Julius Caesar.

C. Iulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum. Caesar's Commentaries: the Gallic war, books I-Iv, with selections from books V-VII and from the civil war; online

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the Vocative ; the Plural is regular. They are thus declined in the
Singular :



492



Companion to Caesar



[§24







SINGULAR




PLURAL




M


A8CULINE


FEMININE


Neuter


Masculine


Fk.mimm;


Nl 1 II K


Nom


. alius


alia


aliud


alter


altera


alterum


Gen.


[alius


alius


alius]


alterius


alterius


alterius


Bat.


alii


alii


alii


alteri


alteri


alteri


Ace.


aliuixi


aliam


aliud


alterum


alteram


alterum


Abl.


alio


alia


alio


altero


altera


altero


Nom.


totus


tota


totum


uter


utra


utrum


Gen.


totius


totius


totius


mi iius


atrial


utrius


Bat.


toti


toti


toti


utii


nt ii


utri


Ace.


totum


totam


totum


utrum


ut ram


utrum


Abl.


toto


tota


toto


utro


utra


utro



b. The Genitive Singular of alter is generally alterius, instead of
alterius; and alterius is ordinarily used in place of the Genitive
alius.

24. Some Adjectives of the Third Declension hrve three end-
ings in the Nominative Singular, others two, and others only one.
Adjectives with three endings are declined like Seer, acris, Sere.
sharp (C. III. 72) :





SINGULAR






PLURAL




Masculine


Feminine


Neuter


Mascilink


Fkminine


Neuter


Nom. acer


acris


acre


acres


acres


ftciis


Gen. acris


acris


acris


acrium


acrium


acrium


Bat. acri


fieri


acri


acribus


acribus


acribus


Ace. acrem


acrem


acre


acres, -is


acres, -is


acria


Voc. acer


acris


acre


acres


acres


acria


Abl. acri


acri


acri


acribus


acribus


acribus



25. a. Adjectives of the Third Declension with two endings are in
part formed on -i Stems, like nouns, and in the Positive Degree, as
fortis, forte, strong (IT. 33) ; in part they are Comparatives formed
on -s Stems (IS, a), as fortior, fortius, stronger (III. 14), melior.
melius, better (VI. 12) :



SINGULAR




PLURA


L


Masculine and


I'Ym.


Neuter


Masculine am> Ki m


Neuter


Nom. fortis




forte


fortes


fortia


Gen. fortis




fortis


fortium


fortium


Bat. fortl




forti


tortious


fortibus


^4cc. fortem




forte


fortes or -is


fortia


Voc. fortis




forte


fortes


fortia


Abl. fortl




fortl


fortibus


fortibus



26J



Essentials of Latin Grammar



493



SINGULAR




PLURAI




Masculine and


Fem.


Neuter


Masculine and Fem.


Neuter


Nom. melior




melius


meliores


meliora


Gen. melioris




melioris


meliorum


meliorum


Dat. meliori




meliori


melioribus


melioribus


Ace. meliorem




melius


meliores or -Is


meliora


Voc. melior




melius


meliores


meliora


Abl. melior e




meliore


melioribus


melioribus



b. Plus, more, is defective, in the Singular having only the neuter
forms, Nom. plus, Gen. pluris, Ace. plus, Abl. plure ; the Plural is
declined Nom. plures, plura, Gen. plurium, plurium, Dat. pluribus,
pluribus, Ace. plures or pluris, plura, Abl. pluribus, pluribus.

26. a. With Adjectives of the Third Declension having one end-
ing in the Nom. Singular are included also present participles. Exam-
ples are duplex, double (II. 29), regens, ruling, and vetus, old (1. 13) :





SINGULAR


PLURAL




Masculine and Fem.


Neuter


Masculine and Fem.


