Julius Caesar.

C. Iulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum. Caesar's Commentaries: the Gallic war, books I-Iv, with selections from books V-VII and from the civil war; online

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mentor, get supplies (IV. 9), glorior, boast (I. 14), gratu-
lor, congratulate (I. 30), interpretor, expound (VI. 13) ;
miror, wonder (I. 32) and admiror (I. 14) ; miseror, lament
(I. 39); moror, efe/ay (I. 39), and dSmoror (III. 6);
pabulor, get fodder (V. 17), populor, lay waste (I. 11),
and dgpopulor, completely lay waste (II. 7) ; recordor, recall
(C. III. 72), remuneror, compensate (I. 44), and speculor,
spy out (I. 47).

(2) Second Conjugation, fateor, acknowledge (C. III. 20), and its

Compounds confiteor (V. 27) and profiteor (VI. 28) :
liceor, bid (I. 18), and polliceor, promise (I. 14); mereor.
earn (I. 40) ; tueor, protect (IV. 8), and intueor, look upon
(I. 32) ; vereor, be afraid (I. 19).

(3) Third Conjugation, complector, embrace (I. 20), dSfetiscor,

become exhausted (VII. 88); fruor, enjoy (III. 22); labor,
slip, fall away (V. 3), and elabor. escape (V. 37) ; loquor,
speak (I. 20) ; nascor, be born, rise (II. 18), and enascor.
grow out (II. 17) ; nanciscor, obtain (I. 53) ; nitor, strive, rely
on (I. 13), and innitor, lean upon (II. 27) ; obllviscor. forget
(I. 14), proficlscor, set out (I. 3), queror, complain (I. 16) ;
the Compounds of sequor, consequor, exsequor, Insequor,
persequor, prosequor, subsequor ; reminiscor, re m e m be r
(I. 13), ulciscor, avenge (I. 12) ; and utor, use, a</o;V (I. .">).

(4) Fourth Conjugation, experior, try (I. 81), largior. ///>< freely,

bribe (I. 18); mStior, measure (I. 16), and dimgtior, measure
off (II. 19, IV. 17); partior, divide (III. 10), and potior,
become master of (I. 3).
ft. To the Fourth Conjugation belongs the Deponent orior.
with its Compounds adorior, attach (I. 13) and cottrior. arise (III. 7) :
but Caesar uses certain forms of orior which are like those of Depo-
nents in -ior of the Third Conjugation, as oritur (VI. 25) and orerfi-
tur (Imperfect Subjunctive; VI. 9, VII. 28).

62. Semi-Deponent Verbs have a Perfect System Pasiive in form
but Active in meaning; they are audeo (I. 18), fido (C. III. Ill)



63]



Essentials of Latin Grammar



517



with its compounds confido (I. 23) and diffido (V. 41)
(IV. 13), and soleo (VI. 15) :

audeo, audere, ausus sum, dare.

fido, fidere, fisus sum, trust.

gaudeo, gaudere, gavlsus sum, rejoice.

soleo, solere, solitus sum, be wont.



gaudeo



PERIPHRASTIC CONJUGATION

63. The Periphrastic Conjugation has an Active and a Passive
form, made up by combining the Future Active Participle and the
Future Passive Participle, or Gerundive, with the verb sum, thus :

Active Periphrastic Conjugation



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD



Pres.

Imp.

Fat.

Per/.

Plup.

Fut. P.



Pres.
Imp.
Per/.
Plup.



amaturus sim, J may be

about to love
amaturus essem, I might be

about to love
amaturus fuerim, I may have

been about to love
amaturus fuissem, I might

have been about to love



INDICATIVE MOOD
amaturus (-a, -um) sum, /

am about to love
amaturus eram, I was about

to love
amaturus ero, / shall be

about to love
amaturus fui, / have been,

was, about to love
amaturus fueram, J had

been about to love
amaturus fuero, / shall
have been about to love

INFINITIVE
Pres. amaturus esse, to be about to love
Perf. amaturus fuisse, to have been about to love

Passive Periphrastic Conjugation



INDICATIVE
Pres. amandus (a, -um) sum, J Pres
am to be loved, I must be
loved Imp.

