precedes, as in rel (I. 21) ; so spei (VII. 63, C. II. 5).

ADJECTIVES



22. a. In Adjectives of the First and Second Declensions the Mas-
culine is declined like lfig&tus (6, a), puer (7, a), or ager (7, a), the
Feminine like via (3), and the Neuter like bellum (6, a).

h. Declined like 16gatus, via, bellum, are many Adjectives, as
bonus, bona, bonum, good :



§23]



Essentials of Latin Grammar



491



SINGULAR

Masculine Feminine Neuter

Nom. bonus bona bonum

Gen. boni bonae boni

Dat. bono bonae bono

Ace. bonum bonam bonum

Voc. bone bona bonum

Abl. bono bona bono





PLURAL




Masculine


Feminine


Neuter


boni


bonae


bona


bonorum


bonSrum


bonorum


bonis


bonis


bonis


bonos


bonas


bona


boni


bonae


bona


bonis


bonis


bonis



c. Distributive adjectives are declined like bonus except that in the
Genitive Plural they have -um instead of -orum, as quadragenum
(IV. 17).,

d. A few Adjectives are declined like puer, via, bellum, as miser,
misera, miserum, wretched (I. 32) :







SINGULAR






Masculine


Feminine


Neuter


Nom


. miser


misera


miserum


Gen.


miseri


miserae


miseri


Dat.


misero


miserae


misero


Ace.


miserum


miseram


miserum


Voc.


miser


misera


miserum


Abl.


misero


misera


misero



PLURAL

Masculine Feminine Neuter

miseri miserae misera

miserorum miserarum miserorum

miseris miseris miseris

miseros miseras misera

miseri miserae misera

miseris miseris miseris



e. Like miser are declined asper (V. 45), liber (I. 44), and tener
(11.17).

/. Declined like ager, via, bellum, are most adjectives in -er, as
aeger, aegra, aegrum, sick (V. 40), integer (III. 4), etc. :



SINGULAR
Masculine Feminine Neuter



Nom.


aeger


aegra


aegrum


Gen.


aegri


aegrae


aegri


Dat.


aegro


aegrae


aegro


Ace.


aegrum


aegram


aegrum


Voc.


aeger


aegra


aegrum


Abl.


aegro


aegrS


aegro



PLURAL

Masculine Feminine Neuter

aegri aegrae aegra

aegrorum aegrarum aegrorum

aegris aegris aegris

aegros aegras aegra

aegri aegrae aegra

aegris aegris aegris



23. a. Six Adjectives in -us (unus, one ; solus, alone : totu3, whole ;
alius, other; ullus, any; nullus, none) and three in -er (alter, the
other; uter, which (of two) f and neuter, neither), have -lus (or -ius)
in the Genitive and -I in the Dative Singular of all genders, and lack



Online LibraryJulius CaesarC. Iulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum. Caesar's Commentaries: the Gallic war, books I-Iv, with selections from books V-VII and from the civil war; → online text (page 41 of 73)