Neuter


Nom,


, duplex


duplex


duplices


duplicia


Gen.


duplicis


duplicis


duplicium


duplicium


Dat.


duplici


duplici


duplicibus


duplicibus


Ace.


duplicem


duplex


duplices or -is


duplicia


Voc.


duplex


duplex


duplices


duplicia


Abl.


duplici


duplici


duplicibus


duplicibus




SINGULAR


PLURAL




M


ASCULINE AND FEM.


Neuter


Masculine and Fem.


Neuter


Nom.


regens


regens


regentes


regentia


Gen.


regentis


regentis


regentium


regentium


Dat.


regent!


regent!


regentibus


regentibus


Ace.


regentem


regens


regentes or -is


regentia


Voc.


regens


regens


regentes


regentia


Abl.


regente (participle) regente (participle) regeutibus


regentibus




regent! (adjective) regent! (adjective)






SINGULAR




PLURAI




Masculine and Fem.


Neuter


Masculine and Fem.


Neuter


Nom.


vetus


vetus


veteres


vetera


Gen.


veteris


veteris


veterum


veterum


Dat.


veteri


veteri


veteribus


veteribus


Ace.


veterem


vetus


veteres


vetera


Voc.


vetus


vetus


veteres


vetera


Abl.


vetere


vetere


veteribus


veteribus



b. The Adjective princeps, -cipis (I. 7) is declined like the Noun
{10, b); the Adjectives anceps, ancipitis (I. 26), particeps, cipis,
(C. III. 60), and praeceps, -cipitis (II. 24), also have additional
syllables in the oblique cases.



494



Companion to Caesar



[§27



COMPARISON OF ADJECTIVES



27. a. Examples of the Regular Comparison of Adjectives, and of
participles used as Adjectives, are :



POSITIVE

altus, -a, -am, high



COMPARATIVE

altior, altius, higher



antiquus, -a, -urn, ancient antlquior, -ius



fortis, -e, brave
nobilis, -e, noble
f erax, fertile
potens, able
apertus, open, exposed



fortior, fortius
nobilior, nobilius
feraeior, feracius
potentior, potentius
apertior, apertius



SUPERLATIVE

altissimus, -a,-um, very

high, highest
antiquissimus
fortissimus
noliilissimus
feracissimus
potent is simus
apertissimus



b. Novus, new, lacks the Comparative, but has a Superlative, no-
vissimus, last (I. 15).

28. a. Examples of Adjectives in -er, with Comparative in -ior
and Superlative in -rimus, are :

asper, -ra, -rum, rough asperior, -ius asperrimus, -a, -um

celer, -eris, -ere, swift celerior, -ius celerrimus

creber, -bra, -brum, frequent crebrior, crebrius creberrimus

pulcher, -chra, -chrum, beautiful pulcbrior, -ius pulcherrimus

b. Vetus, Gen. veteris, old, Sup. viterrimus, lacks the Comparative.

29. Six Adjectives in -ilia have -limus in the Superlative : facilis.
difficilis, gracilis, humilis, similis, dissimilis :



facilis, -e, easy
difficilis, -e, difficult
humilis, -e, low
similis, -e, like



facilior, facilius
diflicilior, -ius
humilior, -ius
similior, -ius



facillimus, -a, -um

difncillimus

humillimus

simillimus*



30. Some Adjectives form the Comparative and the Superlative
by prefixing magis, more, and maxime. most, as magis dSr6ctum.
straighter (VI. 26), and maxime acceptus, very acceptable (I. 8)
maximS frumentariis, exceedingly fertile (I. 10), maximg ferl, u«>-.
barbarous (II. 4).