Imp. amandus eram, / had to be

loved Perf.

Fut. amandus ero, / shall have

to be loved Plup.

Perf. amandus fui, I have had to

be loved, had to be loved
Plup. amandus fueram, I had de-
served to be loved
Fut. P. amandus fuero, I shall have
had to be loved

INFINITIVE
Pres. amandus esse, to have to be loved
Perf. amandus fuisse, to have had to be loved



SUBJUNCTIVE
amandus sim, I may have to

be loved
amandus essem, I might have

to be loved
amandus fuerim, J may have

had to be loved
amandus fuissem, / might

have had to be loved



518



Companion to Caesar



[§64



64. a. Perfects in -avi, -gvi, and -Ivi, and other tenses formed
from the same stems, are sometimes contracted by the loss of -vi- or
-ve- before -s- or -r-; Perfects in -Ivi lose the -v- before -r- but
retain the vowel. Examples are :

(1) oppugnarant (I. 5) for oppugnaverant ; adamassent (I. 31)

for adamavissent ; commemorassent (I. 14) for com-
memoravissent ; superarint, Perfect Subjunctive (I. 40)
for superaverint ; superassent (I. 40) for superavissent.

(2) consugrunt (III. 8, etc.) for consueverunt ; consuerint

(I. 44, etc.) for consueverint ; consugsse (I. 14) for con-
suevisse.

(3) audigrunt (V. 28) for audlvgrunt; audierit (IV. 5) for

audlverit; audierant (II. 12, VI. 37) for audiverant;

audlssent (VII. 62) for audivissent ; audistis (C. III. 87)

for audlvistis.

b. The Future Passive Participle, or Gerundive, sometimes has the

ending -undus instead of -endus, as faciundi (I. 7), potiundi (II. 7).

IRREGULAR VERBS

65. Of the Irregular Verbs Caesar most frequently uses sum, do,
eo, fero, flo, volo and certain compounds.

66. a. Of the compounds of sum Caesar uses absum, adsum,
dgsum, intersum, possum, praesum, prdsum, subsum, and su-
persum. These are inflected like sum (5^), excepting possum; but
in pro-sum (profuisse, VI. 40) the preposition has the form prod-
before vowels, as prodest.

b. Possum, / am able, is inflected as follows :
Principal Parts :





possum


posse


potui






INDICATIVE MOOD




SUBJUNCTIVE


MOOD




SINGULAR


PLURAL




SINGULAR


PLURAL


Pres.


possum


possumus


Pres.


possim


posslmus,




potes


po testis




possis


possitis,




potest


possunt




possit


possint


Imp.


poteram, pote-


poteramus


Imp.


possem


possemus




ras, etc.


-eratis, etc.




posses


possetis


Fut.


poterO, poteris,


poterimus




posset


possent




etc.




Per/.


potuerim


potuerim us


Per/.


potui, potuistl,


potuimus




potueris


potuerit is




etc.






potuerit


potuerint


Plup.


potueram, po-


potueram us


Plup


. potuissem


potuissem us




tueras, etc.






potuisaes


potui ssi -tis


Fut. I


'. potuerO. potue-
ris, etc.


potuerimus




potuisset


potuissent



§68]



Essentials of Latin Grammar



519



INFINITIVE PARTICIPLE

Pres. posse Pres. potens (used as an adjective)

Per/, potuisse Gen. potentis

67. a. Do, dare, give, has -a- instead of -a- in the Present System
except in the Second Person of the Present Indicative and the Pres-
ent Imperative. The inflection of the Perfect System (dedl, etc.), is
regular.

Principal Parts:

do dare dedi datus







Active Voice






INDICATIVE


MOOD




SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD


Pres.


do


damus


Pres.


dem


demus




das


datis




des


detis




dat'


dant




det


dent


Imp.


dabam, etc.


dabamus


Imp.


darem


daremus


Fut.


dabo, etc.


dabimus




dares


daretis


Per/.


dedi, etc.


dedimus




daret


darent


Plup.


dederam, etc.


dederamus


Per/.


dederim, etc.


dederimus, etc.


Fut. P


. dedero, etc.


dederimus


Plup.


dedissem, etc,


, dedissemus, etc.




IMPERATIVE




INFINITIVE


PARTICIPLE


Pres.


da


date


Pres.


dare


dans


Fut.


dato


datote


Per/.


dedisse






dato


danto


Fut.


daturus esse


daturus




GERUND




SUPINE





dandi, etc. datum, datu

b. The Passive of do has -a- instead of -a-, as dari, datur, dabar,
dabor, darer, datus, etc.; the First Person of the Present Indicative
Passive is not in use.

c. The compounds of do are of the Third Conjugation except
circumdo, which is inflected like do.

68. a. Eo, Ire, go, is thus inflected:

Principal Parts:

eo ire ii (ivi) itum (est)



INDICATIVE MOOD



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD



Pres.


eo


lmus


Pres. earn


eamus




is


itis


eas


eatis




it


eunt


eat


eant


Imp.


ibam, etc.


ibamus


Imp. irem


iremus


Fut.


ibo, etc.


ibimus


ires


iretis


Per/.


ii


iimus


iret


irent




isti or iisti


istis or iistis


Per/, ierim


ierimus




iit


ierunt or iere


ieris


ieritis


Plup


ieram, etc.


ieramus


ierit


ierint


Fut. P.


iero, etc.


ierimus


Plup. issem, etc.


issemus, etc.



520



Companion to Caesar



[§69



IMPERATIVE

Pres. I ite

Fut. I to I tote
ItO eunto



INFINITIVE

Pres. ire
Per/. Isse
Fut. iturus esse
Pass. Iri



PARTICIPLE
Pres. iens Gen. euntis

Fut. iturus Gerundive eundum



GERUND
eundi, eundo, etc.



SUPINE
itum, itu



b. Caesar uses the Compounds abeo, adeo, coeo (VI. 22), exe6 (
ineo, obeo, prodeo, redeo, subeo, and transeo, inflected like eo.

c. Transitive compounds of eo are used also in the Passive, as
numerus inibatur, the number was cast up (VII. 76) ; inita aestate,
at the beginning of summer (II. 2) ; transitur, is crossed (I. 6).

d. Impersonal Passive forms of eo are iri (III. 18), Irgtur (III. 24).
69. a. Fero, ferre, bear, carry, is inflected as follows :



Principal Parts :

Active. fero

Passive. feror

Active Voice
INDICATIVE MOOD



ferre tuli latus

ferri latus sum

Passive Voice

INDICATIVE MOOD





SINGULAR


PLURAL




SINGULAR


PLURAL


Pres.


fero


ferimus


Pres.


feror


ferimur




fers


fertis




ferris


ferimini




fert


ferunt




fertur


feruntur


Imp.


ferebam,


etc. ferebamus


Imp.


ferebar


ferebamur


Fut.


feram


feremus


Fut.


ferar


feremur


Per/.


tuli


tulimus


Per/.


latus sum


hit i sumus


Plup.


tuleram


tuleramus


Plup.


latus eram


hiti » ramus


Fut. P. tuler5


tulerimus


Fut. P. latus ero


lati erimus




SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD


SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD


Pres.


feram


feraraus


Pres.


ferar


tViamur




feras


feratis




feraris, or -re feraminl




ferat


ferant




feratur


ferantur


Imp.


ferrem


ferremus


Imp.


ferrer


ferremur




ferres


ferretis




ferreris


ferrtMniin




ferret


ferrent




ferretur


ferrentur


Per/.


tulerim


tulerimus


Per/.


latus sim


lati Minus


Plup.


tulissem


tulissemus


Plup.


latus essem


hit i essemus




IMPERATIVE




IMPERATIVE


Pres.


fer


ferte


Pres.


ferre


ferimini


Fut.


fertO


fertote


Fut.


fertor






fertO


ferunto




icrtor


feruutor



§70]