31. The Adjectives dives or dls, rich (I. 2), honorificus, win-
plimentary (I. 43), and magnificus, splendid (VI. 19) are thus com-
pared :



dives or dis
honorificus
magnificus



divitior or ditior

honorificentior

magnificentior



divitissimus or ditissimus

honorificentissimus

magnificentissimus



34]



Essentials of Latin Grammar



495



32. Several common Adjectives are irregular in Comparison



melior, melius, better
peior, peius, worse
minor, minus, less
maior, maius, greater
plus, gen. pluris (25, b)

33. Several Adjectives lack the Positive, though the Stem appears
in Prepositions and Adverbs ; others have a Positive only in a limited
or special use. Examples are :



bonus, -a, -um, good
malus, bad
parvus, small
magnus, great
multus, much



optimus, -a, -um, best
pessimus, worst
minimus, least
maximus, greatest
plurimus, most



(citra, on this side)

(ultra, beyond)
(intra, within)
(prope, near)
(de, down)
(prae, pro, before)
posterus, following

inferus, below
superus, above



citerior, citerius, on this

side, hither
ulterior, ulterius, farther
interior, interius, inner
propior, propius, nearer
deterior, deterius, inferior
prior, prius, former
posterior, later

inferior, Inferius, lower



exterus, foreign
(C. III. 43)



34.



citimus, -a, -um, nearest

ultimus, farthest
intimus, inmost
proximus, nearest
deterrimus, worst
primus, first
postremus, latest, last

! nfinms ' l lowest
lmus, J
supremus, last
summus, highest



extremus, outermost



superior, superius, higher
exterior, outer

ADVERBS
a. Adverbs regularly formed from Adjectives have the Positive



in -e (-6 in facile) or -ter, the Comparative in -ius, and the Superla-
tive in -S :



COMPARATIVE

amplius, more fully

aegrius

maturius

facilius

fortius

audacius

acrius



SUPERLATIVE

amplissime, most fully

aegerrime

maturrime

facillime

fortissimo

audacissime

acerrime



POSITIVE

ample (amplus) , fully
aegre (aeger) , ill
mature (matiirus) , early
facile (facilis), easily
fortiter (fortis), bravely
audacter (audax) , boldly
acriter (acer) , fiercely

b. Some Adverbs formed from Adjectives end in -5 (-6 in cito),
as continuo, subito, primo ; such, with Comparative and Super-
lative, are :

crebr5 (creber) , frequently crebrius creberrime

tuto (tutus), safely tutius tutissime

cito (citus), quickly citius citissime

c. A few Adverbs formed from Adjectives end in -um (Ace. Sin-
gular Neuter), as multum (multus), much (III. 9); in -tim, as
privatim (privatus), privately (I. 17) ; and in -tus, as antiquitug
(antiquus), in ancient times (II. 4).



496



Companion to Caesar



[§35



35. The following Adverbs have irregularities in Formation or in
Comparison :



little



bene, well
male, ill

magnopere, greatly
multum, much
nOn multum,
parum,
nuper, recently

diu, long
saepe, often
prope, near

satis, enough



melius, better
peius, worse
magis, more
plus, more

minus, less



diutius, longer
saepius, oftener
propius, nearer
potius, rather
satius, better
prius, before



optime, best
pessime, worst
maxime, most
plnrimum, most

minime, least

nuper rime, most recently, very

recently
diutissime, longest
saepissime, most often, oftenest
proximo, nearest, next
potissimum, especially, above all

primum, ^rs£



NUMERALS

36. The Roman Notation, and Cardinal, Ordinal, and Distributive
Adjectives are presented in the following list :
Roman



IWfflAH

Notation


Cardinals


Ordinals


Distributives


I.


ii ii us. una, mi uiii ,


primus, first


singuli, one by one


II.


duo, duae, duo


secundus, second


bini, two each


III.


tres, tria, three


tertius, third


terni, trim, three by
three, three each


IIII,

or IV.


| quattuor, four


quartus, fourth


quaterni, four by
four, four each


V.


quinque.^ye


quintus, fifth


qulnl, five by five,
five each


VI.


sex, six


sextus, sixth


seni, six by six, six
each


VII.


septem, seven


Septimus, seventh


septeni, by sevens,
seven each


VIII.


octO, eight


octavus, eighth


octOni, by eights,
eight apiece


vim,

or IX.


J novem, nine


nOnus, ninth


noveni, nine each


X.


decern, ten


decimus, tenth


deni, ten each


XI.


undecim, eleven


undecim us, eleventh


undeni, eleven each


XII.


duodecim, tvielve


duodecimus, twelfth


duodeni, twelve each


XIII.


tredecim, thirteen


tertius decimus,


terni deni, thirteen






thirteenth


each


XIIII,


) quattuordecim,
J fourteen


quartus decimus,


quaterni deni, four-


or XIV.


fourteenth


teen each


XV.


quindecim, fifteen


quintus decimus,


quinl deni, fifteen






fifteenth


each


XVI.


sedecim, sixteen


sextus decimus,


sen! deni, sixteen






sixteenth


each



36]



Essentials of Latin Grammar



497



Roman

Notation


Cardinals


Ordinals


Distributives


XVII.


septendecim, seven-


septimus decimus,


septeni deni, seven-




teen


seventeenth


teen each


XVIII.


duodeviginti, eigh-


duodevicesimus,


duodeviceni, eighteen




teen


eighteenth


each


XVIIII,


undeviginti, nine-


unde vicesimus,


undeviceni, nineteen


or XIX.


teen


nineteenth


each


XX.


viginti, twenty


vicesimus, twentieth


viceni, twenty each




I vlginti unus,


vicesimus primus


viceni singuli, 1


XXI.


\ unus et viginti,


unus et vicesimus,


singuli et viceni, r




' twenty-one


twenty-first


twenty-one each >




( viginti duo,


vicesimus secundus,


viceni bini, ]


XXII.


•j duo et viginti,


alter et vicesimus,


bin! et viceni, r




l twenty-two


twenty-second


twenty-two each )


XXX.


triginta, thirty


tricesimus, thirtieth


triceni, thirty each


xxxx,

or XL.


I quadraginta, forty


quadragesimus,
fortieth


quadrageni, forty
each


L.


quinquaginta,


quinquagesimus,


quinquageni, fifty




fifty


fiftieth


each


LX.


sexaginta, sixty


sexagesimus


sexageni, sixty each


LXX.


septuaginta,


septuagesimus,


septuageni, seventy




seventy


seventieth


each


LXXX.


octoginta, eighty


octogesimus, eightieth


octogeni, eighty each


LXXXX

orXC.


I nonaginta, ninety


nonagesimus,
ninetieth


nonageni, ninety each


C.


centum, one hun-


centesimus


centeni, one hundred




dred


one hundredth


each




("centum unus,


centesimus primus,


centeni singuli, ]




J centum et unus,


centesimus et primus,


one hundred


CI.


one hundred and


hundred and first


and one each


cc.


one
ducenti, -ae, -a,


ducentesimus,


J
duceni, two hundred




two hundred


two hundredth


each


ccc.


trecenti, -ae, -a,


trecentesimus,


treceni, three hun-




three hundred


three hundredth


dred each


cccc.


quadringenti, four


quadringentesimus,


quadringeni, four




hundred


four hundredth


hundred each


D.


quingenti, five


quingentesimus,


qulngeni, five hun-




hundred


five hundredth


dred each


DC.


sescenti, six hun-


sescentesimus,


sesceni, six hundred




dred


six hundredth


each


DCC.


septingenti, seven


septingentesimus,


septingeni, seven hun-




hundred


seven hundredth


dred each


DCCC.


octingenti, eight


octingentesimus,


octingeni, eight hun-




hundred


eight hundredth


dred each


DCCCC.


nongenti, nine


nongentesimus,


nongeni, nine hun-




hundred


nine hundredth


dred each


M.


mille, thousand


millesimus,


singula milia, a thou-






thousandth


sand each


MM.