Essentials of Latin Grammar



521



Active Voice


Passive


Voice


INFINITIVE


PARTICIPLE


INFINITIVE


PARTICIPLE


Pres. ferre
Perf. tulisse
Fut. laturus

esse


Pres. ferens
(Gen. ferentis)
Fut. laturus


Pres. fern
Perf. latus esse
Fut. latum iri


Perf. latus
Ger. ferendus
or ferundus


GERUND


SUPINE


*




Gen. ferendi
Dai. ferendo
Ace. feren-
dum
Abl. ferendo


Ace. latum
Abl. latu







b. Caesar uses the Compounds, affero, antefero, confero, defero,
differo, effero, infero, offero, perfero, praefero, profero and refero,

which are inflected like fero.

70. a. Flo, become (with -I- except in fit and before -e-), is used as
the Passive of facio, with the meaning be made, be done. It is in-
flected as follows :



Principal Parts:



fio



fieri



factus sum



INDICATIVE MOOD



SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD





singular plural




SINGULAR plural


Pres.


fio fimus


Pres.


fiam fiamus




fis fitis




fias fiatis




fit fiunt




fiat fiant


Imp.


fiebam, etc. fiebamus


Imp.


fierem fieremus


Fut.


fiam fiemus




fieres fieretis


Perf.


factus sum facti sumus




fieret fierent


Plup.


factus eram facti eramus


Perf.


factus sim facti simus


Fut. P. factus ero facti erimus


Plup.


factus essem facti essem




IMPERATIVE






Pres. fi




fite




INFINITIVE




PARTICIPLE




Pres. fieri








Perf. factus esse




Perf. factus




Fut. factum iri




Ger. faciendus



b. Of compounds of fio Caesar uses confieri (VII. 58) and co^
labefieri (C. II. 6).



522



Companion to Caesar



[§71



c. Compounds of facio with Prepositions have their own Passive
forms ; so confecta erat, had been made (I. 29) ; patefieri, be kept
open (III. 1).

71. Vol5, / wish, and its compounds nolo, / am unwilling, and
maid, I prefer, are inflected as follows:



Principal Parts:


volo velle volui
nolo nolle nolui

malo malle malui




INDIC. SUBJ.


INDIC. SUBJ.


INDIC.


SUBJ.


Present Present


Present Present


Present


Present


volo velim


nolo nOlim


malo


malim


vis velis


n5n vis nolis


mavis


malis


vult velit


non vult nolit


mavult


malit


volumus velimus


nolumus nolimus


malumus


ma] mi us


vultis velitis


non vultis nolitis


mavultis


malitis


volunt velint


nolunt nolint


ma 1 mil


malint


Imperfect


Imperfect


Imperfect


volebam, etc. vellem


nOlebam nollem


malebam


mallem


Future


Future


Future


volam, etc.


nOlam


malam




Perfect


Perfect


Perfect


volui, etc. voluerim nolui nOluerim


malui


maluerim


Pluperfect


Pluperfect


Pluperfect


volueram voluissem nOlueram nOluissem


malueram


maluissem


Future Perfect


Future Perfect


Future


Perfect


voluerO, etc.


n5luer5

IMPERATIVE

Pres. n6li nolite
Fut. nOlitO nolitOte
nOlitO nOluntO


maluerO




INFINITIVE


INFINITIVE


INFINITIVE


Pres. velle


nolle


malle




Per/, voluisse


nOluisse
PARTICIPLE


iiialniss.'




Pres. volens


nolens








,73] Essentials of Latin Grammar 523



DEFECTIVE VERBS

72. a. Caesar uses one or more forms of each of the following De-
fective Verbs : inquam, / say, which he uses only in direct quotations,
in the Third Person Singular Indicative Present, inquit, he says, says
he ; coepi, I have begun, I began, which belongs chiefly to the Perfect
System ; memini, / remember, and odi, / hate, which are Perfect in
form, but Present in meaning.

b. Coepi, memini and 5di are inflected as follows :

INDICATIVE MOOD SUBJUNCTIVE MOOD



Perf. coepi, etc. memini odi
Plup. coep- memin- oderam

eram eram
Fut.P. coepero meminero odero


coeperim meminerim
coepissem meminissem


oderim
odissem


IMPERATIVE


INFINITIVE




Sing, memento


Perf. coepisse meminisse
Fut. coepturus
esse


i odisse


Plur. mementote


.osurus
esse




PARTICIPLE






Perf. coeptus, begun
Fut. coepturus


osus
osurus



c. The Passive forms of coepi are used with the Passive Infinitive,
as lapides iaci coepti sunt, stones began to be thrown (II. 6).