duo milia, two


bis millesimus,


bina milia, two thou-




thousand


a two thousandth


sand each



498



Companion to Caesar



(§37



tres


tria


trium


triura


tribus


tribus


tres, tris


tria


tribus


tribus



37. a. Unus is declined like totus (23, a).

b. Duo- (I. 48) and tres (I. 1) are declined thus:

Nom. duo duae duo

Gen. duorum duarum duorura

Bat. duObus duabus duObus

Ace. duos, duo duas duo

Abl. duobus duabus du5bus

c. Like duo is declined ambo (V. 44), excepting -6 instead of -o.

d. Ducenti, -ae, -a (T. 43) and the other words for hundreds to
nongentl, -ae, -a (C. III. 71) are declined like the Plural of bonus,
but the Genitive Plural generally ends in -um.

e. When Plural Nouns, which generally have a Singular Meaning,
are used with a Plural Meaning, a Numeral in agreement must be
Distributive; with such Nouns trim is always used instead of term.
Thus, trims catenis, with three chains (I. 53).

38. a. Mille (I. 22) in the Singular is used as an Indeclinable Ad-
jective. In the Plural it is used as a Substantive and thus declined :

Nom. milia Gen. milium Dat. milibus Ace. milia Abl. milibus

b. The Roman numerical symbols are frequently used in place of
Ordinal as well as Cardinal Adjectives. In reading Latin the proper
form of the Adjective should be supplied ; thus ducenta quadra-
ginta should be read for CCXL in milia passuum CCXL (I. 2) ;
decima for x in legione X (C. III. 91).

PRONOUNS

39. a. The Personal Pronouns of the First and Second Person are
declined as follows :



SINGULAR


PLURAL


SINGULAR


PLURAL


Nom. ego, /


nOs, we




tu, thou


v5s, you


Gen. mei


nostrum,


uostri


tui


vestrum, vestri


Dat. mibi


nobis




tibi


vObls


Ace. me


nos




te


vos


Voc.







tu


vOs


Abl. me


nobis




te


vObis



b. The place of a Personal Pronoun of the Third Person is taken
by the demonstratives (160, a and b).

40. a. Tu the oblique cases the Pronouns of the First and Second
Person may be used in a Reflexive sense, as vos recipite, lit. take
yourselves back, retreat (VII. 50) ; mei, may mean of m$n If, tibi, to
or for thyself, yourself, etc.



45]



Essentials of Latin Grammar



499



b. The Reflexive Pronoun of the Third Person has no separate forms
for the three genders, and is declined in Singular and Plural alike, as
follows :

Gen. sui, of himself, of herself, of itself, of themselves

Dat. sibi, to or for himself, herself, itself, themselves

Ace. se or sese, himself, herself, itself, themselves

Abl. se or sese, with, or by, himself, herself, itself, themselves

41. The Possessive Pronouns are declined like Adjectives. They
are: meus, mea, meum, my; noster, nostra, nostrum, our; tuus,
tua, tuum, thy; vester, vestra, vestrum, your; and suus, sua,
suum, his, her, its, their. Suus is used only in a Reflexive sense.

42. a. The Demonstrative Pronouns are hie, this, such ; iste, that
of yours, that : ille, that, such ; is, that, he, such, and idem, the same.

b. Hie, this, such, is declined thus :





SINGULAR






PLURAL




Masculine


Feminine


Neuter


MA8CULINE


Feminine


Neuter


Nom. hie


haec


hoc


hi


hae


haec


Gen. huius


huius


huius


horum


harum


horum


Dat. huic


huic


huic


his


his


his


Ace. hunc


hanc


hoc


hos


has


haec


Abl. hoc


hac


hoc


his


his


his



43. a. The Demonstrative Pronoun ille, that, such, is declined as
follows :





SINGULAR






PLURAL




Masculine


Feminine


Neuter


Masculine


Feminine


Neuter


Nom. ille


ilia


illud


illi


illae


ilia


Gen. illius


illius


illius


illorum


illarum


illorum


Dat. illi


illi


illi


illis


illis


illis


Ace. ilium


illam


illud


illos


illas


ilia


Abl. illo


ilia


illo


illis


illis


illis



b. The Demonstrative Pronoun iste, ista, istud, that of yours, that,
is declined like ille.