IMPERSONAL VERBS

73. a. Of the Impersonal Verbs Caesar oftenest uses licet, it is per-
mitted (I. 7) and oportet, it is necessary, it behooves (I. 4) ; he has also
paenitet, it makes sorry (IV. 5) and pudet, it makes ashamed (VII. 42).

b. The Impersonal licet is inflected as follows :





INDICATIVE




SUBJUNCTIVE


Pres.


licet, it is permitted


Pres.


liceat, it may be permitted


Imp.


licebat, it was permitted


Imp.


liceret, it might be permitted


Fut.


licebit, it will be permitted


Perf.


licuerit, it may have been per-


Perf.


licuit, it has been permitted




mitted




or it was permitted


Plup.


licuisset, it might have been


Plup.


licuerat, it had been permitted




' permitted



Fut. P. licuerit, it will have been per-
mitted

INFINITIVE

Pres. licere, to be permitted Perf. licuisse, to have been permitted



524 Companion to Caesar [§73

c. Caesar uses Impersonally the Third Person Singular of a number
of Verbs, among which are accSdit, it is added, there is the further fact
that (III. 13) ; accidit, it happens, it turns out (I. 31) ; constat, it is
certain (III. 6) ; interest, it is important (II. 5) ; placet, it. pleases
(I. 34) ; and praestat, it is better (I. 17).

d. Caesar uses Impersonally the Passive of several Intransitive
Verbs, making prominent the action rather than the doer ; as pugna-
tur, fighting goes on, lit. it is fought (VII. 67, 84) ; pugnatum est,
fighting went on (I. 26) ; Ubi eo ventum est, when (they) had come
thither, lit. when it was come thither, the coming being made prominent
(I. 43).

e. Verbs are often used impersonally in the Passive Periphrastic
Conjugation, denoting Obligation or Necessity (229, c) ; as, rel fru-
mentariae prospiciendum [esse], that he should provide for supplies,
lit. that it ought to be provided for supplies by him (I. 23).



WOED FORMATION

74. The following classes of words are derived from Verbs :

a. Nouns with the Suffix -tor denoting the agent, as vic-tor,
(I. 31), victor, from vinco; defensor (II. 6; for defend-tor, as
defen-sus for defend-tus), defender, from defendo.

b. Nouns with the Suffixes -tio (-sio), -tus, -tura, -ium, denoting
an action or the result of an action, as coniura-tio (I. 2), a swearing
together, league (coniiiro) ; munl-tio (I. 10), a fortifying, a fortifi-
cation conceived as a result of fortifying (munio) ; adven-tus (I. 22),
arrival (advenio) ; exerci-tus (I. 13), army, conceived as a product
of training (exerceo) ; arma-tura (IT. 10), equipment (armo) ; impe-
rium (I. 3), command, sovereignty (impero) ; iudic-ium (I. 4), judg-
ment, trial (iudico).

c. Nouns with the Suffix -or, denoting a condition or state, as
tim-or (I. 22), fear (timeo).

d. Nouns with the Suffixes -men or -mentum, -ulum, -bulum,
-crum, denoting process, means, or result, as flu -men (I. 12), stream,
river, conceived as a flowing or current (fluo) ; impedl-mentum
(I. 25), hindrance (impedio), pi. impedimenta (I. 24), baggage, con-*
ceived as an aggregation of hindrances; vinc-ulum (I. 4), bond,
chain, conceived as a means of binding (vincio) ; pa-bulum (I. 16),
fodder, conceived as a means of feeding (pasco) ; simulacrum (VI.
16), image, conceived as something made like something else (simulo,
make like).

e. Adjectives with the Suffix -ax, denoting a quality or tendency,
as f erax (II. 4) , productive, fertile (f ero, bear) .

f Adjectives with the Suffixes -ilis and -bilis, denoting passive
qualities, or capacity, as fac-ilis (I. 6), easy, i.e. capable of being
done or made (facio) ; mo-bilis (IV. 5), easily moved, changeable
(moveo) ; incredibilis (I. 12), incredible (negative in- + credibilis,
capable of being believed, from credo).

g. A few Adjectives in -tivus, as cap-tivus (1. 50), captive (capio),
fugi-tivus (I. 23), fugitive (fugio).

75. The following classes of words are derived from Nouns :

a. Diminutive Nouns, ending in -lus (Fern, -la, Neut. -Ium), and
in -ulus, -olus, -cuius, etc., as arti-culus (VI. 27), joint (artus) ;

525



526 Companion to Caesar [§76

tabella (C. III. 83), voting tablet (tabula) ; porcellus, pig, dim. from
porculus, young hog, pig, which is itself a dim. from porous, hog,
(p. 463).

b. Nouns with the Suffix -atus, denoting an official position or body,
as consul-atus (I. 35), consulship (consul) ; magistr&tus (I. 4), mag-
istracy, magistrate (magister) ; senatus (I. 3), senate (senex).

c. A few Abstract Nouns in -tas and -tus, as civi-tas (I. 2), citi-
zenship, state (civis) ; vir-tus (I. 1), valor (vir).

(I. Adjectives with the Suffix -eus, denoting material, as aureus
(V. 12), of gold (aurum); ferreus (III. 13), of iron (ferrum).

e. Adjectives with the Suffixes -ius, -icus, -cus, -anus, -inus, -nus,
-alis, -ilis, -arius, -Sris, -Ivus, meaning connected with, belonging to,
from, etc., as patr-ius (II. 15), of a father, ancestral (pater) ; bell-icus
(VI. 24), of war (bellum) ; G-all-icus (I. 31), Gallic; German-icus
(IV. 16), Germanic; urb-anus (VII. 1), of a city, of the city (urbs) ;
Rom-anus, of Rome (Roma) ; Lat-inus, of Lalium, Latin ; nav-alis
(III. 19), naval (navis) ; legion-arius (1. 51), of a legion, legionary
(legio) ; consul-aris (C. III. 82), consular; aest-ivus (VI. 4), of
summer.

f Adjectives with the suffix osus, denoting fullness, as pericu-
losus (I. 33), full of danger (periculum) ; bellic-osus (I. 10), warlike
(bellic-us, bellum).

g. Denominative Verbs, of the different conjugations, as euro,
-are (I. 19), care for, take care (cura) ; laudo, -are (C. III. 87), praise
(laus, laudis) ; tribuo, -ere (I. 13), assign (tribus) ; fTnio. -Ire
(IV. 16), limit (finis) ; partior, -Iri (III. 10), divide (pars, partis).

76. a. Derived from Adjectives are Abstract Nouns with the Suf-
fixes -tia, -ia, -tas, and -tudo, denoting quality or condition, as
duri-tia (VI. 21), hardness (durus) ; audac-ia (I. 18), boldness
(audax) ; gratia (I. 9), favor (gratus) ; cupidi-tas (I. 2), desire
(cupidus) ; forti-tudo (I. 2), bravery (fortis).

b. Derived from Adverbs are several Adjectives in -urnus, -turnus,
-tinus, referring to Time, as diu-turnus (I. 14), long-continued (diii),
and diu-tinus (V. 52), protracted (did) ; so Crastinus (C. III. 91),
like the English name Morrow, from cras-tinus, of to-morrow (eras).

c. A few Adjectives have a Diminutive in -ulus ; as tantulus, so
small, from tantus (IV. 22).