44. The Demonstrative Pronoun is, that, he, such, is thus declined :





SINGULAR






PLURAL




Masculine


Feminine


Neuter


Masculine


Feminine


Neutei


Nom. is


ea


id


ei, ii,


eae


ea


Gen. eius


eius


eius


eorum


earum


eorum


Dat. ei


ei


ei


eis, iis


eis, iis


eis, iis


Ace. eum


earn


id


eos


eas


ea


Abl. eo


ea


eo


eis, iis


eis, iis


eis, iis



45. The Demonstrative Pronoun Idem, the same, is declined as
follows :



500



Companion to Caesar



[§46







SINGULAK






Masculine


Feminine


Neuter


Nom.


idem


eadera


idem


Gen.


eiusdem


eiusdem


eiusdem


Bat.


eldem


eidem


eidem


Ace.


eundem


eandem


idem


Abl.


eodem


eadem


eodem



PLURAL
Feminine



Neuter



Masculine

eidem,

iidem, or eaedem eadem

idem
edrundem earundem eOrundem

! eisdem, eisdem, eisdem,

iisdem, or iisdem, or iisdem, or
isdem isdem isdem

eosdem easdem eadem

! eisdem, eisdem, eisdem,
iisdem, or iisdem, or iisdem, or
isdem isdem isdem



46. The Intensive Pronoun ipse, self, is thus declined :







SINGULAR






PLURAL






Masculine


Feminine


Neuter


Masculine


Feminine


Neuter


Nom.


ipse


ipsa


ipsum


ipsi


ipsae


ipsa


Gen.


ipsius


ipsius


ipsius


ipsdrum


ipsarum


ipsdrum


Bat.


ipsi


ipsi


ipsi


ipsis


ipsis


ipsis


Ace.


ipsum


ipsam


ipsum


ipsos


ipsas


ipsa


Abl.


ipso


ipsa


ipso


ipsis


ipsis


ipsis


47.


The Relative Pronoun qui, ivho,


which, is declined as


follows :






SINGULAR






PLURAL






MA8CULINE


Feminine


Neuter


Masculine


Feminine


Neuter


Nom.


qui


quae


quod


qui


quae


quae


Gen.


cuius


cuius


cuius


quorum


quarum


qu6rum


Bat.


cui


cui


cui


quibus


quibus


quibus


Ace.


quern


quam


quod


quos


quas


quae


Abl.


quo


qua


quo


quibus


quibus


quibus



48. a. The Substantive Interrogative Pronoun is quia, quid, who*
what ? It is declined as follows :





SINGULAR




PLURAL






Masc. and Fem.


Neuter


Masculine


Feminine


Neuter


Nom.


quis


quid


qui


quae


quae


Gen.


cuius


cuius "


quorum


quarum


quorum


Bat.


cui


cui


quibus


quibus


quibus


Ace.


quem


quid


qu6s


quas


quae


Abl.


quo


qu6


quibus


quibus


quibus



b. The Adjective Interrogative Pronoun is qui, quae, quod, what f
as qui numerus, what number? (I. 29). It is declined like the Rela-
tive Pronoun (47).

c. Interrogative quis and qui may be strengthened by -nam, as
quibusnam raanibus, by what hands, pray? (II. 80).