77. Adverbs l are sometimes formed from the Stem of the Perfect
Passive Participle with the suffix -im, as stat-im (I. 53), immediately

i The formation of Adverbs from Adjectives is treated under Adverbs, 34, 35.



§79] Word Formation 527

(status, sto) ; and from nouns, with the ending -tim (or -im), as
viri-tim (VII. 71), man by man (vir), and part-im (II. 1), partly,
which was originally an Accusative of pars.

78. Verbs derived from Verbs are :

a. Frequentatives, expressing repeated or intensive action; fre-
quentatives derived from Verbs of the First Conjugation end in -ito,
as clamito (V. 7), cry out loudly, shout (clamo) ; others end in -to or
-so, as iacto (I. 25), toss about, cast (iacio), concurso (V. 33), rush
hither and yon, rush about (concurro).

b. Inchoatives, or Inceptives, expressing the beginning of an
action or state, a becoming ; they end in -sco, preceded by -a-, -§-,
or -I-, as maturesco (VI. 29), become ripe (matiiro).

79. a. In the first part of a Compound Word the final vowel of the
Stem of a Noun or Adjective is dropped before a vowel, and becomes
-i- before a consonant, while in the case of consonant Stems -i- is
often inserted ; in the second part vowel changes frequently appear.
Thus signi-fer (II. 25), standard-bearer (for signo-fer, signum +
fer- in fero) ; prin-ceps (I. 30), leader, i.e. taking foremost place (for
primo-cap-s, primus + cap- in capio) ; ampli-fico (II. 14), enlarge
(for amplo-f ac-6, amplus + f ac- in f acio) .

b. The first part of a Compound is often a Preposition or other
indeclinable word, as per-ficio (I. 3), carry through (per + facio) ;
in-iussu (I. 19), uithout orders (negative in- + iussu) ; bi-enn-ium
(I. 3), {period of) two years (for bi-anno-ium, bis + annus +
suffix -ium) ; quotannis (I. 36), annually (quot + Ablative of
annus).

c. Compounds originating in phrases are sometimes declinable, as
pro-consul, proconsul, Abl. pro-consule (VI. 1) ; sometimes inde-
clinable, as ob-viam, in the way (VII. 12, 28).

d. The following indeclinable prefixes are found only in Compound
Words :

ami)-, am-, (an-), about, as in an-fractus (VII. 46), curve.

com-, co- (old form of cum, with) , with, together ; see under cum in Vocab-
ulary.

dis-, appearing also as dir-, di-, apart, as in dis-cedo (I. 16), go apart;
dir-imo (I. 46), take apart, break off; di-mitto (I. 18), send about, send off.

in-, = vn-, not, as in incertus (IV. 5); to be carefully distinguished from
the preposition in in composition.

por-, forth, forward, as in por-rigo (II. 19), extend.

re-, red-, back, as in re-maneo (I. 39), stay behind; red-eo (I. 29), return.

se-, sed-, apart, as in se-paro (VII. 63), separate, sed-itio (VII. 28), mutiny.



THE DERIVATION OF ENGLISH WORDS FROM
THE LATIN 1

80. a. Very many of the Words in the English Language in com-
mon use are derived, indirectly or directly, from the Latin.

The percentage of classical Latin words that have been taken over
into English directly, 2 however, is exceedingly small ; the people
whose name survives in the word " English " reached Britain too late
for any direct contact with classical Latin. But in the Middle Ages
a modified Latin was spoken and written by educated men all over
Europe; and classical Latin authors continued to be read, less in the
Middle Ages, but extensively after the Revival of Learning. Mean-
while the Latin spoken by the common people in Italy, France, Spain,
and other countries conquered by the Romans, had developed into the
Romance languages, French, Italian, Spanish and kindred tongues;
and after the Norman Conquest, in the eleventh century, French was
both spoken and written in England. Thus it happens that words
of Latin origin have come down into the English of to-day in various



Online LibraryJulius CaesarC. Iulii Caesaris Commentarii rerum gestarum. Caesar's Commentaries: the Gallic war, books I-Iv, with selections from books V-VII and from the civil war; → online text (page 44 of 73)