§51]



Essentials of Latin Grammar



501



49. a. The Indefinite Pronouns follow the Declension of the Relative
and Interrogative Pronouns, but only the Pronominal Part of the
Compounds is declined. The following Indefinite Pronouns are
used by Caesar, in both Substantive and Adjective forms :



Substantive Forms

Masc. and Fem. Neut.



quis or
qui (Masc.)



aliquis
aliqui (V. 26)

quispiam



Adjective Forms

Maso. Fem. Nettt.

quod



liqui aliqua



any



quid ) any one, qui or quae or

I anything quis qua

Nom. and ace. PI. Neut.
quae or qua
aliquid ( some one,
j something

(some one,
some- quispiam quaepiam quodpiam > t

thing

( any one, \

quicquam -J anything quisquam quicquam > ?^ Te -\



aliquod J any

I

l



at all



quisquam

(Plural lacking.)

. , f each one,

quisque * m **™ \ each thing

qulvis quaevis quidvis i any one,

ace. quem- quam- quid- I anything ace. quemvis quamvis quod
vis vis vis ' you please vis

quidam quaedam quiddam \ a certain quidam quaedam quoddam

ace. quen- quan- quid- \ person, ace. quen- quan- quod-

dam dam dam ) or thing dam dam dam



(Plural lacking.)

quisque quaeque quodque [ each

qui vis quaevis quod vis



any you



\ please

!a cer-
tain



b. The Indefinite Pronoun quis, qui, is used by Caesar only
after si, nisi, seu, ne, neu, and ubi.

50. a. The Indefinite Relative quicumque, quaecumque,
quodcumque, whoever, whatever, the first part qui- being declined
like the relative qui, is used both as an Adjective and as a Sub-
stantive; as quaecumque bella, whatever wars (I. 44), quicumque
bellum inferant, whoever, or no matter who, should wage war (IV. 7).

b. The parts of the Indefinite Relative quisquis, quidquid or
quicquid, whoever, whatever, are both declined like quis (48), but
only quisquis, quicquid (II. 17), and quoquo are in common use.

51. Caesar uses two compounds of uter (23, a) with the force of In-
definite Pronouns, uterque, utraque, utrumque (utriusque, etc.),
each of two, Plural both, the two; and alteruter, alterutra, alter-
utrum, one or the other, as alterutro exercitu, the one or the other
army (C. III. 90).



502



Companion to Caesar



f§ 52



VERBS *

52. The verb sum is inflected as follows :

Principal Parts:

Pbrs. Indicative Pres. Infinitive Perf. Indicative Fut. Part. (Perf. Part, lacking)



sum



fui



futurus



INDICATIVE MOOD


SUBJUNCTIVE


Present


Tense


Present


singular


plural


SINGULAR PLURAL


sum, J am

es, thou art

est, he (she, it) is


sumus, we are
estis, you are
sunt, they are


sim simus
sis sitis
sit sint


Imperfect


Imperfect


eram, / was
eras, thou wast
erat, he was


eramus, we were
eratis, you were
erant, they were


(l t6 ft
EH


Future




ero, I shall be
eris, thou wilt be
er'it, he will be


erimus, we shall be
eritis, you will be
erunt, they will be




Perfect


Perfect


fui, J have been,

I was
f uisti, thou hast

been, you were

fuit, he has been,
he was


fuimus, we have
been, we were

fuistis, you have

been, you were

„ _ ^ { they have
fuerunt,} b th

fuere > ! were


fuerim fuerimus
fueris fueritis
fuerit fuerint


Pluperfect


Pluperfect


fueram, I had been

fuerfts, thou hadst,

you had, been
fuerat, he had been


f uerfimus, we had

been
fuerfttis, you had

been
fuerant, they had been


fuissem fuissemus
fuisses fuissetis
fuisset fuissent


Future Perfect




fuero, I shall have

been
fueris, thou wilt

have been
fuerit, he will have

been


fuerimus, we shall

have been
fueritis, you will



Online LibraryJulius CaesarC. Iulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum. Caesar's Commentaries: the Gallic war, books I-Iv, with selections from books V-VII and from the civil war; → online text (page 42 of 73)